Exam 2 Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Brandenburg on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 4362 at Ohio University taught by Hoyt in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 239 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology of Justice in Psychlogy at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Chapter 2 Interrogation and Confessions x The Police 0 Entry into law enforcement I Tend to have family in law enforcement I A degree amp particular law enforcement I State Police go to state academy I FBI goes to the FBI academy 0 Must have a degree 0 Certain number of years of work experience 0 Apply before you re 35 o Psychological assessment of recruits 0 Take a lie detector test 0 Test for stress situations 0 Take the MMPI o Psychological Interview 0 Psychological issues on the job I Pressure and stress I Cynicism and desensitization same people same places same issues over and over again I PTSD and risk of suicide 0 Having to use a gun or being shot yourself 0 Hesitant to talk and have access to numerous weapons I Frequent encounters on the job 0 Domestic violence usually have backup 0 Mentallyill specialtraining x Police Procedure 0 Exclusionary Rule Mapp v Ohio 1961 I The 4th Amendment search and seizure I Police had information that a man had bomb making material and the police never found the material but they did find iHegalporn o The police used a fake warrant and obtained the porn illegally because the mom also said the officers could not enter the residence o If the mom had said the officers could enter the residence then the porn would have been obtained legally 0 Right to Remain Silent Miranda v Arizona 1966 I Sexual assault Miranda was put in a police car where he was questioned and responded in a way that made it seem like he committed the crime I Police must warn those arrested I Comprehension of Miranda Warning 0 Many people don t really understand the warning 0 It s written at a 10th grade reading level I Davis vs US quotmaybe I should get a lawyer o This statement was ignored because it was not specific enough 0 Right to Counsel Gideon v Wainwright 1963 I Gideon was on trial for stealing but he could not afford a lawyer so he asked the state to provide one o The state didn t so Gideon defended himself was convicted and then filed for an appeal with a real lawyer I Betts v Brady 1942 right to counsel only under certain circumstances 0 The Supreme Court decided a person should have an attorney I Attorney will be provided in felony cases I Applies to only trial and one appeal I There are specific guidelines as to whether or not you can have an attorney assigned to you x Training in Police Interrogation Techniques 0 nbau Reid Buckley amp Jayne 2011 I Criminal Interrogations and Confession o The Reid Technique I The Interrogation Room 0 Physical Space table chairs walls personal space 0 Don t make the suspect feel comfortable they need to feel alone 0 Psychological Space isolation sensory deprivation loss of control I The Procedure 0 Confront suspect with crime keep attention throughout interrogation so they can t think of any excuses or psychologically rest 0 Interrupt suspect frequently in early stages overcome all objections 0 Develop quotthemesquot and alternative explanations for crime use sympathy to gain trust 0 Recount details of crime ultimate goal 0 Obtain full written confession x Confession Tactics and Admissibility o Maximization scare tactics I Overstate seriousness of offense and magnitude of charges some guidelines I Make false or exaggerated claims of evidence 0 Minimization minimize crime I Sympathy tolerance facesaving strategies I Blame the victim or accomplice 0 Jackson v Denno Confessions must be voluntary I Pretrial hearings on confession voluntariness required I Torture punishment physical harm or threats of these things are not permitted I Promises of leniency and gray areas of the law not allowed to make bargainsplea deals x False Confessions 0 Types of False Confessions I Coerced vs Voluntary pressured or freely made I Instrumental vs Authentic done as a means to a goal or done as a belief o Instrumentalcoerced simply to end the interrogation suspect knows they didn t do it o Instrumentalvoluntary to protect others gain notoriety suspect knows they didn t do it o Authenticcoerced temporarily led to believe they did it often through long interrogation o Authenticvoluntary suspect believes and confesses willingly mental illness x Factors in Known False Confession Cases 0 Length of interrogation 0 Sleep deprivation andor lack of food I Cigarettes are a big motivator 0 Suspect is vulnerable I Low IQ I Shock relative involved in the crime I Age juveniles 0 Central parkjogger 0 Presentation of false evidence 0 Interrogator provides details of crime x Research on false confessions o Kassin amp Kiechel 1996 I 69 signed confession 28 internalized it thought they did the crime 9 gave details 0 Russano Meissner Narchet and Kassin 2005 o Lassiter amp Irvine 1986 Lassiter amp Geers 2004 I Videotaped confessions 0 Can camera perspective bias jurors impression of suspect Chapter 7 Eyewitness Identification and Testimony x Factors affecting eyewitness memory and perception 0 Memory I Encoding storage retrieval 0 Encoding ability to process things have to pay attention to what s going on around you 0 Storage how will you store the memory and for how long 0 Retrieval if you have the memory will you be able to retrieve it o How important is eyewitness testimony I When an eyewitness is present the chance of conviction is extremely high 0 Even when the eyewitness seems faulty compromised by something conviction rate is still high I Loftus 1979 0 Factors during the crime that impact encoding I Stress amp emotional arousal 0 Fight or Flight response 0 Best memory when your arousal level is moderate Yerkes Dodson I Viewing conditions 0 Dark room 0 Limited lighting I Time estimates and exposure 0 How long you see the criminal o How long the crime takes place 0 Generally overestimated o More stressful more overestimated I Weapon focus Loftus Loftus amp Messo 1987 o More likely to look at the weapon rather than the perpetrator x Factors affecting identification The lineup 0 Type of Identification I nperson line up 0 1 suspect 56 others individuals I Walkthrough or showup 0 Go somewhere other than the police station and see if the witness can point out or recognize the suspect I Photo array o Simultaneous vs sequential presentation 0 Sequential is better o In a simultaneous presentation the witness will tend to compare well this looks most like the criminal 0 Selection of foils I Recruit people of the street or use people within the police department 0 Target present vs target absent lineups I Using a target absent lineup is a good way to test the credibility of the witness o This will never be used by police because of the possibility of discrediting their eyewitness o Administrator s expectations I They can overtly or unconsciously lead the witness to an individual 0 Experimenter bias and doubleblind procedures x Department of Justice guidelines for administering lineups 0 Ask openended questions I Eye witness should be able to give detailed answers 0 Instruct that suspect maymay not be present I Don t want to eyewitness to feel pressured to pick someone o All foils should be similar I Generally resemble the suspect 0 Record witness confidence at time of lineup I Confidence becomes stronger by the time the trial begins x Other factors affecting the identification 0 Crossrace identifications I Harder to make distinctions of those who don t share your race 0 We tend to hang out with those of the same race as us so we have limited exposure to other races 0 Most crimes occur within the same race 0 Posteventinformation I Come from police questioning the news pretrial publicity statements from another witness o Photobiased identifications I 1st lineup can affect the 2nd lineup I Person is identified in the 1st lineup and placed in a 52nd line up where they are the only repeat person 0 Unconscious Transference quotthe mistaken recollection of a person seen in one situation as the person seen in a different situation 0 Confidence and certainty of eyewitnesses I Confidence does NOT equal accuracy x Suggestibility 0 Degree to which encoding storage retrieval and reporting of events can be influenced by a range of internal and external factors Ceci amp Bruck 1995 o Suggestive Questioning I Questioning witnesses in ways that actually suggest a response put too much detail into the question 0 What was the perpetrator wearing not suggestive o What was the color of the mask the perpetrator wore suggestive o Wasn t the perpetrator wearing a mask suggestive x Children as Eyewitnesses 0 Memory ability in children I Testified as young as 3 o Questioning the child witness I Openended v closeended questions 0 Open difficult for children to answer because they don t know what to say 0 Closed the questioner is giving details but children can answer better I Suggestibility in children 0 Pressure and rewards during questioning 0 quotoh I thought you were going to be helpful 0 quotYou re the best witness we ve had what else do you know 0 Cowitness statements 0 Confirming the questioner s belief 0 Want to make people happy 0 Adults as authority figures 0 Juror perceptions of child witnesses I Differs depending on the type of witness o In a robbery an adult is seen as more reliable o In a sexual assult case the child is seen as more reliable 0 Child witnesses of sexual abuse daycare sex abuse cases of the 805 and Ceci amp Bruck s research x Judicial Instructions to the Jury o US Supreme Court Neil v Biggers 1972 I Quality of view 0 Was the witness hiding behind something or did they have a clear view of the perpetrator I Attention paid to culprit 0 Duration of the exposure to the culprit I Description match to defendant I Time between crime and attempting an identification I Certainty of eyewitness
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