AS Study Guide: Midterm 1
AS Study Guide: Midterm 1 4569
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sheridan Lantz on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 4569 at Washington State University taught by Martin Maquivar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Basic Terminology Animal Anatomy and Physiology Domestic Species and Family Common Name Scientific Family Cattle Bovine Bovidae Horses Equine Equidae Goats Caprine Bovidae Sheep OVine Bovidae Dogs Canine Canidae Cats Feline Felidae Pigs Porcine Suidae Chickens Poultry Phasinanidae Basic Terminology Specues Cattle A Horses A Pigs Sheep Goats Poultry 1 Definititm Bos taurus litmus caballus Sus scrola Ovis attics Capra hires Callus domestic 1395 indicus litmus assinus domesticus Intact male Bull Stallion Boer Ram Buck RoosterCock Casirated mule Steer Gelding Barrow M11151 Capoquot Mature female Cow Mare Sow Ewe Doe Hen Newborn Calf Foal Piglet Lamb Kid Chick Infantile stage Development Heifer Fillywit Gilt Lamb Kid Broiler meat stage Pullet Group ofanimals A Herd A Herd Herddrove A Flock A Mob Flock Anatomy Science branch that study the form and structure of all organisms Physiology Study of integrated functions of the body and the functions of all its parts ANIMAL BODY PARTS Withers 1 I Nostnl lt 1 anket Mutt A r Forearm 4quot 2 Knee F3 Canonishank lt i Sesamord bones h i Pasiem 39 Hoot 4 Soundness Evaluation of Animals Structural soundness Skeletal Muscle Conformation Breeding soundness Reproductive capabilities Assessment of anatomical reproductive structures 0 Ovaries testicles uterus penis etc Semen sample 0 Morphology motility etc Why is it important to assess the soundness of an animal Increase productivity Selection of animals breeders want a uniform herd Prevention of diseases Organization of Animals Cells 9 Tissue 9 Organs 9 Physiological systems 9 Animals 0 Nerve Muscle 0 Blood Lymphoid Epithelial Skin Tissue Connective Transversal Plane Frontal Plane Donal uudal PtlL llll Cranial quotmu ml Antcnut amp 39 O Ventral Medial closest to the line Lateral utcr edge of the body Cardiovascular System Function Transportation Respiratory System Functions Oxygenation of the blood Removing Carbon Dioxide Regulation of pH Temperature control Phonation voice sound control Digestive System Functions Accessory glands Intake of food ingestion Salivary glands Mastication chewing Liver Transportation Pancreas Reduction of nutrients digestion Gallbladder Iii Absorption of nutrients Iii Elimination removal of waste products Accessory glands brake down nutrients lubrication balance PH Bile is from the liver Pancreas produces hormones insulin Urinary System Functions Removal of waste products from the blood Regulate composition of plasma Hormonal functions Absorption of solutes Water balance Acidbase balance Reproductive System Functions Iii Hormonal function Iii Propagation reproduce of the species Role of the GIT GIT Gastro intestinal track Transport of food Digestion preparation of food for absorption Absorption transport of nutrients into the blood stream Elimination of waste products Digestive System Species like cattle deer sheep horses and rabbits that depend entirely on plants for food are classified as herbivores Animals like dogs and cats that depend almost entirely on the flesh of other animals for food are classified as carnivores Still other like swine birds and humans that consume both flesh and plants are classified as omnivores Ruminants are those animals that contain a multichambered digestive system polygastric that allows the animal to gain the majority of their nutritional needs from forages grasses and other roughages highfiber food sources Organs of the digestive tract Head lips teeth tongue salivary glands Esophagus Stomach Small intestine duodenum jejunum ileum Pancreas gallbladder Liver Large intestinececum NFDP PP N Main products from microbial fermentation in the Rumen C02 Volatile Fatty Acid x amp Microbial Protein Rumination Process cud chewing Regurgitation Rechewing Reensalivation Reswallowing Reticulum Function the motor Inside lining Honey Comb like Rumen Function Fermentation Inside lining papillae There are 3 levels bottom of rumen level 3 liquid level 2 FoamMedium size food particles level 1 gas Omasum Function Absorption of water Abomasum Function Chemical breakdown of food Stomachl Abomasuml Proventriculus This is where the majority of chemical breakdown of food material occurs Mixes in digestive enzymes pepsin rennin etc Small Intestine Where most of the consumed feed is absorbed into the bloodstream Contains three sections nit Duodenum nit Jejunum nit lleum Pancreatic secretions bicarbonate enzymes Bile from gallbladder fat absorption The consumed feed is continually squeezed and mixed with secretions as it is moved through the small intestine becoming more solid The majority of the nutrient absorption occurs in the jejunum and the ileum Large Intestine Cecum Begins to prepare undigested feed material for removal from the body Cecum blind pouch that contains microbial population for hind gut fermentation horses amp rabbits Colon Collects the undigested feed that is to be removed from the body water absorption Rectum Anus opening through which the waste is removed Controlled by sphincter muscles that also help protect the opening Animal nutrient needs Nutrients go to Support pregnancy Support maintenance requirements Support production lactation or growth Maintenance functions include Activity body heat and cooling Productive functions include Milk growth feathers hair wool semen eggs fetus Nutrient Classes Water Carbohydrates Fat Protein Minerals Vitamins 9951999 Factors Affecting Nutrient Requirements Stage of production Age and sex Physical condition Body size Climate and specific area deficiencies Breed a Size and growth rate differences b Milking ability differences 9951999 Lifetime production 1 Growing 2 Maintenance 3 GestationLactation Monitoring diet effects Average daily gain weight gainedday Feed efficiency nit Weight of feed eaten weight gain Or nit Weight gainweight of feed eaten Reproductive Biology Physiology Study of integrated functions of the body and the functions of all its parts nit What is reproduction 0 Series of anatomical endocrinological physiological and behavioral changes that occurs in the animal for the propagation and continuation of the species Why is important to study reproduction 0 Clinical applications 0 Food production 0 You name it Factors that affect reproduction efficiency Environment season Nutrition Maturation Reproductive stage Lactation Disease Management tb 39 39 39 39 39 Endocrinology branch of science which studies hormones and endocrine glands Specialized gland gt Hormone gtTarget cell Physiology of reproduction nit What is a hormone o Secretions from glands that have an effect in target cells containing specific receptors to activate or inhibit a specific functions nit What is a gland o Specialized tissue that synthesized and secretes chemical signals released to the bloodstream or outside of the body nit What is a receptor 0 Specific proteins found embedded in the plasma membrane cytoplasma or nuclear membrane of a cell that receives chemical signals Hormonal action ewe nit Autocrine o Hormone released and acts on receptors locates on the same cell nit Paracrine o Hormone released and perform functions on neighboring cells nit Endocrine o Hormone released and circulate through the bloodstream to target cell Exocrine o Hormone released outside of the body and act on other individual pheromones Produced from Hypothalamus Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH Produced from Pituitary Hypophysis Luteinizing Hormone LH amp Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH Produced from Gonads Ovariesl Testicles Estrogen Testosterone and Progesterone Ovary Func ons nit Production of oocytes gametes nit Production of hormones o Progesterone P4 0 Estradiol E2 0 Other hormones nit Follicles o Estradiol nit Corpus Luteum o Progesterone Oviduct Functions Secretory transportation selective barrier nit Made up of several structures 0 Infundibulum o Amulla o Isthmus o Uterotubal junction UIJ Delicate tubeOlike structure extending from the uterus to the ovary Connected with the uterus but not the ovary nit Mesosalpinx supports the oviduct Uterine Horns and Uterus Prominent organ of the female reproductive tract organ of pregnancy Primates posses a uterine body and no uterine horns Muscular organ most variable organ in size and other features in the female reproductive system 1 Support embryonic fetal development 2 Expulsion of newborn at parturition Duplex Bicornuate Two cerv39ces Poorly to moderately developed uterine horns l Marsupials M are U Cow Bicornuate Simplex No uterine horns Highly developed uterine horns K Bitch Queen Sow O D 2 gtlt Rigid portion of female tract Lumen of cervix in ruminants Annular ringsfinger like projection that act to seal the cervical lumen Lumen of cervix in swinerings are called interdigitating prominenses and boar penis becomes locked Func ons Transportation vehicle for sperm mucus Selection of viable sperm Sperm reservoir sperm can be found localized in the crypts Prevents entry of foreign material into the uterus Expansiondilation parturitionenzymatic degradation of connective tissue 91593 Vagi a nit Region between the external vestibule and cervix Two regions cranial vagina and caudal vagina vestibule Func ons Copulatory organsight of semen deposition in many species with excep ons Passageway for fetus at parturition Reproductive Terminology Estrous cycle reproductive cycle of majority of mammals Menstrual cycle primates elephant shrew bat Estrous cycle characterized by estrus heat 0 Period of time when the female is sexually receptive to the male nit Anestrus Absence of sexual receptivity Polyestrous multiple estrous cycles in a period of time Polyesters Multiple cycles Mono 1 or 2 cycles Light Temperature and Food affect estrous cycle What is puberty First behavioral estrus accompanied by development of a Corpus Luteum Is the process of acquiring reproductive competence Definition or onset of puberty in females 1 Age of first estrusmenstrual cycle 2 Age of first ovulation 3 Age at which a female can support pregnancy without deleterious effects iFollicuIar phase 1 l PROESTRUS A Hesraus Lutea39Phase l l l METAESTPUS L W Follicular growth Tertiary follicle FSH Estrogens I DIESTRUS Formation of a CL Corpus haemorraghicum Courpus Luteum Progesterone Ovulation Regression of CL K Prostaglandin my i e gFollIcular phase Proliferative phase Follicular development of the proliferative phase FSH Estrogen LH Endometrial development Ovulation occurs at the end Luteal phase Secretory phase Mature endometrial glands Menstruation occurs at the end of the secretory phase Formation of CL Progesterone Male reproductive anatomy Hypothalamus and hypohysis pituitary Main Structures General Functions Testis Production of spermatozoids Epididymis Synthesis of hormones Scrotum Delivery of semen in the female Vas deferens Accessory Sex Glands Urethra Penis Testicular Thermoregulation reproductive tract Epididymis Func ons 1 Sperm transport 2 Concentration Fluid absorption sertoli and rete testis derived fluid in the caput sperm concentration increases 3 Secretion Various segments of the epididymis contribute materials proteins etc to the fluid 4 Storage Cauda functions are the major storage regions sperm can remain viable in the cauda for up to 60 days 5 Maturation Provide environment for final maturation Sperm are not competent for motility or fertility until they transit through the epididymis sperm are completely formed morphologically but they are not mature Penis plural penes Composed of three parts Base Sha Glans of the penes Major difference between the two types proportion of vascular to fibroelastic ssue Thermoregulation Normal status of the mammalian male 0 Testis is suspended outside the body in the scrotum and maintained at a temp approx 460C cooler than body temperature Lower temperatures are critical for sperm production High temp even for a short time will lead to germ cell death in the testis also increase DNA damage to developing germ cells Reproductive behavior Copulation nit Sustained copulators o Boar dog and camelids nit Short copulators 0 Bull ram buck tom Postcopulation lit Refractivity 0 Period after copulation that male and female will not engage in copulatory behavior Early embryo development Iii Ootide 0 Male and female pronuclei can be observed 0 Large amount of cytoplasm Iii Zygote 0 Single cell embryo o Mitotic divisions cleavage divisions Iii Morula o 8 cell embryo Iii Blastocyst o Embryo hatching Maternal recognition of pregnancy Embryo signaling to the dam Prevention of luteolysis Progesterone must be maintained Placental functions Regulates exchange of nutrients Simple diffusion Gases and water Facilitated diffusion o Glucose and amino acids Active transport 0 Ca Na K pumps Maternal proteins do not cross the placental barrier Immunoglobulins transference in hemochorial and endotheliochorial Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Transcription Ribonucleic acid RNA Translation Protein or amino acid chain DNA Is composed of two strands of sugars nitrogen bases and a phosphate bond Diploid cells 2 copies of each type of chromosome 2N Produced by the fusion of 2 gametes one from the female and one from the male All somatic cells in animals Examples of diploid cells Hepatocytes Neurons Enterocytes Haploid cells contain just 1 copy of the chromosomes 12 of the chromosomes of the species Spermatozoid Oocyte RED BLOOD CELLS No Nuclei NO DNA Genetic Definitions Gene A short segment of a chromosome Genome The complete genetic material of an organism Locus Specific position of a gene within the chromosome Allele One of two or more alternatives forms of a gene occupying corresponding sites loci on homologous chromosomes Homologous chromosomes Chromosomes having the same size and shape occurring in pairs and affecting the same trait Inheritance The transfer of genecontaining chromosomes from parent to offspring Autosomes All chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes Single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs or snips Type of genetic variation SNPs are single nucleotide substitutions of one base for another Example a SNP may replace the nucleotide adenine A with cytosine C or Guanine G or Thymine T in a certain stretch of DNA Locus is a location on a chromosome For example Gene A or gene B or gene C have a locus Loci is plural Homozvoote vs Heterozvoote An animal that has matching alleles at a given point in the chromosome or locus is said to be Homozygous AA One animal with different alleles is said to be Heterozygous Aa Dominant gene action 0 Where the phenotype of the heterozygote is the same as one of the dominant homozygotes o Phenotype ofAA appears the same as Aa ifA is dominant Recessive gene action 0 The member of a gene pair that is only expressed when the dominant allele is absent from the animal s genome Partial dominance or codominance o The expression of the heterozygote is exactly halfway between the phenotype of the homozygotes Additive gene action 0 Occurs when the total phenotypic effect is the sum of the individual effects of the alleles Mitosis o The process of somatic cell division Meiosis 0 Cell division that occurs in gametes Spermatozoid Oocyte Gametogenesis 0 Development of the sex cells Reduction of the number of chromosomes by half of the total number of the species Phenotype Genotype Environment Selection is the process that determines which individuals become parents Natural Selection 0 Based on the ability of the animal more suited more natural opportunity to be parent Artificial Selection o Is controlled by humans animal scientist veterinarians zoologist etc Management decisions allow certain animals more opportunity to mate and produce offspring Mating systems Purebred breeding inbreeding o Inbreeding is the mating of closely related individuals 0 Increase homozygocity for desired traits o Decrease genetic variation 0 Detrimental recessive genes expression increases Outbreeding 0 Process of mating less closely related individuals unrelated individuals from the same breed or different breed 0 Increase heterozygocity o Heterosis Superior animals compare to the average performance of the parents Crossbreeding o Mating animals from different breeds Genetic traits and mating Qualitative traits o Phenotypes can be classified into groups rather than numerical measures Quantitative traits o Phenotype that are numerically measured and usually controlled by many genes Positive assortative mating o Mating like animals Negative assortative mating o Mating unlike animals How are meat attributes affected by o Genetics Management Diet Animal health products animal handling postharvest treatments such as Electrical Stimulation Chilling rate Aging Enhancement What is the most prevalent fatty acid in Beef Pork and Lamb Oleic lnsbection vs GradinCl Inspection of each animal is mandatory for products from that animal to be sold 0 Grading is voluntary Antemortem postmortem and product inspection is performed by a USDA inspector Food Safety and Inspection Service FSlS 0 Grading of carcasses is performed by a meat grader USDAAg Marketing Service Inspection ensures that animals are humanely slaughtered and that products are safe and wholesome 0 Grading estimates the yield or quality of product from carcasses HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Preventive system for assuring safe production of foods Purpose is to prevent eliminate or reduce to and acceptable level biological physical and chemical hazards associated with foods Required of all red meat and poultry companies Dressing Percent Hot Carcass Weight x 100 Live Weight Carcass Grading Purpose to segregate a variable population of carcasses into groups that is more uniform in composition or eating quality Yield Grades estimate yield of closely trimmed boneless retail cuts from the major wholesale primal cuts Quality Grades predict palatability tenderness juiciness and flavor of the product Yield Grade Factors Hot carcass weight Ribeye area Fat thickness KPH Maturity Approximate ages corresponding to each maturity classification are 0 A 930 months 0 B 3042 months 0 C 4272 months 0 D 7296 months 0 E more than 96 months Color amp Bone is the most important part Muscles is mainly developed during the fetal stage Stem cells first differentiate into myogenic cell such as satellite cells nit Myogenic cells then fuse to form muscle fibers Skeletal muscle develooment First 3 months Formation new muscle fibers 3 to 7 months of pregnancy Formation of new muscle fibers Growth of muscle fibers 7 months and after Growth of muscle fibers Increase of muscle fiber formation during the fetal stage will increase later lean growth Double muscling cattle are extremely muscular The reason leading to muscularity is a mutation in myostatin gene Myostatin is a factor which negatively controls the proliferation of muscle cells forming less muscle fibers When it is mutated Double muscling cattle has very low intramuscular fat marbling impaired beef avor Muscle growth vs meat quality 0 Halothane gene in pigs 0 Very high lean content Stress amp Nerve action potential Calcium release hypersensitive in stress positive pigs Violent muscle contraction Muscle growth Oxygen insufficient Lactic acid amp Heat The color difference is mainly due to selection for lean growth and age difference 0 Three different muscle fibers 0 Red muscle fibers contract slower resisting to fatigue but lower growth efficiency 0 White muscle fibers contract faster easy to fatigue but higher growth efficiency 0 Intermediate muscle fibers 0 High ratio of white muscle fibers makes the color of meat pale The growth efficiency of white fibers is much higher than red muscle fibers 0 Selection for lean growth leads to increase in white muscle fibers
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