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UNT / History / HIST 3100 / What are the judicial standards of review in civil rights cases?

What are the judicial standards of review in civil rights cases?

What are the judicial standards of review in civil rights cases?


School: University of North Texas
Department: History
Course: Topics in American Government
Professor: Wendy watson
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: history and political science
Cost: 25
Name: Civil Rights Unit 3 notes PSCI 1040
Description: These cover the concepts and definitions for civil rights in class! Look through it! Civil rights will be on the exam! :)
Uploaded: 04/22/2016
3 Pages 127 Views 11 Unlocks

Alexis Heidenreich (Rating: )

Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Olivia!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol

Civil Rights 4/21/16 

What is the judicial standards of review in civil rights cases?

Central ideas:  

1. Civil rights requite equal protection of the law of regardless of race, color, religion, gender, age,  disability, or national origin  

2. African Americans and women paved the way for the expansion of civil rights  3. Constitutional amendments, judicial interpretation and congressional legislation have explained civil  rights  

4. Diverse groups have employed similar tactics to obtain civil rights protections  

Long Road to equal protection  

- There were problems in the system including inadequate and mishandled voter registration procedures,  faulty election equipment, inaccessible polling locations and a flawed system for removing convicted  felons and others from voter registration lists  

What is the function of desegregating public transportation, montgomery, alabama?

- Civil rights: Protection of citizens from discrimination by the government or private entities, derived  from the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment  

Civil rights: Equal protection of the LAW regardless of race, color, religion, gender, age, disability,  national origin…  

- The concept of equality was enshrined in the US constitution when the 14th amendment was ratified  - The equal protection clause prohibits UNREASONABLE discrimination  

- Affirmative action: A range of policies aimed at promoting equality of outcome by providing expanded  educational and employment opportunities for members of a previously disadvantaged group  

Why african americans and women paved the way for expansion of civil rights?

Don't forget about the age old question of How does a planet gain an atmosphere?

African Americans and women paved the way for expansion of civil rights  

- Abolitionists: Those committed to bringing an end to those who practice slavery  - Missouri Compromise of 1820: An act of congress whereby Missouri and Maine were added to the  union, one slave and the other free to maintain the balance of political power between slave states and  free states in the US senate.  

- Confederacy: The government established by the 11 southern states that succeeded from the US  during the civil war.  

- In 1808: The slave population numbered 1 million  

- Significance of the Missouri Compromise: Granted freedom to any slave whose master established  residence in a free territory  

- Maine had states that were not freed by the emancipation proclamation  

The Reconstruction Amendment and Jim Crow  

- 13th Amendment banned all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude  

- 14th Amendment granted the full rights of national and state citizenship to “all persons born or  naturalized in the united states” and also guaranteed due process and equal protection under the law  - 15th Amendment extended the right to vote to african americans  If you want to learn more check out What are the genetic factors for alcoholism?

- Reconstruction: The period (1865-1877) after the civil war during which the confederate states were  rebuilt and integrated into the union  If you want to learn more check out In economics, what are the types of product differentiation?

- Radical republicans: Members of the republican party in which supported reconstruction polices and  programs after the civil war  

- Freedmen: Former slaves who were freed during the civil war and enjoyed full citizenship rights,  including voting and running for political office during the reconstruction of the south  - Jim Crow Laws: Between 1877-1960’s that mandated segregation in all public places  - Civil rights act of 1875: Legislation passed by congress to prohibit discrimination in public faculties  and accommodations, it was ruled unconstitutional by the supreme court in the civil rights cases (1883)  - Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): established “separate but equal” doctrine which provided legal justification  for racial segregation in ensuing decades

Civil Rights 4/21/16 

The first feminists: Women fight to vote  

- Suffragists: Activists of the 19th and early 20th centuries who advocate the right to vote for women,  they achieved their primary goal with the ratification of the 19th amendment in 1920  - The american woman suffrage association differed from the National Women suffrage association  because it TARGETED amendments to the state constitutions  Don't forget about the age old question of What species was selam, and how old is her fossil?

- Susan B Anthony drafted the 19th amendment to the constitution  

Amendments, judicial interpretation and congressional legislation have expanded civil rights  - The most influential organization to form during this time was the National Association for the  Advancement of Colored Persons (NAACP) founded in 1909 to combat violence against African  Americans  

Desegregating public education  

- NAACP focused on segregation in graduate and professional education.  

- Advantages of NAACP focus:  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of a volcano?

 1. It targeted a relatively small population, the gang brought about by desegregation of graduate   and professional schools would be felt by a small number of people and thus would be   more acceptable to society  

 2. State universities would find it difficult to offer truly “SEPARATE BUT EQUAL” learning   environments at this level therefore it would prevent them from establishing a parallel   track for african american students  We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between an obsession and a compulsion?

- Protection Clause: Portion of the 14th amendment that requires the states to treat their citizens equally  under the law. Also a basis for the incorporation doctrine which extends bill of rights protection to  protect citizens from state and federal abridgments  

- Sweatt v. Painter (1950): Heman Sweatt sued the university of Texas law school after he was denied  admission because of his race. Trial judge found the university didn't meet “separate but equal”  - Doll Study: Black children preferred white dolls over the black ones because they thought that they  looked bad  

Desegregating public transportation  

- The immediate effect of Rosa Park’s arrest was a yearlong bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama  - Martin Luther King directed his letter from Birmingham to white clergymen  

- The television coverage of Police brutality drew national attention to the issue of racial inequality  

Civil Rights Legislation  

- John F. Kennedy was involved in passing legislation  

- Bloody Sunday: Participants in a civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery were attacked by  police using tear gas and clubs, several marchers were hospitalized. Racism was a big problem  

Government Expands Women’s civil rights  

- President Kennedy tasked the Presidential Commission on the status of Women with investigating the  treatment of women in American Society  

- The Protective legislation was concerned with enacting policies that addressed women biological  differences from men  

Judicial Standards of review in Civil rights cases  

- All citizens regardless of race should have access to equal facilities even id the faculties were  segregated by race  

- Suspect Classification: Group that has been previously discriminated against, these people require the  highest scrutiny in the supreme court  

- In order to satisfy the intermediate standard of review, the government must prove the policy in  question is substantially related to a legitimate government objective

Civil Rights 4/21/16 

Civil Rights Part 2:  

Learning objectives:  

- To protect individuals from unequal treatment based on certain demographic characteristics, violations  of civil rights are often the subject of political protests and are remedied by federal legislation and  judicial decisions  

- Civil rights refer to the government action to ensure equal treatment, while civil liberties refer to the  protection from improper action  

- the protection of civil rights is a process that varies over time  

- Ethical decision making is a vital part of ensuring that individuals and groups’ civil rights are protected  - Civil rights require the government to take action whereas civil liberties do not

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