Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide CLSA:3015
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EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Classical Mythology Chapter 2 Week 1 Lecture Notes 12614 Lecture Notes The Cultural Context of Classical Myth m Greek Landscape High mountains few rivers isolated plains Modern day Greece Ancient times have colonies in Africa Highest mountain in Greecegt Mt Olympus 10000 ft Aegean Sea Many small islands Athens contemporary capital of Greece more fortunate in natural resources imestone into marble and clay have silver ores mxgtlt OZm mCUlt DEUm EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE J1 ri H L Typicalstting f live trees 3 out of 4 trees re olive Olive TreesNatural resource Limestone clay no metalsnatural resource Marble limestone turns into marble used to make temples Wine Goats sheep did have horses but expensive and reserved towards the elites did have cattle but didn39t eat meat much The Aegean Seaprovides sh but a means of communication between cities and the rest of the world Greece is mountainous hard to commute Export olive and wine lmport metals and grain lands to poor to produce grains EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Test Question What does the geography look like gt Mountainous rigid Aegean sea a big adventious point for trade The EarlyMiddle Bronze Age 30001600 BC Little knowledge about the inhabitants of mainland Greece in this period We do not even regard them as Greeks The people later called Greeks belonged to a cultural and linguistic group known as the lndoEuropeans 2100 BC Greeks come into Greece from central Asia called lndoEuropeans arrive in mainland Greece 21000 BC important immigration Minoans 22001450 BC Crete Minoan art 1450 BC the Minoan civilization was destroyed and the palaces burnt mycenaeans Writing Minoan Palace EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Have taken over island of Crete not c degdGreeks do39t know much although we know these peoples have a writing system Love color Minoan kings like color decorated palaces with color The Double Ax lmportant to Minoans for animal sacri ces Minoan Painting EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE I Frescopaintin wall in p alace 7 Female Figure women maybe had something to do with Minoan elite Found in Minoan palace in Crete Two women because their skin is white Acrobat the bull was important describes acrobat entertaining They love color had certain activities for entertainment EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Didn39t have enemies or didn39t like ppl or they dominated the world Late Bronze Age 16001150 BC Named Mycenaean for the enormous stone citadel of Mycenae in Peloponnesus Miitary society bronze weapons Aristocratic elite great wealth kingship bureaucracy Suddeny around 1450 BC palaces are suffering destruction res earthquakes natural disasters some enemy ppl who at a point the mioan ppl are weak War like people who took over Crete are the Myceneaeans from mycen Minoan too vulnerable society heavily militarized The Lion Gate at Mvcenae EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE an A 4 I The entrance behind which is te city of the mycens the lion gate Pretty massive Mycenae kings had their city wellforti ed war like and making no one attacked them had walls around city Mvcenaean Golden Mask Tombs of kings found Mycenaean Kings wealthy found gold in tombs The Mycenaean Age 16001150 BC EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Unique script called Linear B used only for keeping economic accounts Deciphered by Michael Ventris in 1952 By 1150 BC the Mycenaean palaces were destroyed by re and Greece sunk into the Dark Ages Linear B Tablet ital lr E E he Da 11 After the destruction of the Mycenaeans a time of impoverishment depopulation Euboea seems to have been the only center of civilization The Archaic Period 800480 BC The invention of the Greek Alphabet Phoenician Script signs only for consonants it could not be pronounced except by a native eg CDMR The Greeks added vowels and created the rst true alphabet The writing of Homeric poems The Iliad and the Odyssey EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE lnvention of Greek alphabet When Greece comes out of dark ages Greeks take script Phoenician script have signs for consonantsabducted it and create signs for vowels as well CDMR commander The emergence of the Greek Polis independent Greek state citizenship Commercecoinage before this time money as a form of portable metal certi ed by civic authority did not exist Test Question Why is archaic periodalphabet is situatied and why it is important cant actually pronounce and wright word with vowels The Classical Period 480323 BC The quotGolden Agequot of Greece Athenian Democracy rst democracy of the world demospeope quotrule by the peoplequot Persian Wars The Persians invade Greece The Greeks win 490 BC Marathon 480 BC ThermopylaeLeonidas of Sparta Peoponnesian War AthensSparta Athenains invent Athenian Democracy all male citizens free and equal under the law Many of the most in uential thinkers artists politicians who ever lived HerodotusThucydides AeschyusSophoclesEuripidesPlaywrites SocratesPlatoAristotle Hipppocrates EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE The Hellenistic Period 32330 BC Helenistic period starts with the death of Alexander the Great Alexander destroyed the vast Persian Empire and occupied its territories The death of alexander the great starts in Macedonia and takes over the known world quotr L1JL IEF r u 1 i El 5 g Greek culture became world culture Everywhere in the world they spoke Greek and imitated the Greek way of life Rome conquers Greece in 146 BC Overview of Greek society Limited knowledge Sources literary works by aristocratic male Athenians Literature composed by male Athenians for males to read how he was leading his life Males EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE From ages 613 boys received education reading writing memorization of Homer They exercised daily At the age of 1820 they were engaged in pederasty quotlove for boysquot How an Athenian man would have conducted their lives certain elements will be re ected in myths later if belonged to wealthy family would be sent to a tutor to be educated to teach you how to read write recite poetry and how to exercise and practice music between the ages of 1820 pederastygt ne Athenian can be courting a younger boy by offering them gifts a rooster cant court with money Why form a tight bond with boy you as the older man have the role as a mentor have him under protection and teach him things Weathier and ner you are the more you want strong bond that can continue onto marriage age 30 Pederasty was a social institution respect affection courage Part of the preparation for manhood and war The practice could continue even if a man was married for pederasty have to be an age difference was an accepted way of you leading your life if you are an older man who is a mentor to a younger boy EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE At the age of 18 they became citizens able to vote and speak in public ook for boys at the gymnasium Symposium quotdrinking partyquot A principal form of male social life and an important setting for the telling of myths Food wine games songs utegirls poetry quotthe men39s quartersquot Femae courtesans offered sexual service for pay ooking for boys voicing you voice symposiumgt drinking party inside your house able to bond with your fellow men invite the best Athenians of the time Toast master decides how many drinks each person can have The better the citizen you are the better men you have invited cup barriers are potential lover boys women prostutites are also hired EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Save girl offering her services Warfare paramount concern in the lives of Greek males who throughout their lives prepared for this moment Hopites heavily armed men hoplonshield Beautifuymade weapons spearsswords Phaanx tight ranks No chariots or cavalry Competitiveness no mercy for the enemy all for the glory of the polis nvite your friends drink eat talk about politics concerns of the city Greek Phalanx EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Miitary formation called phalanx Rectangular formation Wearing heavy armor 70bs or more and also a helmet whole body covered except for eyes Hod shield in left hand has to cover half of you and half of the fellow guy next to you have responsibility ghting for yourself and for the person next to you ghting for the glory of your city Fighting in plane no mountains or bushes signal given off and the two enemies collide When coosion happens push those rows ahead of them The people in front are the only ones who engage Which ever one collapses loses Gymnasium training facility Greek athletes were competing in the nude gymnos EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Go to the gymnasium the naked places place where you exercise love the human body would put olive oil on it and perfume 12815 Lecture Notes quot The Cultural Context of Classical Myth Women Contradictorv picture of women Some sources illustrate the ideal Greek woman as submissive quotYour reputation is great when you do not prove inferior to your own nature and when there is the least possible talk about you among men whether in praise of in blamequot Pericles Other sources imply that women were likely to behave in ways that contrasted with this ideal all sources about women are written by men and are targeted to a male audiencegt biased Most sources come from Athenian arsticat men about Athenian women St and 4th century Have literature don39t have a sociodocument association with women Literature written by men for men Sources give us a contradictory picture of womensome sources with cast women in a negative life A women should be rather submissive or silent or they are seen as shameless Have female characters that are not silent they are very deceitful causing trouble The woman was the master of the oikos quothouseholdquot quotWomen39s quartersquot Spinning the wool making cloths and caring for the house Shoud check source and purpose of source when reading about women EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Girl would be playing in house close to mom up till age 14 or 13 learn how to cook clean oikosgt house and household the house itself the members of the house At early age learn how to deal with keeping a household up and running Spend most of time in women39s quarters had separate rooms in house where they are entertaining each other occupationgt spinning the wool making cloths and caring for the house grounds Dowry The family provided the woman with dowry The bride was in her teens and was a Parthenos quotvirginquot When you are 1213 years old you get married not based on love and affection your father has arranged husband is twice your age Husband has lots of sexual experiences with lover boys and prostitutes but you are a virgin As a parthenos the girl was thought to be wild only in marriage could she gain quotsophrosynequot quotmoderation selfcontrol quot quotmy mother told me that my duty is to practice selfcontrolquot Xenophon Oeconomicus Why marrying so younggt women who were not married were not tamed get married to be tamed don39t want to hold onto your wildness Sophrosynegt modesty selfcontrol a women acquires with the context of a marriage Getting married to someone you have not seen before and twice your age leave the authority of your father and enter the authority of husband Given a dowrygt money bring it along to husband as a girl you can39t sell it because a women can39t have legal transactions husband exploit39s it In case of divorcegt husband has to give back the dowry intact you are protectedgt husband can39t sell it in divorce have to give it back EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE in case of divorce girl will go back to fathers house if have kids they stay with father especially boys Bride Getting Ready quot Bride buse holding Finirror bridal context Lru39 7 w r gtH 1 J 1 I VE Bride And Groom n Chariot j 39 Wedding ceremoy very loud lot of music sog good Feast taking at girls house all neighbors invited two families invited EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Girl wearing veil that is decorated with embrody Girl covered with veil and sometime with left it when ends at grooms house Aros greek god of love tells us that these two people are in love When have groom touching wrist of girlgt he39s taking her under his authority and she is leaving her father39s authority of her behind The bride was veiled decked with owers There was dancing singing festivities By age 35 a Greek woman was a grandmother A wife39s success was judged largely by her ability to produce sons Preferaby 3 children 2 boys 1 girl Additional children were often exposed to die in the wild Sex outside marriage was available to men but was disastrous for women but the Greeks were monogamous Get married so you can produce children produce 3 children 2 boys and 1 girl 2 boys incase one of them is killed in a battle Don39t want too many girls because of dowry What happens if you have too many girsgt the father can expose those unwanted babies can turn to slaves and give them the unwanted baby and take it to the wild to die or take it two places that are the slave owners that knew that wanted unwanted babies they would raise them and turn them into slaves Man can be visiting one upper class prostitute in your own establishmentsgo to prostitute or lover boy for love affection and entertainment EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Women can39t have multiple relationships Man can have multiple relationships but can only marry one wife Women married and spend most time in house cooking and cleaning spending most time with kids and slavesgt you don39t go out Adultery was punished more than rape whygta rape can be a onetime affair an adultery is you carrying an affair over a long time have the risk of having children that can39t be citizens of the city Chid birth dangerous to the mother quotI would rather stand 3 times behind a shield in battle than give birth oncequot Medea Miasma quotpollutionquot because of the blood that was attended child birth no man would come close to a woman in labor Much more dangerous to give birth than ghting a war Miasmagtblood pollution affects women in laborer or murders Several Festivals were restricted to women alone Women were responsible for the care of the dead During funerals women were expected be seen in public As a women you would not go out Spend most of time at home but if there is a festival during festival women could go out also festivals that are targeted towards girls and girls alone Festivas for men to stay home and women to go out When someone passes away it is the responsibility of the wife to cleanse the body EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Adulturey approached wife using the slave girl girl dealing with a deceased Girl is outdoors and carrying an offering to the dead A girl who is going to a tomb Prostitutes foreign women slaVES EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE quotCourtesansquot glamourous lives conversed with the day s leading intellectuals Aspasia quotwhoresquot working in brothels If an Athenian girl your life is determined lf make it through labor can live up to 40 years Women who are not Atheniansprostitutes Too poor of a father to offer a dowry and not having a daughter that would go off to be married can offer her as a slave Athenian man can39t marry foreign girlgt children can39t be citizens How do foreign women make a livinggt become Prostitutes Whoresgt slave girls work in brothels the lowest have supervisor that receives all the money Courtesans highly paid prostitutes charging high feeswhat they offer are extradinary and they are beautiful well versed have skill in music can be somewhat educated General Women went out only if they had a socially accepted purpose festival funeral Any sign of promiscuity entailed at least the penalty of ruinous gossip Women had no right to speak in public or vote poorer women went out to work mainly as vendor Women have no right to speak in public or votegt not considered citizens Men go to meeting to talk about votinggt they are citizens Girls can marry a citizen lf husband poor women can go out and help him out in the eld and she can become a perfume seller and become a midwife EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE F Slave y Savery was a prominent feature of all civilizations known to Greeks quotIn a world where most people were enslaved to absolute monarchs the surprise was that there were to many free citizens in Greecequot The Greeks themselves never saw the contradiction between the ideal of freedom and the pervasiveness of slavery Saves were chattel property and had no enforceable rights although they could save enough money to buy their freedom Saves considered chattel property belong to masters masters can do whatever they want to them can sell them or not can abuse them or not would not kill them Some masters was not able to kill slaves they had to report it they can kill them and not report it Domestic servants tolerable life shopping cooking fetching water etc Workers in farms and mines especially hard conditions Pubic slaves public servants police force Either prisoners of wars and piracy or bought in slave markets or born into it Could be a public slavegt owned by the city of Athens used as public servant to keep records act as the role of a police of cer EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Where do they nd slavesgt prisoners of wards if carpenter in previous live and become slave your master could allow you to open up a store and you can earn a little bit of money deformed Religion Monotheism vs Polytheism No Greek god was all powerful but each controlled a certain sphere of interest The Greek gods had personalities like those of humans They had favorites took sides They did not imposed codes of behavior Sacri ce In order to gain the God39s will you must destroy what you value most cattle were valuable EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Animal39s assent to the shedding of its blood The entrails were roasted and eaten by all the participants while the bones were offered to the gods The sacri ces were public rituals that brought the community together and affirmed common values a L a Notions of guilt or sin which arise from disobeying God39s rule were unknown to the Greeks EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Greek Temple Unique features of Greek Polytheism Exuberant storytelling The Greeks had many stories about their gods loved them and learned them by heart Greeks often made fun of their gods or criticized them Other Beliefs and Customs Beief in magic A man can manipulate the outside world by means of rituals spells and magical objects Spirits of the dead ghosts A belief that the human world mixes with the natural animals may have human qualities or the supernatural Heracles turns into a god Beief in Divination oracles dreams and Visions The Development of Classical Myth 2215 Lecture The beginnings of Greek Mvth A goddess 6500 BC EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Wearing a hat arms rested plump and have given birth Comes in region of Turkeynot ordinary women giving birth ppl assume could stand for goddess and more speci cally a ferility goddess if have goddessgt was this sculpture of religious importance or a toy of this goddess Cycadic Idol3000 BC a goddess Comes from the Greek world Figure comes from Cycladic islands Cycladic idolstatutes that would have been painted originally just the headbelongs to a female made of marble Archeoogists tell us bc were this statue was found these portray goddess maybe fertility Pretty modern looking quotLady of the Beastsquot 570 BC EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE z jr EL 5 l 7 cf 2 Represents a goddessgt the wings with female Hoding a panther and a deerassociated with animalsgt standing as a protype as Goddess of hunt goddess of animals The Beginnings of Greek Mvth Transmission of mythological stories through the aoidoi quotbardsquot the rst myth makers of Greece They composed poems even as they sang them before elite male audiences to the accompaniment of a lyre How could they circulate without writinggt there were ppl whom we called aoidoigt a poet a bard These people of aoidoi while they didn39t know how to read or write but con dent enough to pass on stories ora poets who have apprentice with a masterstart careers as poets as young boy would have apprenticed with a master would learn a special language has special vocab particular rhythmrelease tools and by constant practice would be able to compose a poem Aoidoidoesn39t know how to read and write but know how to compose a 16 line story or poem Oral traveling poets who we regard as the rst myth makers in Greece EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Homer would have done a poem with the companionate of an instrument Recites sings itebetween a song and a recitation Test Question How are myths circuIatedgt circulated by traveling oraI poets that have a master The In uence of the Near Eastern Mvth In uence on Greek myths by the Near East Mesopotamiagt quotthe land between the two riversquot TigrisEuphrates in what is today Iraq What is the relationship between Greek myth and eastern myth Mesopotamiamodern day Iraq City states of 50 or 40 thousand ppIsophisticated enough in agriculture and architecture had import ant myths that must of gone into Greek world i r 2 1 39 Iren 1i fir 1 II i k kl h I an I u at A contemporary map of Iraq and the surrounding region showing Mesopotamia iliterally hemteen Iriu er aii EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Tabet describing a universal ood Tabet recounting a story of creation Anthropomorphic gods quothumanshapedquot in appearance and thought In Mesopotamiamany cultures came aboutthey used a writing system had stories about a universal ood or had creation storiessimilar to Greek ood and Greek creations Pp had their own gods their gods resemble the Greek Gods Are anthropomorphic human shaped looked like and behaved like humans Zeus is portrayed as a normal Athenian Manlikes many women has a lover boy is very strong Sumerian Mvth Sumerians a mysterious civilization They had created the rst citystates by 3000 BC Mosty an agrarian society they developed the earliest forms of writing Cuneiform on clay tablets in 37 u i r uneiform Writing Sumerian Myth Important Deities An quotskyquot the lord of the in nite expanse of the dome above The supreme authority of gods and humans Uranus quotskyquot lnanna quotQueen of Heavenquot goddess of sexual love and curiously war One Sumerian text notes that even 120 lovers could not satisfy her Aphrodite had many gods Those who have red and then can write tabletshad a god called Angod of dome of above or god of the slqGreeks also had a god of the sky called Uranus Had female god called lnannagoddess of sexual lovegreeks had sexual love goddess as wellgtAphrodite Enlil quotLord of the Stormquot force power the thunderstorm An39s agent on earth He could be bene cial or destructive Zeus Enki quotLord of Earthquot A clever crafty god God of magic and wisdom Hermes Ereshkigal quotQueen of the great belowquot the Sumerian goddess of death Persephone EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE There must have been some connection between the Greek and Sumerianmany things that we take as Greek are not actually Greek Mvth In the Archaic PeriodSources Vase paintings an explosion of images no parallel in the ancient world Back gure Red gure EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE l a ffl Myths represented on pots and vases Loved their myths a lot they would recite them and resort to them Back gure and red gurebased on the ring of the pot First time the myths were committed to writing The earliest Greek literature is the poems of Homer 8th c BC the Iliad and the Odyssey EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE These two stories would have been composed orallyhomer doesn39t know anything about writing he would recite them and someone else would eventually write them down The Iliad 16000 lines is set in a period of several weeks during the tenth year of the Trojan war The wrath of Achilles The Odyssey 12000 lines narrates the return of Odysseus to his home after the war at Troy They are both epicsgt long narrative poems celebrating the deeds of heroes epicsgt very long poems that narrate and celebrate the deeds of heroes Test Question what is an epicgt a long poem about the deeds of heroes not a novel a long prose or legal document Homer Hesiod 700 BC Theogony Works and Days Hesiod also an oral poetcomposed works the same way of homer apprentice to a master learn a special language Gives details about his life family life where he comes fromwe know who he is compared to homer Homeric Hymns a collection of poems invoking a god or a goddess and telling an important story about the deity caed homeric in the style of Homer hymnpoem that includes a story about a god poems about gods and goddess Composed by aoidoi later than Homer performed in public places Lyric Poetry Personal poetry about the pains of love or war which often touches upon mythological themes Sappho A kind of poetry in Greece de ned by sizeshort poemspoems talking about all kinds of topics Sapphowomen poet wrote lyric poetry about love and elements that compliment pictures of Gods Greek mvth in the Classical PeriodSources Greek TragedyThe most important source from the classical period It was performed in honor of the god Dionysus EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE The actors were always male wore masks and they were never more than three A form of popular entertainment Greek Theatre in 5 a 1 7r lane 72 39n it H L 2 I 3 a 5351i Tragedy39stheoretical plays performed in theatres Engineering wisethey were sophisticated They were open Acoustics were good Actor has to have loud voice and be elaborate enough and wear a costume mask generic 3 Actors on stageno more than 3 all actors are male Tragedy invented and developed in Athens in the 5th century and onwards EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE quot H r 7 jjhf h i 757 V l a 397 7 In 9 777 n Err 4139 UL v A 39 KV quoti 39v 3921quot W V 39 Train maah in tfl t Rea mas made out of linen Mask generic EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Greek 0 Modern Performance Mask was also helped to remove even more the odd events that were happening on stage The plot of the play is extreme and the way they are dressedso that you know is not happening in real life Major Greek Tragedians oldesttragedies very imposing and deal with grandular issues episodes the king EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Euripidesmost modern of the 3female psychology Greek Tragedy Focus on family histories Extreme cases that do not re ect ordinary life Horror Violence Disturbing emotions that could not be experienced in real life the audience is cleansed through pity and fear Aristotle Pots are extradionarylot of horror violence most of the time they are family stories that have to deal with family dysfunction Why would an Athenian go to the theatregt not only were the Athenians going bc they wanted to but it was required tocitizens were expected to go to the theatregt if poor had a special funto fund for ticket Aristotegreek philosophergo to the theatre not to entertain yourself but you go so that you may feel emotions that are extreme by doing so being felt extreme emotions you are sort of cleansed go so you can feel emotions that you are not use to Greek Myth In The Hellenistic PeriodSources 331 BC Founding of Alexandria At Alexandria was established the rst real library The collection was famous in the whole world and comprised of thousands of scrolls 500000 he Mouseiol Alexandrian Scholars Keen interest in myth and its interpretation Production of highly complex mythological poems Apollonius of Rhodes gt the Argonautica the story ofJason and the Golden Fleece The Roman Appropriation of Greek Myth EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE OvidMetamorphoses Transformations VergilAeneid 2415 Lecture The Rise of Zeus Chapter 4 Theogony Hesiod Theogony Cosmogonygt the origin of the world Theogonygt the origin of the gods and their rise to power Hesiod is an oral poetcomposed poem oral and sometime it was written Theogod gonyorigin Trying to tell us how the Gods came to be and how they came into power gt also talks about the world and how the world came about Poet tells us what we though of the origin of the world Chaos quotChasmquot the vast open space Gaea Earth is the rst material substance the solid Tartarus some place below earth chaoschasm Teling us that there is some sort of chasm and earth was created Tartarusgt different from hades Eros quotSexual Lovequot the force that brings the opposites together and ensures future generations Mentions the premarital elements of the world Erossexual lovegt one of the rst elementsgt why Need some force to create other elements Gaea Asexuallygt Uranus Mountains Pontus quotseaquot Gaea Uranusgt Titans gtCyclopes gtHecatonchires Poet is trying to make sense of the worl around him cant resort to sciencesomehow the sky was produced from earth Earth slept with her son and eros which made sonstitans cyclopes hecatonchires earth and sky unite and maketitans cyclopes hecatonchires The Titans are 6 male and 6 female entities Cronus the most important of the Titans is the last born Also Oceanus a river that encircles the world and Hyperion a sungod offspring of the earth and the sky 3 Cyclopes quotRoundeyesquot smiths of the gods The mighty Hecaatonchires the quotHundredhandersquot EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Cycopes Phaethon Hyperion the sun god and the father of Helius quotsunquot Selene quotmoonquot and E05 quotthe dawnquot Phaethon son of Helius Phaethon tests his father he asks to drive Helius39 chariot through the sky The chariot gets out of control and Phaethon is killed EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE ha t EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE when Pinata Phaethon Selene Seene fell in love with Endymion and at her request Zeus placed him in an eternal sleep so that he might never grow old Seene falls in love with shepardshe seduces him while he39s asleep she asks the gods to keep him in eternal sleep so he never grows old EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Seene Eos Eos loved Tithonus and asked Zeus to make him immortal But she neglected to ask that he may never age Tithonus grew older and older and E05 locked him up in his room EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE orning Star and Tithonus Cronus Aoainst Uranus Uranus covered Gaea completely as if locked in perpetual sexual embrace and did not allow the children to come to light Cronus used a sickle cuts off the genitals of his father Uranus quotHe reached out his right with the sickle sawtoothed deadly and sharp Like a reaper he sliced away the genitals of his own father inging them over his shoulder to roll wherever chance sent themquot Uranus is locked apon Gaeakeeps impregnating herdoesn t allow his children to come to ife Gaea invents sickle and turns to kids Slq is separated from earth From the blood that fell into the earth the Erinyes were born ferocious female spirits who drive to madness those who shed kindred blood Also the Giants quotearthborn onesquot beings of enormous strength Erineyes violent female spirits that pursue those who kill members of their family EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Birth of Aphrodite The genitals of Uranus fell in the sea From the semen and the sea foam quotAphrosquot sprung Aphrodite goddess of sexual love Semen mixed up with foam aphros and made Aphroditegoddess of sexual loveborn from the semen of the slq and foam of the seahas destructive force as well birth of Aphrodite Children of Gaea and Pontus Gaea Pontusgt Sphinx in uenced by Egyptian art A deadly spirit of plague who besieged the city of Thebes Cerberus a fty headed or threeheaded dog who guarded the gates of Hades Chimera a monster with a lion39s body a snakes39 tail and a goats head growing from its back EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Sphinx Sphinxisin uencea by E paneart EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Greece sphinx is female and has wings Cerberus 99 39agk j v 3 7 3 I n rquot A houn that either hs 3 heads or 50 headsiurding the gates o hades Chimera EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Lion with snake tail and goat head on back Zeus against Cronus After the overthrow of Uranus Cronus became the king of the world He feared his children and decided to swallow them as soon as they issued forth from his wife Rhea Rhea hid her youngest child Zeus in a mountain cave in Crete Cronus had casterated dad becomes the king of the worldnot con dent of his powerafraid his children might do what he did to his father to him he decides to swallow the children his wife produces His wife rhea had enough told to go to parentstold her to take his newborn and hide him takes baby son zeus and hides him in Crete Baby Zeus feed with honey and milkwhen cries told to cover his cries so his father doesn39t nd himcover with shied When Cronus asked for the last chid Rhea gave him a stone wrapped in clothes Cronus gulped it down Somehow Cronus vomited up the children which he had swallowed and the stone Poseidon Hades Hera Demeter Hestia EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE grill quot far 7 39 39 ing rnus with baby atually a stne Titanomachv Zeus is now the king of the world The Titans resent him and his brothers and sisters who have taken abode on Mt Olympus They attack the Olympians Zeus seeks help from the Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires The Olympians win and Zeus casts the Titans into Tartarus Zeus grew up in Crete Poet needs to show him as overcoming his enemies so he can establish his authority Zeus grew up strong but not at all powerful enough Batte comes about the titans and the brother and sisters of zeus titanomachy Zeus and the Olympians win need help get help from Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Atlas perhaps one of the Titans was condemned by Zeus to live at the edge of the world and hold up the heavens Atas one of those titans punished by Zeus to reside on the edge of the world and hold up the heavens punished by Zeus to carry the sky on shoulders Zeus39s Battle with Typhoeus Gaea is Zeus39s opponent She gives birth to Typhoeus an incredible monster A battle between Zeus and Typhoeus ensues Zeus prevails He buries Typhoeus beneath Mount Etna in Sicily Typhoeus monster that doesn t have limbs and has wings head is taller than mountains Zeus39s Battle with Typhoeus Now Zeus kindled his rage and eagerly snatched up his missiles thunder and lightning and re from heaven crashing and blazing He bounded forward and shot from the lofty top of Olympus The ery blast ignited the marvelous heads of the monster Typhoeus scourged and shattered by Zeus39s terrible weapons hamstrung sank to his knees as the mighty earth groaned in despairquot Birth of Athena Cronus overthrew Uranus Zeus overthrew Cronus who would overthrow Zeus Zeus marries Metis quotclevereness quot Metis becomes pregnant with Athena According to a prophecy the next child after Athena would depose Zeus Zeus swallows Metis before that child was born But suddenly he has a headache Either Prometheus or Hephaestus struck his head with an ax and out sprang Athena EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE l J Gigantomachy The attack the Olympians The Olympians win Zeus and his brothers Hades and Poseidon divide the world Zeus takes heaven Poseidon the sea and Hades the underworld Divine Myth Greek Universe comes from successive drowth and chance It is not static spoken into existence once and for all Gradua ascent to power of male over the female 2915 Lecture Myths of Creation The Origins of Mortals Chapter 5 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Prometheus Maker of Mortals Who created humans Sometimes Zeus himself is identi ed as the creator of mortals sometimes various gods working together Prometheus have to ght for their supremacy Who created humans according to the greeks not that interested in this question the story tells us who created humans comes from a roman poet Most predominant creator of humans has been called Prometheus athough the Greeks don39t have a clear story the assumption was to him the greeks and the romans the creation of human world quotThe son of lapetus Prometheus fashioned earth and water commingled into the image of gods who are rulers of all the things createdquot quotThe Lord God formd man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life and man became a living beingquot Genesis 24 A roman poet who is answering the question of creating humans Earth and water mixing and giving us the rst humanPrometheus did Wide spread assumption that other cultures also had Neither the greeks nor the romans had this idea of a creator taking earth and water and making humans Prometheus Protector of Mortals His father lapetus quotForelearnerquot Prometheus is known as being a clever trickster His brother Epimetheus the quotAfterlearnerquot Zeus is afraid of Prometheus39 wit The feast at Mecone Prometheus wrapped the best parts of meat in the repulsive stomach of an ox and the bones in shining fat and offered the two bundles to Zeus to choose Zeus chose the bundle of the fat prometheus tricks zeus a bad relationship starts In order to punish Prometheus and the mortals Zeus removed re from the trees where it had lurked before Prometheus pitied his beloved mortals and sloe re from heaven by hiding it in a fennel hollow stalk EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE from Zeus the counselor in a hollow fennelstalk so that Zeus Who delights in thunder did not see it But afterwards Zeus Who gathers the clouds said to him in anger quotSon of aoetus surpassing all in cunning you are glad that you have outWitted me and stolen re a great olague to you yourself and to men that shall be Will give men an evil thing in Which they may all be glad of heart While they embrace their own destruction quot Hesiod Works and Days What Zeus did to punish Prometheus he hid re he was hopping that the mortals would start dieing offneed it for daily activities Prometheus stole it back and put it in a stock and brought it back to the mortals these two were competitive against each other Second time prometheus tricks Zeus and this time stands up to him and messes up Zeus39s plan Prometheus EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Zeus twice deceived by Prometheus ordered Kratos strength and Bia violence to bind Prometheus to a pillar in the Caucasus Mountains quotHe bound Promethus the schemer in inescapable fetters a torment to beat and through them he drove a mighty stone pylon and sent a longwinged eagle to gnaw his incorruptible liver By day the bird fed upon it but each night as much was replenished as was lost on the day before Hesiod Theogony EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE 7 23 ll LEE RENEW Elli LE1 F frl ISL 39 I213 HWMME E HankESL EngJo Prometheus is bound and theres a large eagle pecking himZeus is punishing him by sending these birds to eat him during the day His liver grows by nighttorment is perpetual Symbol of the heroic rebel for the sake of humankind he was bound to suffer everlasting torment Heracles killed the devouring eagle and freed the Titan bc prometheus has been shown for standing up for himself and also the mortalscalled an heroic rebel symbolic rebel against zeus Torture did have an endHeracles managed to kill the eagle by shooting it with his arrows wearing a lions mask Lord Byron Prometheus UnboundPercy Shelley Frankenstein or the Modern PrometheusMary Shelley EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Prometheus Zeus did not object When an oracle declared that a child greater than its father would be born to a certain woman only Prometheus knew that the oracle referred to the Nereid Thetis whom Zeus admired Zeus backed off and compelled Thetis to marry a mortal Peleus Their son39s name was Achilles How did Zeus allow this to happen by this time zeus had fallen in love with a girl name Thetis wanted to make a move on her But promethus the forelearner turns to zeus and tells him not to go to her bc she will have a son who will be greater than him zeus decides to stay away EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE the baby that the women gives birth to is Achilles Prometheus Protector of Mortals Aeschylus n Aeschylus39 Prometheus Bound Prometheus describes the many bene ts he conferred on mortals medicine metallurgy prophecy from dreams and astronomical phenomena quotUnti my time whenever men fell Hi there was no help in diet potion ointment or draft men simply shriveled and died for lack of drugs I showed them gentle compounds remedies ferreted out dark ways of prophecy and was the rst to teach the lore of dreams Aeschylus Prometheus Bound 1Tricks zeus with fat 2 Tricks zeus with re 3 Zeus bonunds him in the forest but he escapes Prometheus Bound play from Athens 5th century Aeschylus Prometheus main character is shown in his capacity as an assistant to mortals who always helps them gives Prometheus as the helper more and benefactor Brought to humans the art of medicine taught them how to prosophize until men fell ill Pandora Zeus punished Prometheus for stealing re but also punished men by imposing the greatest af iction Woman quot Zeus shall give them a present to compensate for the re May they all be merry at heart forever embracing this horror With a nasty smile he told Hephaestus to hurry to knead the water and clay to add human speech and strength to give it a goddess form and the lovely face of a maidenquot Hesiod Works and Days Hephaestus created Pandora giving her a lovely face and the form of a goddess Athena taught her womanly skills such as weaving Aphrodite gave her the power of desire and love Hermes gave her thievish morals Zeus trusts his fellow gods to contribute and make the rst womengt pandoragifts Pandoragt quotAllGiftedquot Hermes took her to Epimetheus the quotafterthinkerquot Prometheus had warned his brother Epimetheus disobeyed received Pandora she opened the jar and allowed all evils to come forth Hope ony remained under the lip of the jar Have created beautiful women with thievish morals someone who looks nice on the outside but on the inside not so much Hermes the messenger god take Pandora and bring her to Epimetheus to he who does not think in advance brother of Prometheus EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Prometheus tells his brother not to accept the gift from the Gods He s not to clever when the gods present the girl he gladly receives her quotTill then men had lived on the face of earth far from all ills without torment pain or dreadful diseasebut now the hands of the woman lifted the jar39s heavy lid and allowed them all to escape planning the bitterest sorrows for menquot Hesiod Works and Days Pandora opens up a boxjar She opens up this jarand out comes all the miseries of the world the miseries are in the world now creates all the problems of the world bc on the inside she was not decent 7 1MLuy lll ll HNHHHH 39 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE I I F is all rt i b in 1 MI HIEIE u Ea E 2 l I F l uzni If Hui1 39 Ls ml 5 I HHL39ll Container contains all evil but it also contains hope but all the hope remained in the box all the hope is taken away Pandora39s descendants the quotracequot of women are a species apart who contribute nothing and only consume food and wealth quotFrom her descends the ruinous race and tribe of women who live as a curse and cause of sorrow to mortal men no panthers in grim povery but only useless excessesquotHesiod Theogony Misogynygt hatred for women Test question Which poet portrays a sense of Misogynygt Hesiod HesiodFive Races The rst oeneration The Golden Race Made of gold They were happy with no troubles and when they died they became spirits that protected mortals The Second generation The Silver Race Made of silver Inferior to the rst A child would spend a hundred years as a baby then grow up suddenly age and die When they died they became spirits kept under the ground The third oeneration The Bronze Race Made of Bronze They were worse than the silver Terrible and warlike sprung from ash trees concerned with plunder and the bloody labor of war They all descended to the house of cold Hades The fourth generation the Heroes Better than the bronze It includes those who fought in the Trojan war and partook into other expeditions Some never died but were transported to Isles of the Blessed at the end of the world The fth oeneration The Iron Race EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE This is Hesiod39s own race Made of iron Sorrow pains labor war Zeus soon will destroy this race as well From a blessed past to a wretched present gradually worsening conditions Eastern In uences Lycaon Deucalion and Pyrrha The Flood Hearing that all men were vicious and corrupt Zeus descended among them disguised as an ordinary man Human wickedness was exempli ed by Lycaon who practiced human sacri ce and cannibalism Zeus punished him by turning him into a wolflife creature quothe attempted to speak but an animal39s howling was all that came out His face was wet with the froth of his madnessquot Zeus is upset bc mortals that have been created have been degeneration have reached a low degeneration zeus decides to take action wants to teach a lesson to the degenerating mortals zeus vists ycaonthe most degeneratied humans Lycaon doesn t recogonize him sense zeus Lycaon thinks zeus is human and plans to chop zeus up and eat him zeus sees through the plan before ycaon can take action when ycaon tries to speak a wolf howling comes out EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Who isilycaonOuuy urned into Wewolf wa punished by Zeus for his cannibalism Zeus decided to destroy all mankind with a great ood Only Deucalion and Pyrrha survived because of their piety Deucaion constructed a chest and embarked in it with Pyrrha They sought advice from the goddess Themis quotthrow the bones of your mother behind youquot They started to throw stones over their backs These became the new humans Greek version of the ood Gods had enough of mortals want to punish them with a ood zeus gather the clouds and there is this huge rainstorm only two humans survived that the gods decided to protect them go on a boat are saved when the waters reside they are the only two humans nd a way to the sanctuary of the divinity in need of help and adive turn to themis how can we keep living if our race is destroyedthemis tells them to throw the stones of their Deucaion and Pyrrha EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Prominent Themes Humans came from the earth First came males then females Humankind progressively degenerated Food 21115 Lecture Mvths of the Olvmpians Zeus and Hera Powell chapter 6 Mvths of the Olvmpians Zeus and Hera Zeus Hera Poseidon Demeter Hestia Hades Aphrodite Mount Olympus By the sixth century BC a body of twelve gods and goddesses quotthe Olympiansquot had been established Hestia was replaced by Dionysus The Olvmpians ZeusStorms HeraFamily DionysusWine DemeterHarvest HadesUnderworld PoseidonSea ApolloProphecy ArtemisHunt HephaestusForge AthenaKnowledge AresWar HermesTravel EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE AphroditeSex Live on Mt Olympus except for Hades Zeus father of both Gods and Mortalsbehind stromscauses them and is responsible for them Hera Zeus39s wife goddesses of family Hephaestus makes metal objects for the Gods Hades brother of zeus lives under earth Mvths of the Olvmpians Zeus and Hera A divine family The Olympians were a projection of the concerns and activities of the Greeks themselves Make up a family the Greeks will portray their gods homer will being like what they are in real life around him Homer gives us a divine family like a real mortal family will make up Husband may be arguing with wife discipline childrenstories re ect more or less of what is happening around them Zeus Lord of the Sky Zeus the greatest god quotfather of gods and menquot Associated with the slq and the weather quotthe cloudgathererquot Homer calls Zeus the father of Gods and men Oversees everyone responsible for the sky and the weathermore the weather and less the sky The cloud gatherercauses storms to cause about Strength quotAll you gods and goddesses Try as you will to drag me from heaven down to earthyou cannot move me a bit I am Zeus the highest and wisestquot Homer Iliad The aegis quotgoatskinquot a shield with snakeheaded tassels Athena to whom Zeus lent it wears it as a breastplate Aegisgoat skin sort of shield with snake head tassels symbol of power for Zeus but often times it is Athena who wears it and not Zeus beongs to Zeus but in art Athena wears it Athena with Zeus39s Aegis EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE His weapon is the thunderbolt a twopointed object The bull and the eagle were his sacred animals In charge of thunderbolts The Eagle and the bull being very strong Zeus being overseen EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE He protected the custom of Xenia quotthe formal institution of friendshipquot or quotreciprocal hospitalityquot He presided over law and justice God of storms weather thunderbolts Protects Oaths sacred thing swear by Zeus and not to break it it break itgt Zeus gets mad Xenia reciprocal hospitality or friendship if you are a wonderer in ancient Greece and knock on the door of an Athenian the host is suppose to welcome you in wine dine you and in the end give you a gift Zeus protects foreigner39s rights EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Zeus is of cially married to Hera EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE quotCome with me my Hera We two will lie down in ovebeneath from the radiant earth shot sweet young grasses of springtime with lotuses hyacinth crocus all owers blushing and tender So they embraced reclined in a nimbus gleaming and golden their ardor cool by glittering drops of the freshfallen dewquot Homer lliad Hera is in homer the knoging wifealways bothers Zeus Zeus has wondering eyes for everyone except for Hera Most of the time Zeus is not sleeping with Hera This particular time he has been seduced by Hera Many more mistresses Why so many amorous stories Entertainment Re ection of Greek society Sexual Generation is a form of divine providence Allegories Why so many mistresses its funfor entertainment Gods are a projection of real concerns in societyif typical man in Greece can have more than one wife why cant Zeus can Sexual generation is a form of divine providence allegories EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Not Heraa goddess whom he wants Asking for a favor from someone superior than you EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE H E la u l 3 fl law h l Fl in H in 1 a H quot1 7 H 391 l 7 quot1 rl r 5 5 k 1 on w l 1 1 ilii LJ 1 1 e 7 I r ill Rconstruction of statue of Zeus in emple r iI Some sexual unions can be read as allegories Zeus39s marriage with Metis quotclevernessquot Zeus combines force with intelligence Zeus39s marriage to Themis quotthings establishedquot under his reign the universe is governed by laws there is order in the world EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Zeus Themis gt Horae quotseasonsquot personi cations of the recurring divisions of the agricultural year They maintained stability Have offspring called Horae 3 women holding grain wheat and grapes Union bw Zeus and order produces order of the seasonone season follows the other K1quot A s 1 A 4 A g L 1 i A A quot A V quot53 V V39 1 A 1quot rul A Zeus Themis gt Moerae quotfatesquot They establish the allotment that each mortal receives in life Clotho makes the thread Lachesis measures it Atropos cuts it off Ones fate can never be changed Zeus Eurynomegt Graces three women who personify the feminine qualities that make young women attractive to men EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Ganymede a Trojan prince exceptionally handsome He either seized him or sent an eagle to carry him to Olympus Ganymede became a cupbearer to the gods expected to have mistress but also had a boyfriendlover boy Fee in love with a young boy 1 Zeus was so enormiate with the boy that he abducted it 2he sent his eagle to abduct the boy EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Hera Queen of Heaven Proper wife of Zeus Goddess of marriage and of women39s fertility Cow was her sacred animal Homer calls her quotcoweyedquot Argos OlympiaTemples built in her honor EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Hera is against adultery She persecutes Zeus39s mistresses and his illegitimate children Her children with Zeus are Ares Eieithyia presided over childbirth Hebe quotyouthquot In homer hera is portrayed as pestering Zeus fearing that he is cheating on her EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Wi see her in a thrown has a special bird pacock Zeus and Hera quotSo maybe you will listen to me for once and give up all the attempts to fool me when once you have learned that all the alluring wiggling of your hips from side to side by which you used to get me into bed away from the other gods will never work again as a sexy hoax to deceive mequot quotLady you are always suspicious You never miss a thing If you go on with your nagging it will be a cold day for you So sit down and shut up and listen to what I am going to sayquot Homer lliad Hera trying to seduce Zeusask Aphrodite to lend her a special belt to make her appealing to Zeus Look like ordinary people talking the way the Greeks dictate their gods in literature just like an Athenian would be speaking to his wife In literature the gods can be laughed at while at the same time in real life they should be respected Homer39s Gods Anthr0pomorphism Alltoohuman gods EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE jquotijisztiFi223sz gods in the shape and form of men and women who act and think like human beings Gods marry have families procreate have sexual liaisons dine and are entertained by songs They can even be wounded but they never die Poseidon Lord of the Deep Master of the earthquake and the sea quotShaker of earthquot Preeminently he is the Lord of the Deep He traveled across the sea in a chariot drawn by horses or seamonsters His symbol is the trident He is a dangerous god responsible for the sorrows of seamen qrr WET if 39rxV L awn isnt really much a difference bw Ze ad oseidon iding a tridentgt Poseidon EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE High hills and trees shook at the tread of his immortal feet as the lord Poseidon advancedgreat sh skipped up on every side from the deep and the laughing waves gave way acknowledging their lordquot Homer the Iliad Poseidon was married to a Nereid Amphitrite Their child Triton is a halfhuman half sh creature When Triton blew his shell the seas became calm father of the Cyclops Polyphemus who cursed Odysseus to wander for ten years before returning homefather of one eyed creature Poseidon and Athena competed for the allegiance of Athens Poseidon struck the rock at the Acropolis and a spring with salted water gushed up Athena offered an olive tree and the Athenians chose Athena as their patron Poseidon furious at the decision ooded the Attic plain One story about posedion Poseidon and Athena are ghting on who will become the patron god of Athens Let the Athenians decide for themselves Athena tells them she will give them the olive tree it will be useful to you Posedion throws tritened at salted water what will the Athenians do with salt so they pick Athena mxgtlt OZm mCUlt DEUm EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Hades King of the Dead He lives in the underworld not in Olympus The quotinvisiblequot Pluto the quotenricherquot He commanded legions of demons and he would not allow willingly anyone who came to him to return to the land of the living Hades in greek means the invisible Puto means wealthnot so much that he himself is wealthy but when you die you put valuables with you when you go into the underworld 21615 LectureMyths of the Olympians Powell chapter 7 Apollo the Far Darter God of Proohecv Lycian either from Lycia in Asia Minor or the quotwol ikequot god Also sungod although he had no connection with the sun considered positivelybrightness positively light He is an archer god quotApollo came down from the heights of Olympus his silver bow on his shoulder its guiver rmly boxed at both endsquot Homer Iliad EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE not a hunter and arrows are not suppose to kill you they send diseasearrows of Apollo are diseased the disease kills you rather than the arrow Often he carries a m god of music and poetic skills ii beardess positive very bright idea to which an Athenian man would aspire to physical terms and all other respects The Birth of Apollo The Homeric Hymn to Apollo The Titaness Leto was a mistress of Zeus and was persecuted by Hera Hera decreed that no land should receive the pregnant Leto Bursting with labor pains Leto wandered the earth Hymnpoem that celebrates a god tells us certain events from his life not composed by homer but in the style of homer poems in honor of a God Apolos mom was Letoa titanessdivinity herself she had been carrying an affair with Zeus EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Hera nds out and decides the light of pregnant Leto mortal not going to allow leto to give birth to the baby that she is carryinggoing to forbid all islands from receving birthO but allow her to nd shelter to give birth trying to nd a place to give birthdoesn39t manage to do so The two islands Delos and Ortygia were exempt from Hera39s degree Apoo was born on Delos Artemis on Ortygia Leto does nd shelter in Delos and Ortygia allow her to stay were exempt from Hera39s degreegt oating islandgo underneath the surface of the sea Hera has decreasedgt no land that receives the rays of the sun Gave birth to twinsapollo was born on delos and Artemis was born on Ortygia Hera39s daughter took the role as a midwife and helped leto give birth Apollo At once delivery started and Leto labored in childbirth embracing the trunk of a palm bracing her knees in the grass The earth smiled in joy and the goddesses shouted for pleasure as the god sprang into the lightquot After Apollo and Artemis were born Delos became one of the richest and most celebrated religious sites in Greece quotHe passes swift as thought soaring up from this world to Olympus to the palace of Zeus where he joins with a crowd of the other immortalsApolo plays on his lyre to lead the dance and the singing while glory shines all about from his robe and his dancing feet Leto of golden hair and Zeus rejoice as they watch their dear son playing amid the immortalsquot When he was born he is presented on mtoympus and given the role of the musician to play music for the gods and recite poetry for them Apolo was doing what a Greek aristocrat was doing at a young age EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Apollo at Delphi Apollo is the god of Prophecy Wishing to establish his oracle he arrived to the slopes of Parnassus Delphi A great serpent called Python dwelled there Apollo had to kill it in order to establish his shrine Apollo leaves mtoympus and decides to wonder the earth where he can establish an oracle Delphi establish his oracleto advise those that need his help Problemsome monster there and Apollo has to kill it rsthe does with his disease bearing arrows quottil Apollo who works from afar let y a deathdealing arrow Tortured by horrible pangs she lay there twisting in pain and painfully gasping for breathquot EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE He spies a ship at sea leaps on board in the form of a dolphin and guides the sailors to Delphi He reveals himself to them and makes them his priests Delphi the most renowned oracle of the ancient world The Greeks regarded it as the center of the world The prophetess at Delphi was called Pythia after the dragon Python She was some kind of a medium but the exact nature of her inspiration remains a mystery EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE i g r r LF 5quot L uv Phythia whom Apollo would communicate and answer your question how many kids you want to have Go to Delphi offer a sacri ce the priest takes question and recives in the inter temple of where phythia is sitting on a tripod the priest gives her your question and she inhales vapor or she choses organic leaves she had to do something in order to fall in a state of exocis the only way Apollo would communicate to her to commincuate to you Apollo would give her an answer she gives it to the priest the priest gives it to you the answer is ambigious l rr 7 D u a 4 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE According to archaelogists it didn t work this way she didn t have to inhale things she was probably in a certain state she would given to you a straight forward answer but legened and story tells us otherwise quotKnow yourselfquot and quotNothing too muchquot l I I M Before you enter the temple and know yourself but nothing too much you should be very careful not to do anything in accessdo it in moderationfavor balance did not see arrogance with a positive light Know who you are where you stand know your limitations and don t do something too muchbe modest and humbledon t come with sel sh demands EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Apollo39s unhappy loves Casandra the daughter of Priam king of Troy asked to be appointed a prophetess in return for her sexual favors No one ever believes her although she speaks the truth EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Sibyl at Cumae asked to have as many years of life as the grains of sand She grew older and older until she shriveled up like a cicada screeching in a cave Not very luck in terms of love He really likes Cassandra a mortal girl a god loving a mortal girl a princess of troy turns to Apollo and says if he wants her to like her back he has to give here the gift of prophecy give her the ability to tell the future Apollo does so but cassndra doenst return his favor Apollo instead of punishing her makes her a prophetess that no one would believe but telling the truth because she tricked people no one will believe what she says Apollo loves Sibyl she says to him if he wants her to love him he has to give her the many years of life as the grains of sand Apollo agrees he doenst give her eternal life she lives forever but she grows older and older Daphne rejected Apollo he pursued her and her father turned her into a laurel tree Apollo39s sacred plant is the laurel EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Hyacinth By accident Hyacinth was killed while he was practicing the discus with Apollo From his blood the ower hyacinth sprang Apolo was the father of Asclepius god of medicine His mother Coronis while pregnant cheated on Apollo and he killed her God of healing Apoo represented the Greek aristocratic ideal of young beautiful vigorous manhood He embodied the quotHellenic spirit in its primequot and he stood for all the aristocrats valued he came to represent reason against unreason order against disorder Was the patron god of aristocrats Came to embody hansom physiquegood feet but also all the things that emobody greekness He came to represent reason instead of chaos All of the Greeks were setting a goal for their life and those that differentiate them from nongreeks EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE 21815 Lecture Hermes Pan Hephaestus Ares Powell Chapter 8 Hephaestus metaworkers39 god Associated with volcanoes Lemnosassociated with one island with active volcanoes The Cripple god Hera threw him from heaven He fell into the sea but was saved by the Nereids Hephaestus made a golden throne to which a ne mesh was attached and sent it to his mother Hera sat on the throne and was entrapped by the mesh Hephaestus refused to return to mount Olympus to free Hera until drunk by Dionysus he was forced to do it Story one Hephaestus is the son of Hera on his birth he was discuseed Hera decided to expel him from mtOympus pushed him off he was saved by sea aliens Hephaestus taught Hera a lesson hera had her birthday and ppl were sending her gifts Hephaestus decided to make a throne and send it to her also made a mesh that was so ne was invisibleplaced on thorne sent it to Hera Hera who is greedy accepted the throne she was trapped couldn t get up trapped from the mesh when she sat downonly Hephaestus was the only one to help her the Gods have Dionysus get Hephaestus drunk so he doesn t know where he is going EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE 1 39 5quot 7 L 1 v if r r m r 5 J n a 1 7 ill r a r i Hephaests supporte by creature with iAns EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE He s holding tool of metal worker and seen on a donkey what would the attitude be towards a god who has a physical alimentgt bc he is lame and often times the myths re ect reality there is more than a cut of the male body he would have been the one to laugh at from the other Gods physica problem caused of laughter he is also a metal worker himself greeks look down on laborers unless it dealt with farming look down on those who work with their hands to produce something Hes deformed and he works with his hands a laughable position against the other Olympians stories are re ecting some type of ambiguity EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Temple i honor of Hephaesuscolumns with two roomsone with the statue of the God Athenscentral part of it The embodiment of war and blood lust ln art he is no different than any warrior Few myths are told about him Affair with Aphrodite Ares the God of war he s not different from a warrior very strong physically don t have many stories but in the iliad the body of war bood thirsty Ruthless and dangerous EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE l Ares is having an affair with Aphrodite wife of Hephaestus Hephaestus nds out rushes to his workshop and makes a quotchain that could not be broken escaped or even unfastenedquot He arranges his trap over the bed as it was quotfine as a cobweb not to be noticed by watchersquot He catches the two lovers and summons the Olympians One story ares has an affair with Aphroditehave one of the most beautiful goddesses hooking up with the most physical but she is married to Hephaesuts pair doenst make sense read story in book Hephaestus decides to go away in business ares turns to Aphrodite and decides to play with Aphrodite in her bedroomhephestus been warned that his wife was having an affair Hephaestus makes a chain that cant be broken or seen he took that chain and left it on the bed the two were caught on the chain when Hephaestus appeared he caught them in the act quotUnceasing bawdy laughter broke out from the blessed gods eyeing the clever device contrived by inventive Hephaestusquot Poseidon lntervenes quotloose him I promise to pay you whatever you may demandquot Hephaestus gives in he summons the olympians and they laugh at the spectletwo lovers caught EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Gods start laughin FIJI g at 3 people there EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Ii 39 irr quot r V El 2 r r 39 7 v a r L V a it elett gods gathered to laugh Ares Hermes The protector of travelers quotHe of the stone heapquot hermastone heap herm He is the protector of the travels Travels from mtOympus to earth when the Gods need to share a message to the mortals Hermastone helap Hermes has something to do with stone heaps Travels need to make stone heaps to keep track of their paths Hermes leaves in the stone heaps of the travelers Hermstone pillars used either to demecorate a cities boundaries or outside housese warding off invaders and breaking good luck EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Protector of thieves merchants orators The herald of the gods Caduceus a staff intertwined with two snakes Psychopompos quotsoul guidequot He leads the dead into Hades Argeiphontes quotSlayer of Argusquot Protects everyone who walks thieves merchants and orators Hermes called Argeiphontes Called psychopompossoul guidesince hermes travels travels to the underworld as well leads the deceased EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE I W 39 h Hermes holding staff with two snakes called Caduceusseen it with Ascipliesstaff with one snake Hermes wears hat with wing so he can y EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE I quot75 39 a 71 Famous statue of Hermes Body is curving into an Scalled the S curve So lively that if you go around it and loot at itit follows you Hermes holding baby dionysusarm stretched outhas something that baby dionysus wants holding wine grapes Homeric Hymn to Hermes Hermes still a baby steas Apollo39s cattle quotBorn at the break of day by noon he was twanging the lyre before the evening had come he had stolen Phoebus39 cattlequot Puling the hoofs out of the cows39 feet one by one he reattaches them in the reverse order Then he takes the herd which now seems to be walking backwards hides them inside a cave and quickly returns to his cradle quotThe famous Hermes hastin jumped right into his cradle and as any baby would do rucked the blanket up round his shoulderquot Apollo nds out quotlook kid you who are lying so innocent there in your cradle tell me where are the cowsquot EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Hermes denies everything Apollo brings him to Mt Olympus Hermes continues with his lies quot0 Zeus I am an innocent child was born only yesterday morningquot In the end he confesses Regretful of what he had done Hermes then offers Apollo his yre as a present a musical instrument he had created all by himself out of the shell of a tortoise Apollo and Hermes become friends It 399 391 l Ii quotI n l i ii 1 3 Hermes wearing a hat and with the cattle and winket sandals EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Hermes wearing his hatholding the cadeusus and lireusually apollos symbol hermes is the one who made it EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Hermes giving Apollo the Lire Pan the Goatherd39s God EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Pan not one of the Olympians Son of Hermes He is a divinity of sorts looks funny has goat legs and hooves and horns He39s partially human and partially animal half human and half goat that protects shepherds and goats Hoding an instrument that is made with reeds EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE ls a very greedy and sexual aroused God Party human hoofs and legs of a goat pointed ears Son of Hermes Lustfu He lusted after and she to avoid him was changed into a reed Pan trying to nd her slashed down the reeds and made himself an instrument Syrinx by joining together reeds of unequal length 1 7 in I L a r x 39 if V s u 1 339 4 a r courtesy of militiaran eterpaulrulzi Pan loves Syrinxa musical instrumenta girlstarts chasing her she nds herself within a bed of reeds and hides herself there he is looking for her he slashes down the reeds making the instrument syrinxshe herself turns into a reed Pan lived in the mountains of Arcadia At noontime he slept if a shepherd woke him he shouted loudly causing panic He fell in love with Echo an attendant of Hera Hera punished her to only repeat the words of others Lives in mountains takes naps during noontime custom in Greece aso should not wake him up if you do he will shot loudly and cause you to panic panic is what you do when you wake up pan EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE After syrinx he feel in love with Echo she is a girl who pan loves she good friend of Hera attendant of Herapretending to be a good Friend trying to shut Hera up when Zeus was having his affairs Hera found out is covering for Zeus punished her to not speak her words but only to say the words of others
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