Nutrition 101 Exam 2 Focus Areas
Nutrition 101 Exam 2 Focus Areas Nutrition 101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 241 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 Exam 2 Focus Areas Chapters 18 primarily 48 All focus areas listed for exam 1 Structure and Characteristics of Lipids Proteins and Carbohydrates Carbohydrates consists of monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides Monosaccharides simple sugars and simple carbohydrates fructose glucose galactose 39 39 39 ClCll Disaccharldes pairs of l l t l i i H 0 H C l 0 l l monosaccharides simple HO carbohydrates maltose Ol l 0 1 sucrose lactose OH OH on Polysaccharides large chains l l 39i II I 39lii of monosaccharides complex carbohydrates glycogen starch fiber Lipids have carbon hydrogen and oxygen like carbohydrates have more calories because of they have more carbons and hydrogens characterized by their insolubility to water Proteins made up of amino acids which contain nitrogen carbon hydrogen and oxygen All amino acids have same basic structure Central carbon atom H Hydrogen atom H N Acid group COOH Amino group NHZ Side group varies with each amino acid R Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 Functions of the Macronutrients Carbohydrates Glucose is the primary source energy source for cells We also need carbohydrates to produce and store glycogen Muscles hold onto most of their glycogen to use during exercise Body can only store a small amount of glycogen Lipids lipids are a part of every cell membrane Energy storage of triglycerides in fat tissue is unlimited Insulation of body temperature Protection of vital organs Foods Give foods flavor and smell Transport fatsoluble vitamins Provide kcalories Proteins used for structure enzymes hormones regulators transporters antibodies and energy Structural building blocks for the skin muscles and blood and major structural component of all cells Enzymes digestive enzymes catabolic and anabolic Hormones messenger molecules that elicit response to restore normal conditions insulin and glucagon Regulators of fluid balance Acidbase regulators proteins have negative charges on their surface attract hydrogen atoms with a positive charge and proteins act as buffers Transporters carry nutrients and molecules into the body s fluids lipoproteins Antibodies defends the body against disease Source of energy and Glucose proteins are sacrificed during starvations or times of insufficient carbohydrate intake Breakdown of proteins amino acids energy gluconeogenesis Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 Digestion and absorption process of each macronutrient Carbohydrates Mouth salivary enzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch into smaller molecules shorter polysaccharides or maltose Stomach no new enzymes are introduced but amylase is broken down by stomach acid and protein digesting enzymes fibers may produce the feeling of satiety quotfullquot Small Intestine pancreatic amylase continues to break down polysaccharides and final digestion takes place on outer membranes of intestinal cells mostly glucose molecules remain Absorption primarily takes place here Active transport glucose and galactose Facilitated diffusion fructose Large Intestine fibers remain and attract water and bacteria in the GI tract ferment some fibers mainly soluble Fructose and galactose is metabolized by the liver Glucose sent to body s cells for energy Lipids The challenge is to keep the lipids mixed vs separation lipids are hydrophobic and digestive enzymes are hydrophilic Mouth some hard fats melt Stomach muscles contract to propel contents towards the small intestine while lipid particles are broken down by gastric lipase Small Intestine when fat enters cholecystokinin is released which signals the release of bile from the gallbladder Bile acts as an emulsifier so the enzymes can act on the fat Most fat digestion occurs here 0 Glycerol and shortmedium fatty acids are absorbed directly into the bloodstream o Monoglycerides and long chain fatty acids form micelles which are transported by proteins called chylomicrons Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 o Lipid transportation is made possible by lipoproteins chylomicrons verylowdensity lipoproteins lowdensity lipoproteins and highdensity lipoproteins Proteins Mouth proteins are crushed and moistened Stomach partial breakdown of protein through hydrolysis hydrochloric acid uncoils proteins Small Intestine polypeptides enter the SI where pancreatic and intestinal proteases hydrolyze them into smaller peptide chains and single amino acids 0 Peptidases on the intestinal wall split most dipeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids 0 Specific carries transport amino acids into intestinal cells Amino acids are not used by the intestinal cells they are transported across the cell membrane then sent to the liver Once they arrive they may be used for energy or to synthesize needed compounds Enzymes and Hormones associated with each macronutrient Carbohydrates Enzymes amylase Lactaid Lipids Enzymes Cholecystokinin Hormones pancreatic lipases and intestinal lipases Proteins Enzymes Catabolic amp Anabolic Hormones insulin amp glucagon Macronutrients and how they affect health Carbohydrates Sugar intake is excessive in the US recommended 30 tablespoons or 120 grams per day 0 Major sources sugar sweetened beverages desserts and candy Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 0 Americans who drink sugarsweetened beverages have a higher energy intake weigh more 0 Sugars displace more nutrient dense foods making it harder to meet vitamin and mineral recommendations 2010 Dietary Guidelines Caution that added sugars may increase risk of chronic disease Reduce intake of kcal from added sugars Discretionary kcal 100300 kcal per day 000 Practice good oral hygiene and consume less added sugars to prevent dental caries 0 Sugar should make up no more of 25 of daily kcal Lipids Cardiovascular disease 0 LDL cholesterol accumulates in arteries until blood flow is slowed or stopped 0 Saturated and trans fat appear to be associated with rise of LDL 0 Recommended lowering saturated fat and trans fat by decreasing animal fats high fat meat chose leaner cooking methods low fat milk 0 Recommended increasing unsaturated fat by increasing olive oil nuts avocados and salmon Cancer may promote cancer growth evidence not strong recommended to reduce red meat Obesity consuming more fat more calories Proteins Protein energy malnutrition slowed growth impaired brain and kidney functions poor immunity Heart disease protein in excess especially animal proteins that are high in saturated fat Cancer risk high intake of red meat high in saturated fat Osteoporosis protein intake high calcium excretion increases Weight management high protein diets are not good weight management options important to provide adequate protein for healthy satiety Kidney disease may accelerate kidney disease but does not cause it Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 Recommendations for each macronutrient Carbohydrates Recommended Starch and Fiber Intake 0 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AM DR 0 4565 kcal from CHO gt Fiber 0 25 grams or more for women 0 35 grams or more for men 0 Actual intake averages at 1112 grams per day Real Life Recommendations At least half of grains should be whole grains 3 grams or more of fiber on label Eat more fruit and vegetables Consume lowfat milk products Consume more legume rich meals Reduce intake of added sugars OOOO Lipids Dietary Guidelines 2010 o AMDR for fat 2035 kcal from fat 0 Less than 10 of energy from saturated fats 0 Little to no trans fat 0 300 mg or less of dietary cholesterol Adequate Intake AI 0 510 of kcal from linoleic acid 0 0612 of kcal from linoleninc acid Proteins Protein quality 0 Animal protein high 9099 0 Plant protein lower 7090 0 Soy and Legumes moderate about 90 gt Eat high quality proteins gt Contains all essential amino acids animal and soy proteins gt Complementary proteins rice and beans Recommended Protein Intake 0 AMDR for proteins is 1035 50175 grams Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 o RDA 08 gramskilogram of body weight for adults Real Life Recommendations 0 One ounce of protein 7 grams of protein 0 Recommended serving of animal protein is 34 ounces Types of protein to eat each week 0 Seafood 20 0 Meat poultry and eggs 70 0 Nuts seeds and legumes 10 Milk products are a good source of protein 8 grams per serving Fruits vegetables and grains provide little protein 03 grams Choose lean sources of proteins trim fats from meat remove skin before eating Consume protein from food versus supplements exception competitive athletes Ullllllll Consume enough protein but not enough Process of carbohydrate protein and fat metabolism in the body Carbohydrates Glucose 6 carbons 2 Pyruvate 3 carbons Lactate gt LIVCF Glucose Acetyl ICoA 2 carbons TCA Cylcle ET39C ATP Water Lipids Glycerol 3 carbons Pyruvate RachelCounce Acetyl CoA gt Fatty ACIds 18 carbon TCA ETC I ATP no Proteins Amino 3090 ACIdS SODo Pyruvatc Acetyl CoA TCA I ETC l ATP Water Process that the body takes to provide fuel during fasting Short term fasting 1 day 0 Breakdown of glycogen Fasting for 25 days 0 Breakdown of lean tissues 0 Amino acids and glycerol converted to pyruvate and then to glucose Long term fasting week or longer 0 Breakdown of fat or fuel 0 Acetyl CoA builds up and converted to ketones Alcohol recommendations and metabolism Women get drunk faster than men Why 0 Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme 0 Women produce less of this enzyme they absorb more alcohol Drinking on an empty stomach can affect absorption rate Nutrition 101 Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 Why 0 Alcohol is absorbed more quickly on an empty stomach o Fasting causes the body to breakdown proteins 0 Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme is a protein Only consume 1 drink per hour Why 0 The liver can only metabolize one drink per hour 0 The alcohol will continue to circulate until the alcohol enzymes are ready to process it Alcohol causes dehydration Why 0 Alcohol depresses production of antidiuretic hormone the hormone that helps your body retain water Alcohol needs virtually no digestion Alcohol can reach the brain within a few minutes Components of energy expenditure and factors that affect it Total Energy Expenditure o Basal Metabolism BM R energy burned for life sustaining activities Physical activity more variable Thermic effect of food Factors that affect basal metabolic rate metabolism Age as age increases BMR decreases Height as height increases BMR increases Rate of growth infants and adolescents Gender males have a higher metabolism Body composition more muscle mass the higher the BMR Fever or stress BMR increases Environmental temperatures higher temps increased BMR Fasting or starvation BMR decreases Rachel Counce Nutrition 101 Hormones affects metabolism Smoking increases metabolism Caffeine increases metabolism for a short amount of time Sleep Know the equationsformulas that estimate energy expenditure name not how to use them Resting energy expenditure male 10 x weight kg 626 x height cm 5 x age years 5 Resting energy expenditure female 10 x weight kg 626 x height cm 5 x age years 161 Conversion factors lbs22 kilogram weight Inches x 264 height in centimeters Body mass index and body fat recommendations BMI a measure of a person s weight relative to a person s height not the same as body composition BMI weight kg height m 2 Conversion divide by 22 for weight in kilogram divide by 3937 for height in meters BMI under 185 is consider underweight BMI of 18525 is considered a healthy weight BMI of 2530 is considered overweight BMI over 30 is considered obese More than 23 of Americans have a BMI greater than 25 Waist circumference recommendations Women over 35 inches greater risk for chronic disease Men over 40 inches greater risk for chronic disease RachelCounce Implications of body shape Underweight O O O O Osteoporosis Bone fractures Menstrual irregularities Infertility Overweight OOOOOOO Diabetes Hypertension Sleep apnea Osteoarthritis CVD Cancer Pregnancy complications Infertility Nutrition 101
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