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Quiz 3 Study Guide

by: Irene A.

Quiz 3 Study Guide 4616 - HORT 102

Irene A.
GPA 3.5
Intro to Cultivated Plants
Michael Pumphrey

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About this Document

Lessons 6, 7, and 8: Flower and fruit structure and function, genetics and sexual/asexual reproduction, plant breeding, and plant biotechnology.
Intro to Cultivated Plants
Michael Pumphrey
Study Guide
horticulture, plants, Genetics, Biology, reproduction, breeding
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Irene A. on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 4616 - HORT 102 at Washington State University taught by Michael Pumphrey in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultivated Plants in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.

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Date Created: 02/23/15
HORT 102 OUIZ 3 STUDY GUIDE Lesson 6 Objectives 1 Describe the structural parts the stamen is composed of O Anther structure that dispenses pollen O Filament structure that supports the anther 2 Describe the structural parts the pistil is composed of Stigma structure that receives pollen Style structure that connects stigma to ovary Ovary contains female reproductive cells Carpels sections of the pistil 0000 3 Identify the parts of a complete ower and their purpose and describe how these differ in an incomplete ower 0 Parts of a complete ower I sepals protect ower bud I petals attract pollinators I pistils female reproductive structure I stamens male reproductive structure 0 Incomplete ower one or more of the four above parts is missing 4 Explain the differences between perfect and imperfect owers 0 Perfect contain male amp female reproductive parts stamens amp pistil O Imperfect only has one reproductive part 5 Describe the differences between monocot and dicot owers 0 Monocot sepals petals amp stamens develop in groups of 3 or 6 O Dicot Sepals petals amp stamens develop in groups of 4 or 5 6 Recognize how grass owers differ from other owers 0 Grass ower type of monocot structures I Bracts are the equivalent of the calyx and corolla that are found in dicots I Spikelet is an individual grass ower called the in orescence I Glumes are two leaflike bracts at the base of each spikelet I Florets contain the stamens amp pistil together with other bracts located above the glumes 7 Explain monoecious and dioecious plants 0 Monoecious meaning quotone housequot pistillate amp staminate owers reside on the same plant I example corn ears are pistillate tassel is staminate owers are imperfect O Dioecious meaning quottwo housesquot has only staminate or pistillate owers on a plant I male amp female owers are imperfect and found on separate plants I must outcross introduce unrelated genetic material to produce seed 8 Define a fruit botanically speaking O develops from ovary of a ower 0 fruit is a mature ovary with its associated parts 0 function protects amp disperses seeds 9 Explain the differences among simple aggregate and multiple fruits Provide an example of each 0 Simple single ovary from single ower I example strawberry 0 Aggregate develop from many ovaries on a single ower I example grapes 0 Multiple develop from individual owers on a cluster in orescence amp fuse together as fruit grows I example pineapple 10 Explain the differences among eshv dehiscent and indehiscent fruits Provide an example of each 0 Fleshy fruits with thick esh surrounding the seeds I examples bananas berries peaches O Dehiscent fruits split open at maturity to expose seeds I examples beans peas milkweed pods 0 Indehiscent Fruits do not split open when mature I examples nuts grains 11 Define asexual propagation and its advantages over sexual propagation O Asexual Reproduction that does not involve the union of male amp female gametes accomplished through mitosis cell division I Advantages Maintain genetic purity maintain disease free plants viruses transmitted through embryos are not passed on more economically viable for plants that produce few seeds or take a long time to make seeds 12 Describe commercial methods of asexual propagation O Cuttings removing a piece of vegetative tissue that will regenerate into a new plant 0 Grafting joining plant parts together so they fuse amp continue to grow as one 13 Explain the stages of mitosis Interphase chromosomes are uncoiled chromosomes are duplicated Prophase Chromatin condenses into chromosomes amp sister chromatids are visible Prometaphase nuclear envelope breaks down mitotic spindle forms Metaphase Chromosomes align amp spindle fibers attach to centromeres Anaphase Centromeres divide sister chromatids separate amp move to opposite OOOOO poles O Telophase chromosomes sit at opposite ends of the cell cytoplasm divides amp membrane comes apart in the middle Lesson 7 Objectives 1 List the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction 0 Sexual Reproduction Advantages 39increases genetic diversity 0 Asexual Reproduction Advantages 39maintains genetic purity less reliance on finding a partner more reliable 2 Define and describe mitosis and meiosis with regard to where and when each tvDe of cellular reproduction occurs what tvpes of tissues are involved and what the resulting products from each event consist of geneticallv 0 Mitosis 39where nucleus 39when growthbuilding new cellstissues 39tissues vegetative 39result 2 diploid cells 0 Meiosis 39where nucleus 39when sexual reproduction 39tissues sex cells 39result 4 haploid cells 3 Describe the processes of megaspor0genesis and microspor0genesis 0 Megasporogenesis female sex cell formation I 4 haploid megaspores produced via meiosis gt one megaspore continues to develop gt mitotic divisions produce 8 nuclei 1 egg 2 polar nuclei 5 other nuclei gt 2 nuclei are synergious 3 become antipodal cells gt end result megagametophyte 0 Microsporogenesis male sex cell formation I mother cell divides via meiosis gt produces 4 haploid microspores gt each microspore continues developing gt microspores divide gt structural change results in pollen grains gt pollen released by anthers 4 Define the term sexual fertilization then list the steps involved in the process 0 Sexual Fertilization union of male amp female gametes I pollen grain lands on stigma gt produces pollen tube gt tube grows down to ovary gt pollen grain nuclei are deposited into female gametophyte gt 1 nucleus divides amp produces sperm nuclei gt 1 nucleus becomes tube cell gt sperm nucleus fuses w egg to create seed embryo gt other sperm nucleus fuses w pollen nuclei to create endosperm 5 Define triple fusion 0 Triple Fusion formation of endosperm energy source for embryo to grow 6 Define double fertilization 0 Double Fertilization sexual fertilization triple fusion 7 Describe the role of segregation and recombination in sexual reproduction O Segregation separation of allelic pairs traits amp distribution of single alleles via meiosis O Recombination formation of new combinations of alleles traits as a result of fertilization amp combined gametes carrying different alleles I segregation recombination new genetic combinations 8 Describe the factors that in uence the phenotVDe of a plant 0 phenotype physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism based on genotype interacting with environment I phenotype genotype environment 9 List the 4 primary objectives of plant breeding increase yield under optimal conditions improve performance stability adaptation to harvesting improved product quality 0000 10 Describe the three traditional breeding methods 0 Introduction bring in new genetic variationdiversity by collecting plants from different parts of the world example crops brought from Europe to US 0 General Selection increasing desirable individual in population removing undesirable individuals harvesting only the best plants amp planting their seeds 0 Hybridization mating genetically different individuals to obtain new genetic combinations 11 Explain the purpose of hybridization 0 creates genetic variability among offspring via controlled crosses I quot generate variability among offspring from which individuals with new gene combinations can be identifiedquot 12 Define the term selection 0 Selection identifying superior individuals among groups of plants to advance in the next generation 13 Describe the differences between self and crosspollinated plants based on breeding habit and requirements for crosshvbridization 0 Self Pollinated pollen amp egg come from same ower 0 Cross Pollinated pollen amp egg are from separate plants 14 Define what a hvbrid is then explain the advantage and disadvantage of using hvbrid seeds in commercial production 0 Hybrid offspring of two genetically distinct individuals 0 advantage high yield consistent uniform field 0 disadvantage seeds from those plants will be segregated not nearly as productive Lesson 8 Objectives 1 Define the term genetic engineering 0 Genetic Engineering genetic modification incorporating genes from bacteria weeds amp animals into plants removing sexual incompatibility barriers asexual gene manipulation 2 Describe the maior GMO crops currenth in production 0 corn soybeans alfalfa cotton 3 List the potential benefits of genetic engineering 0 herbicide resistance insect resistance disease resistance pharmaceuticals increased nutrient content 4 Discuss the concerns of genetic engineering 0 Issues With accepting GMOs as a safe food source 0 escape of cloned genes into the enVironment ex superweeds resistant to pesticides 0 second hand transgene escape allergic responses to GM food 0 Ethics right to know What you39re eating religious beliefs quotplaying godquot fear of O Violating ciVil rights genetic prescreening selective abortion


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