Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide CL 222
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CL 222 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kirk Summers in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 466 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
MYTH TEST ONE STUDY GUIDE A INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL o What do we mean by universal subconscious archetypes anthropomorphic traditional vs artificial myths 0 Universal subconscious Jung said that there was a universal subconscious inherited by everyone on this planet and that subconscious is the most difficult to reach and understand Archetypes Picture of dove or Phallus swinging from sun a pattern of thinking an inherited predispositions to respond to certain aspect of the world They are imbedded within our psyche from birth 39 Creator is Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung 0 In what sense is this class a humanities class 0 What is the significance in the Greeks anthropomorphic construction of the gods 0 O O Greeks did NOT worship animals unlike the Egyptians or the Hebrews that worshipped the Golden Calf in Exodus when Moses went up to Mt Sinia Worshipped beings that were like humans had emotions could lust warfare etc Says that Man is the crowning achievement of creation that everything is for us to manipulate this is why we look like Gods and they look like us 0 Know the various permutations of skepticism about myth we discussed in the class 0 O Xenophane Writing about 600 BC he raised skepticism by saying that Gods in Greece look like greeks while Asian Gods look like Asian etc M Writing around 400 BC he wrote about the republic ideal state ideal city casting doubt on ancient Greek Gods by saying throw out mythographers of city Hellenisitic Philosophers allegorical interpretation They believed myths were allegories where really intelligent people were trying to pass on some hidden truth Lucretius Epicurean famous for his atomic theory He said myths didn t contain hidden truths but come from stupidity Euhemerus wrote the sacred truth Saw a pillar with names of people who made great contributions to society He said myths are exaggerated stories about real people 0 What did Paul and Barnabas experience at Lystra 0 Paul goes to Lystra and heals a limp man in Asian Minor Crowd calls him Hermes and Barnabas Zeus o How is myth tied to Greek religion What are epithets O Epithet O Mythology Comes from Greek word muthos meaning traditional story and root logy means study of Look at the timeline in your introductory chapter It is meant to give you the broad sweep of ancient history so get the basics in your head 0 In what period do most myths take place I Most take place from 2000 to 1300 BC 0 Who came first Greeks or Romans I Greeks 0 When was Jesus born in relation to the Trojan war I The Trojan was occurred in 1300 BC Jesus was believed to e born in 4 BC so he was born after Trojan war Know the following Acropolis Parthenon Mt Olympus Olympia o Acropolis o Parthenon 0 Mt Olympus 0 Olympia Listen to the Ovid lecture What were the Four Ages and what characterized each one 0 Golden Age self discipline Looks good at first no laws men voluntarily trustworthy and just Men don t Violate the land by removing trees they keep to their own shores and boundaries so no war 0 Silver Age Hardiness I Jupiter ushers out his father Saturn and institutes a new order one that included change The cycles of seasons whose extreme temperatures force man to build shelters till land and institute private property 0 Bronze Age greedy and Belligerent Once boundaries are set up in an unnatural place it s not long before someone transgresses then The rise of belligerence and crime 0 Iron Age Greedy and Belligerent Everyone lives by stealing So you get wood on water bringing up metals from the ground mixing together to make weapons What key events signaled the moral slide of mankind and spelled trouble What was Ovid trying to accomplish by writing his work Metamorphoses B CREATION Who ruled over the three generations of the gods and how did the succession happen 0 First Generation Ouranos 0 Second Generation Titans Kronos 0 Third Generation Olympians Zeus What help did Prometheus give Zeus in the Titanomachy What does the suffix machy mean gony O machy means to struggle or contend to battle or war 0 gony means birth of creation What is the relationship between Aphrodite and the Furies Where was Aphrodite born and how does that relate to her name Aphrodite and Mars Aphrodite and Hephaestus Know what we said about the universe dividing into opposites 0 Greek word chaos means a gaping opening hole gap space a big gaping hole pit yawning related to chasm 0 Two opposites Chaos and Gaia About the importance of metis 0 Developing a evil plan About the connection between fire and knowledge and the problems that it caused O Zeus was able to gain power and keep it by intelligence The Cyclopes help Zeus forge his weapons thunderbolts 0 Man became alienated from the gods following Zeus s taking the fire that Prometheus gave them from the humans Prometheus stole the fire back and returned it to the humans Zeus saw this and punished the humans and tied Prometheus up on the Caucasus Mountains in Scythia leaving him to have his liver gnawed at every day by an eagle Thus man s benefactor was removed alienating mankind from the gods What about the magical aspects of Pandora and her box 0 Pandora and her Box 39 Pandora means all gifts I Her magic is that she is persuasive Additionally she has the power of distraction men s knees buckles when she passes by mean stalk her and she gets her way I Her box is the source of all eVils These eVils are sprites When the box gets opened they all y out but she manages to trap one last sluggish sprite The sprite begs to get out to alleViate the other ills but she doesn t let it go This sprite is hope I The box is the womb 0 Know the conversation between lo and Prometheus How did Io become a cow 0 Zeus turned her into a cow because Hera was about to catch him cheating 0 Who inspired Hesiod to compose the Theogony and why did they talk to him about lying O The 9 Muses Stand between us and the truth and we cannot get at the truth unless they teachtell it to us The truth is too high and lofty for us However they might lie to us 0 Poetry weaves truth and lies together in a complex way and always stands in an ambiguous relationship to the truth Poetry has this relationship because it has a special Glossa a special language a special way of communication 39 The Glossa Canelevate our thinking 0 Know what we said about the floodbaptismrebirth C ZEUS AND HERA What are Zeus attributes and what things does he control 0 Associated with Eagles 0 Sky God 0 What tree is associated with him 0 Oaks 0 What places 0 Zeus was born in a cave in Crete This is also the Tomb of Zeus where their Zeus dies and is reborn out of the cave This cave is what the Cretans show to Visitors 0 How is he worshiped in those various places 0 At Dodona there is a sanctuary sacred to Zeus in the northwest comer of Greece where Zeus was worshipped as an oak tree 0 Olympia This is the location of a temple built to Zeus People would go here to worship Zeus Here was a golden statue of Zeus that is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World 0 Know what we said in class about Zeus and his children about order and disorder 0 The early unions of Zeus show that he is a promoter of orderliness and predictable patterns in the universe He created orderliness and his children are the opposite O Hebe bloom of youth was beautiful and youthful and filled the cups of the gods She doesn t die but she fades away and Zeus loses interest and goes down to Earth to get Ganymede to serve to gods and to engage in sexual intercourse with Zeus m is the God of War he likes bloodshed Eileithyia receives from Hera childbirth chaotic during birth humans look like bloody animals Zeus produced Athena on his own 0 Who are the Moirai Parcae and what does their name mean 0 The Fates Moirai decide before you are born your social status limitations allotment of money and allotment of how much life you get I Clotho Spinner would spin the thread that was your life I Lachesis Measurer would measure the thread out I Atropos Inevitable wielding the scissors would cut where Lachesis had measured out 0 Know the story of the two jars as told by Achilles in the Iliad O The two jars represent blessings and miseries ills 0 Know the philosophical Zeus as related by Cleanthes Zeus has various epithets Know them 0 O O O Nephelegereta cloudgatherer cloudgathering Zeus because clouds appear to roll up to the top of Mt Olympus Ombrios of the rain Keraunos thunderer Xenias God who watched over the relationship between a guest and a host Host provides for guest and doesn t harm guest tells who he is andor gives gift and doesn t harm Trojans fall because Paris steals from his host Horkios God who guaranteesprotects sacred oaths any athletes who cheated had to pay for a xanes statue of Zeus with the person s name date city they re from and how they cheated Hikesias Good of supplication someone asking for a favor guarantees the person being asked for the favor will not do any harm to the person asking the favor 0 Who works with Hera to attend the birth of children 0 Her daughter D POSEIDON HEPHAESTUS ARES HERMES Know the attributes of all these divinities and be able to recognize them in art 0 Know psychopompos kakometis Zephyr Amphitrite O O O O Kakometis is cunning intelligence with some deception mixed in Psvchopompos which Hermes is is the guide to souls pompos guide psych soul That is to say he guides lost souls into the Underworld Escort of the souls of the dead to their final home Zephyr Hera gets pregnant by Zephyrinian eggs Hera heads to the Garden of Flora where she runs into Flora Goddess of anything that owers Flora tells her to touch the fertilizing egg fertilizing springtime and she would become fertile she does touch it and produces Hephaestus I Zephyrian eggs as said by Aristotle are eggs that need Zephyrian winds to bring what men have to fertilize the eggs Am ph rite Whose cattle did Hermes steal O O Stole the cattle of Apollo Forgave him because he gave him a lyre made from turtle shell 0 Who is the god Pan and what does he do 0 What is Hermes main skill his super power so to speak 0 Hermes is the god of shepherd and travelers god of hinges interested in doorways god of trickery and theft master of trade and contract god of speech 0 Guides souls into underworld and messenger God 0 What things does Poseidon control and what does it say about his character 0 Mover of the earth makes earthquakes O God of the deep God of the sea 0 Ennosigaios shaker of the Earth anything that shakes the Earth e g horses hooves 0 Tamer of horses he can tame and is associated with the wild horses 0 Savior of ships 0 Gaienokhos Holder of the Earth 0 What is the difference between Poseidon and Athena 0 Know the story of Apollo and Poseidon building the walls of Troy E ARTEMIS ATHENA 0 Know how the Actaeon story illustrates the character of Artemis 0 One day he and some people go hunting when he gets separated from the group He stumbles into a glade upon Artemis who is naked and taking a bath in a stream with nymphs Artemis gets angry and transforms him into her favorite animal the deer Actaeon s dogs representing male sex drive come along and tear him apart So don t allow your sex drive to tear you apart for violating a woman 0 Know what we mean by rite of passage 0 There Girls who have begun their menstrual cycles go to be trained by Artemis While there the girls sequester grow up and sacrifice their toys This represents putting to rest their carefree unspoiled selves old self dying They also dance with torches while sacrificing toys to Artemis They perform the reenactment with the bear young girl in costume and perform footraces in which the girls compete The strongest healthiest usually wins getting a gold medal When they return men usually want the ones with the medals This competition shows who will be the best wife 0 What epithets fit Artemis What does she delight in 0 Goddess of the Moon 0 Passive 0 Moon represents menstrual cycle 0 What took place at Brauron 0 Rites of Passage 0 With what heavenly body is Artemis connected and why 0 0 With whom did Athena have a contest for control of Athens 0 Poseidon What was the result 0 They made them have a competition to see who could give the best gift Poseidon struck ground with trident and gave salt water and Athena gave a Olive tree 0 They chose Athena and Poseidon ooded all the land So they built a smaller temple to Poseidon and bigger temple to Athena Built on Erechtheum 0 Know Panathenaea Arachne Palladium and Pallas the epithets of Athena O Panathenea The birthday of Athena Every fourth years there is a huge procession up the acropolis to the Parthenon They take up to the top with them a new very elaborate coat on which they have worked for the past four years They go up and give her new clothes 0 Arachne Arachne bragged excessively about her skills in weaving and so Athena challenged her to a contest After Athena and Arachne wove their tapestries Arachne won as no one could find any fault in what she had done Athena angry that this girl who boasted about her talents all the time had beaten her beat her over the head with the shuttle of boxwood Arachne who refused to be shamed hung herself with the thread Athena then felt sorry for her and allowed her to live and keep her occupation but Arachne was turned into a spider O Palladium O Pallus Made a monsters pallus skin her breastplate And Babysat a child named Pallus tritons daughter that tried to kill her and Athena stabs and kills the child 0 Who is Erichthonius and where did he come from 0 Erichthonius is eventually the King of Athens Since Aphrodite never has sex with her husband Hephaestus he starts chasing after Athena who rejects him because she is a virgin and as he gets closer and closer he prematurely ejaculates on her thigh She brushes it to the ground Mother Earth and Erichthonius is born She puts him in a weaved box and puts in on the acropolis telling King Cecrops just to feed the baby and never look inside One day some girls going to feed him look in and horrified jump off the top of the acropolis killing themselves Erichthonius coming from the Earth had snake legs that were wrapped around him Snakes time him to the Earth Eventually he becomes King of Athens and spawns many children despite snaky legs He also has strong claims to the city because he was born there his mother was there MYCENAE People of Mycenae Clytemnestra was wife of the king She killed her husband after he returned from battling the Trojans Aegisthus was cousin to the king of Mycenae He had an affair with the queen while the king was fighting in Troy Electra was daughter to the king and queen of Mycenae Her mother kept her locked away so she could not marry She helped her brother kill her mother Orestes was son of the king and queen of Mycenae He killed his mother after returning from exile because she had killed his father Iphigenia was sacrificed by her father king of Mycenae to Artemis so that he could obtain favorable winds for his expeditions to Troy Agamemnon was king of the city ca 1300 BC He led the Greek armies to Troy to retrieve Helen and the Spartan treasures
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