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Archeology of the Ancient World: Study Guide 1

by: Rachel Royce

Archeology of the Ancient World: Study Guide 1 65706

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Classical Studies > 65706 > Archeology of the Ancient World Study Guide 1
Rachel Royce
GPA 3.94
CLAS 250- Archeology of the Ancient World
John Wonder

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About this Document

This is the first study guide for CLAR 250: Archeology of the Ancient World. It covers Predynastic Egypt to the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. All of the questions come from the professor's study...
CLAS 250- Archeology of the Ancient World
John Wonder
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Royce on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 65706 at San Francisco State University taught by John Wonder in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see CLAS 250- Archeology of the Ancient World in Classical Studies at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 02/23/15
Spring 2015 CLAR 250 Study Guide 1 1 What is the definition of the Neolithic period Name some ways human society changed during the Neolithic Neolithic New Stone Age Greek Social structures were became more sophisticated gt careers and specialization Harnessed the power of the rivers better 2 The ancient Egyptians called their land quotKemetquot What did the name mean in English Why did they use this name What is the Delta Kemet The black land Used bc the fertile silt deposited from the Nile was black The delta is the triangular shape of the tributaries of the Nile gt looks like an upside down Greek delta A 3 Who was Manetho Understand the system of dynasties kingdoms and intermediate periods What does each of these terms signify Manetheo 2003 BC was a historian who created the chronological framework for the Egyptian dynasties Dynasties a line of hereditary workers aprox 31 dynasties Kingdoms periods when Egypt was really powerful Intermediate periods times between kingdoms when Egypt was not unified not powerful 4 What is the Predynastic period What is meant by the Naqada culture Why is the culture called quotNaquadaquot Did this culture originate in Upper or Lower Egypt Predynastic period 5000 BC was before Egypt was unified Naqada culture is artifacts found of Neolithic Egypt Found in the village of Naqada in Upper Egypt Seen in the buff colored pottery with red markings 5 Know the difference between Upper and Lower Egypt and understand the process of the unification of Egypt What are some symbols associated with Upper and Lower Egypt What is the name of the first capital of Egypt Approximately where was the capital located Upper Egypt south Lower Egypt north gt the Nile flows to the North Symbols of Upper Egypt cobras papyrus red Symbols of Lower Egypt vultures lotus white 3000 BC unification of Upper Lower Egypt Upper Egypt defeated Lower Egypt unifying them Narmer is credited with unification The first capital of Egypt was Memphis located in Lower Egypt Spring 2015 6 Be able to discuss the Palette of Narmer This is a commemorative piece How were palettes normally used Describe what is shown on each side of the Palette of Narmer Why is this document important What is a serekh ls Narmer found on other works of art oPalettes normally used to grind up eye makeup for men women oFirst side left depicts Namer with a mace striking forward gt represents winning a war oHorus falcon stands on papyrus reeds holding a decapitated head gt defeat of Lower Egypt Other side depicts Narmer with the crown of Lower Egypt The bull represents a victorious pharaoh serekh box with hieroglyphics of the ruler s name 7 Understand the conventions established for depicting the pharaoh and the elite in Egyptian art Did artists attempt to render the human figure more realistically for these people over time Why or why not The elite always have profile face frontal body and profile legs The elite were always portrayed formally and stylized they were never rendered more realistically 8 Who were the deities Horus Isis Osiris Seth and Ra Briefly outline the myth of Isis Osiris Horus and Seth How is the pharaoh or king of Egypt associated with this myth How is this story associated with the constant struggle between the forces of order and the Nile vs the forces of chaos and the desert Who is the pharaoh associated during his lifetime Who after death Horus god of order falcon god Isis goddess of fertility and rebirth Osiris god of the underworld afterlife Seth god of chaos Ra the sun god Osiris and Seth are brothers Seth cuts up Osiris into pieces Isis Osiris s wife puts him back together and he becomes the god of the underworld Isis and Osiris s son Horus takes over controlling Seth The pharaoh is associated with Horus during life Osiris after death 9 The first kings of Egypt were not buried at Saqqara but at Abydos Why does this suggest among many reasons that Lower Egypt was conquered by Upper Egypt It suggests that the pharaohs who came from Upper Egypt wanted to assert their power by maintaining a presence in Lower Egypt Spring 2015 10 What is a mastaba Describe a typical mastaba What was a serdab What was in a serdab Why were false doors part of a mastaba Mastaba tomb of the elite A typical mastaba had a stone upper chamber on the surface while the burial chamber was underground gt lead to mummification Serdab a sealed statue chamber containing a statue of the deceased believed to house the soul of the dead in the afterlife There were false doors so that the deceased possessing their statue could watch the funeral processions 11 Be able to identify the Step Pyramid of Djoser Who was Djoser Why is this monument important Who was the architect This is considered the first large monument built of what material How was this monument different from those that went before The pyramid was part of a large complex Explain Where was Djoser buried Where was the serdab in the above complex What was inside the serdab oDjoser was a pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty olts the first large structure to be completely built from stone oArchitect lmhotep high priest of Ra It was built to look like a series of mastabas stacked upon each other Started the trend of pharaohs building grand monuments for their burials The pyramid had a complex with a mortuary temple and courtyard Djoser was buried underneath the pyramid The serdab was to the east containing a statue of Djoser 12 What is a ba What is a ka Egyptian concepts of the soul Ka double of a person around in both life death Ba around only in death usually with wings 13 The statue of Djoser was shown in class Where was the statue found What was the main function of the statue Is the iconography of this statue typical for 39 pharaohs and the elite Briefly describe the statue The statue was found in the serdab east of the Step Pyramid of Djoser The function was to house the spirit of the deceased It is very formally posed dignified typically for the elite It is very flat and stiff gt not meant to be seen Spring 2015 14 What changes took place with regard to pyramids at the beginning of the 4th Dynasty Explain how does the layout of a pyramid complex display an ideological change that now focused on the divine powers of the sun god What is the name of the sun god Pyramids transitioned to the the true pyramid shape gt reflecting the increased importance of the sun god Ra The complexes were built from east to west like the rising of the sun Pharaohs associated themselves to the eternal cycle of the Sun 15 Be able to identify Sneferu s Bent Pyramid How does his pyramid demonstrate an intermediate stage between Djoser s Step Pyramid and those at Giza The sides are smooth but not straight Shows the half way point between the step pyramid shape to the true pyramids of Giza 16 What is the name of the burial ground in which the pyramids of Khufu Khafra and Menkaura stand During which dynasty did these kings live Whose pyramid is largest Whose pyramid still has finished limestone on the top These pyramids are at Giza 4th dynasty pharaohs The largest pyramid is for Khufu Khafra s pyramid still has finished limestone 17 Describe the fourpart layout of the pyramids pyramid funerary temple causeway valley temple Where was the valley temple located Why was the funerary temple important Where was Khufu buried Briefly describe how an ancient tomb robber or a modern visitor enters Khufu39s burial chamber The Sphinx is associated with which pyramid Starting from the east the pyramid complex was the valley temple causeway funerary temple and the pyramid The valley temple was to the east closest to the Nile for easy access The funerary temple was important because it allowed the family to help the soul get to the afterlife Khufu is buried underneath the pyramid in a burial chamber To enter the burial chamber one would have to go through a series of shafts to get to the chamber The sphinx is associated with Khafra Spring 2015 18 Be able to discuss the basic artistic principles of Egyptian sculpture for the elites with respect to the statue of Khafra the two statues of Menkaura shown in class You will not need to identify the pharaohs but to describe the basic way elites where portrayed Egyptian statues of the elite were not very distinguishable except for the engravings of names Men stands with hands by sides one foot forward or hands in lap if sitting Woman touches man gt shows intimacy o All poses were very formal o They were carved in high relief 19 The statues of Rahotep amp Nefert were shown in class Why did paint survive so well on the limestone statues of Rahotep and Nefert Is the iconography of these statues typical for the upper class Explain Who were Rahotep and Nefert The paint survived because it was sealed without oxygen in the burial chamber Shown very formally posed with the apparel of the upper class oRahotep was the son of the pharaoh and a high priest of Ra Nefert was his wife 20 Briefly how did art statues reliefs etc of nonelites differ from those of the pharaoh or elites Nonelites were portraye more realistically than the elite I Always depicted working gt attendants for the afterlife quotk 21 When the Old Kingdom ended the 1st Intermediate Period began Eventually however Egypt was reunited and the Middle Kingdom starts 11th dynasty Why is Montuhotep important with regard to this process Montuhotep was from which important city Montuhotep reunited Egypt He was from Thebes 22 Who was AmunRa Amun the local Theban god combined with Ra the sun god


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