Popular in Greek and Roman Mythology
Popular in Department
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CL 222 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kirk Summers in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 695 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
PERSEUS 1 When the oracle tells king Acrisius that his daughter Danae would give birth to a male heir who will bring about the king39s demise he b murders his daughter Danae c abdicates the throne d forces his daughter to marry her brother e sends Danae to Crete to be eaten by the Minotaur 2 What did Polydectes request Perseus to retrieve for him in place of a horse for a wedding present a the golden eece c Pegasus d the golden apples of the Garden of Hesperides e the cane of the Graiai 3 Medusa once a beautiful priestess of Athena was changed into a hideous Gorgon by Athena because a Medusa seduced Athena39s lover Perseus Athena was jealous of Medusa39s beauty d Medusa accidentally killed Athena39s owl e she was ashamed of her amorous feelings toward Medusa C 4 While participating in the games at Thessaly Perseus accidentally threw a discus into the crowd and killed a king Polydectes b his mother Danae d the hero Argos e Zeus39 son Seriphos 5 The Greeks used the Gorgon as a symbol of this b a lesson about the results of adulterous behavior for women c the violence that exists in the outer regions of the known world d the joy of finding one39s soul mate e the male side in every woman39s character 6 Athena turned the wail of the Gorgon into a the quotsong of silencequot b the hooting of an owl d wind whistling through the cave at Cumae e the raucous music of the satyrs 7 Which of these did Perseus NOT carry on his adventure a a purse b winged sandals c scimitar d cap of invisibility ORPHEUS 8 Orpheus39 music had what kind of power over people and the elements The Greeks recognized especially that music had an in uence over the soul Orpheus used music tooI but his music entrances and calms In the underworld the tortures stopI trees uproot themselves to follow him his music puri es the soul of its evilI harmful elements Orpheus had used his celestial harmonies to t139y to raise his dead wife and to exert in uence over the shades of the Underworld 9 Orpheus became central to a religious movement because when he gazed upon Eurydice exiting from the underworld he learned something What did he learn He went down there to retrieve Eurydice and Hades and Persephone were so charmed by his music that they agreed to let him take her But there was one condition He couldn39t turn around and look at her on his wa out like Lot39s wife who turned into a illar of salt when she looked at the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah Signi cance He saw the process of regenerationI and thus knew too much It is for this reasonI primarily that Orpheus became a tting gure to build a cult around We don39t know who did it but by around 600 BC the name of Orpheus is at the center of a cult called Orphism 10 Why did the Maenads tear Orpheus into pieces Orpheus played calmI soothing music while the Maenads were listening to ecstatic wild music When he stumbled upon them they ew into a frenzy Some authors have Dionysus angry at Orpheus rst for rejecting him and then for spying on his worshippers like Pentheus was torn apart after seeing the rites in honor of Dionysus So perhaps for seeing the rites of Dionysus Girl online said because they were jealous because he swore off women 1 1 What did the people of Lesbos do with Orpheus39 head once they shed it out of the water They buried it and erected a shrine above it 12 In the Orphic religion Dionysus assumes what name Zagreus 13 After Zeus swallows Phanes Eros in the Orphic cosmogony what does he do Zeus now created evegything anewI with the help of Night Online He had the body of all things in his belly and he mixed into his own limbs the god s power and strength Because of thisI together with himI evegything came to be again inside Zeus 14 According to Orphic cosmogony we humans are evil because we come from what The ashes of the Titans 15 The life of the Orphics can best be described by the adjective ascetic What does that word mean It means quotself denial Asceticism describes a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from various sorts of worldly pleasures often with the aim of pursuing religious and spiritual goals Online ascetic rigidly abstinent or abstemious austere HERAKLESHERCULES 16 While the sign of divine favor for Jesus is the descent of the dove for Herakles it is what 17 18 19 His nameI which means quotGlory of Hera I it s a euphemism Hera hated him He also suckled her and received her immortal milk What are some of the early minor tasks of Herakles Killed the Cithaeron lion Met envoys who came from ErginusI king of the Minyans who lived at Orchomenos and cut off their noses and ears and tied them around their necks Drunkenly impregnates King Thespius s daughters 1 How did the apotheosis of Herakles come about For HeraklesI his apotheosisldei cation comes when his second wife is tricked by a centaur Centaur knows the Herakles has a huge sexual appetite and because he hates HeraklesI he decides to play on that He tells her to put a coat on him if she thinks that his affections are wandering One day she gives him the coat as a present Turns out the coat is poisonedI and despite his trying to get it offI it sticks to him and is burning and stinging him Herakles builds a funeral pyre and asks that someone lights the funeral pyre But no one will do it He sees Philoctetes and tells him that if he would hel him he Herakles would ive him Philoctetes his bow and arrow Herakles s bow and arrow never misses its mark and always strikes and kills its target So he starts the re for him The gods who love Herakles grab up his immortal self and take him up to Mt Olympus ThereI the reconcile him with Hera and he lives up there with the Gods Herakles39 labors having to do with the boar and the deer relate to what idea 20 Rites of passage Herakles drove off the Stymphalian birds by shooting arrows after he rst did what to scare them He scared them by making a loud racket by shaking a bronze rattle used castanets to drive them out 21 The belt or girdle that Herakles obtained from Hippolyta queen of the Amazons represents what The entrance into the woman s most guarded private part 22 Right before Herakles was born Zeus said that the next child born in the line of Perseus would rule over Argos For this reason Hera delayed the birth of Herakles so that what would happen When time comes for Alcmene to give birthI Hera prolongs the birth so that the other child Eurystheus can be born rst and will be the king 23 While purifying himself from the murder of Iole39s father or brother Herakles had to serve Omphale who forced him to do what peculiar thing She liked to exchanges clothes with him so that he was dressed up in woman s clothing while she dressed in his lion s skin with his club 24 Deianira caused the death of Herakles how When he killed NessusI Nessus tricked Deianira into obtaining some of his truthful oisonous blood to ut in a love otion She put the blood in a love notion and rubbed it on a shirt that she sent to him It burned his skin like napalm and let him to get Philoctetes to set him on re 25 In reward for lighting his funeral pyre Herakles gave Philoctetes what He gave him his unfailing bow and arrows 26 Which labor or accomplishment of Herakles was a tting symbol of the conquest of death The twelfth labor in which he captured Cerberus and brought him out of Hell into the upper world 27 In the story about the choice of Herakles Vice claims that her real name is what The answer to this one is I skipped over that in the lectureI but it should be the obvious answer anmay 28 In the same story according to Virtue good things only come to those who do what You know work hard play all the time kill their friends spread disease etc Which one of those Work hard 29 In the same story why do those who follow Vice39s path sleep so much They want the shortest path to pleasure He will have water and such whenever he wants and can sleep for however long he pleases Most of all he doesn t have to labor or toilI he can enjoy the bene ts the fruits of other people s labors while he sits back and enjoys himself 30 In which of the myths do we nd a negative example of the motif of the quotchoicequot of the hero I gave this example in class The story of Paris in which he chooses Helen of Troy and short time pleasure He did so when he chose Aphrodite as the fairest goddess between herI AthenaI and HeraI and she promised him any woman he wanted 31 When Hercules conquered Cacus Evander set up an altar to him to Hercules the Victor which guaranteed success to soldier in war and to what other group in their endeavors Merchants worshipped him here because Hercules can bring nancial prosperity as well 32 This general used images of Herakles to promote the idea that he was quasidivine and to justify his conquests of the entire world Who was he Alexander the Great 33 The apples which Herakles retrieved from the Garden of the Hesperides are a token of what Fruit there to suggest fertility but gold to suggest immortality because it doesn t tarnish Are a wedding Gift to Zeus or Hera HADES AND THE UNDERWORLD 34 At the Jaws of Orcus one could expect to nd what sorts of things The road winds downward to the river Acheron thick muddy swampy etc There thousands of men and women throng as they try to secure a ride on the boat that crosses the lake piloted by Charon Online the doorway to the underworldI monstersI Personi cations of evil that lead to death 35 Charon won39t let certain souls on his ferry boat for 100 years who suffer from this What is it Failure for their bodies to be buried nronerly 36 Why did Charon regret letting Herakles Theseus and Pirithous cross the river on his boat while they were still alive Because when the arrivedI they always carried out some mischief Herakles dragged off Cerberus Theseus and Pirithous came in an attempt to rape Persephone 37 Cerberus is effective in keeping the souls con ned in the underworld because of what ability He has three heads and so had a very loud bark that drives back souls 38 Dido friend of Aeneas could be found WHERE in the underworld because of the way she died in the Fields of Mounring because she pined away her life in love for him and committed suicide for him 39 When Aeneas sees Deiphobus in the underworld in what state was his old friend Helen killed himI he is mutilated in the worst possible way with his nose and ears cut off and his face slashed evermhere 40 The souls in the underworld drink from the river Lethe for 1000 years for what reason Lethe means quotforgetfulnessquot and so they drink from this river so that they can forget their former selves and once their slate is clean be reincarnated 41 What caused Vergil39s vision of the underworld to be more optimistic than that of Homer The Mystery religions which appeared between Homer and Vergil with their views caused Vergil s vision to be more optimistic Also the growing belief of reincarnation and because there were better places in the underworld 42 The Romans applied the word umbrae to the souls of the underworld which we translate how We translate umbrae to shade or shades e umbrella 43 The Anthesteria and Parentalia were both rituals among the ancient Greeks and Romans to do what Festivals to celebrate ancestors and people who had died invited ghosts into their houses to dine and eat with their family to appease the ghosts so that the ghostsshades wouldn t get jealous and do something evillterrible 44 In order to ensure the dead didn39t come back to harm the living the ancients often did what to their dead bodies They often tied them up andlor pinned their legs 45 Romans usually constructed graveyards outside the city Why They believed that the dead where impure and they needed to reside somewhere outside the city didn t want spirits in the city 46 How does Sisyphus39 eternal punishment in the underworld re ect his crimes Because he was constantly turning the tables on deathI he now has a big stone that turns over on him that he must constantly punish and constantly have it turn over on him Online was made to roll a huge boulder up a steep hillI but before he could reach the top of the hill the rock would always roll back down due to his hubristic belief that his cleverness surpassed that of Zeus Not what Dr Summers said 47 Tantalus tried to test the clairvoyance of the gods how When invited to a banguet on Mt OlympusI he chopped his sonI Pelops up along with some carrots potatoes onions etc and put it in a stew to serve to the gods He wanted to see if the gods would know Only DemeterI who was distracted by the taking of Persephone ate it 48 Because the Danaid sisters refused to go through with their marriage responsibilities and then murdered their husbands they were doomed to do what in the underworld They were doomed to carry water in leaky pots called loutroi to ll a troughbathtub up However because the loutroi leaked they could never ll the bathtub up 49 IXion raped an image of Hera in what form thereby producing the rst centaur As a cloud 50 The gods used the River Styx for what purpose For swearing an oath if lied they fell into a coma for 10 years 51 Homer39s mention of a quotdoors of the sunquot at the entrance to Hell suggests that the ancients might have believed what That some of the really good shades were able to enjoy some level of sunlight Therefore be a good person and your shade could get to see sunlight THE HEROIC PATTERN 52 The birth of Herakles is considered miraculous or divine because why He is born as the son of Zeus from a mating with Alcmene and because Hera is upsetI she prolongs his stay in his mother prolongs the pregnancy 53 Typically within the rst year of life the hero experiences what Some sort of danger at infancy CRETAN MYTHS 54 What happened when King Minos failed to sacri ce an exceptional bull that was sent from the sea by Poseidon Zeus caused his wifeI the gueenI PasiphaeI to full in love with the bull from the sea 55 Zeus either made love to Europa under a plane tree which thereafter became evergreen or in THIS place which suggests that lovemaking is in reality a quotreturning to the source The answer to this one is 56 The word quotlabyrinthquot has come to signify a complicated maze but its Greek root quotlabrysquot really refers to what symbol that was often carved on Minoan monuments The answer is which I mentioned is portrayed throughout Minoan monuments 57 Socalled Minoan palaces were more likely modeled on what structures Mesopotamian TempleslSumerian economic complexes according to online answersI court houses 58 The Minoans spoke a nonIndoEuropean nonAfricanAsian language that remains undeciphered despite written remains known as what Linear A 59 As stated in class Daedalus represents what about art He represents the ambivalent way that the Minoans felt about art This ambivalence is expressed in the contradictions or oppositions that he does He uses his art to reveal but also uses his art to conceal He revealed how the Gods were so beautifully built He concealed Pacife in the cow his art Concealed the Minotaur He animates with his art and he kills with his art The only way the bull would hump on that cow was if he thought it was real Daedalus had the power to animate this cow with his art Make something dead look alive Statues looked so real that had to tie up Herakles got into ght with statue because he thought it was real Killed Minos with the bathtubI his son died because of the wings he constructedI he devised the plan to kill the Minotaur These beautiful objects attract people to things that aren t real Wordslanguage so beautiful that you are attracted to or believe something that you shouldn t be attracted to or shouldn t believe Art had the ability to make life beautiful but also destroy by making you do things you shouldn t do 60 In class we noted the very recent and convincing theory that the Minoan quotbullleapingquot scenes probably were really what Some thought this was like a riteofpassage Maybe it s a religious ceremony of some sort Perhaps entertainment eg circus Best explanation came out about 10 years ago Go to previous slide Astrological event When Perseus is passing over the back of Taurus into the arms of Andromeda When this arrangement of the constellations is in the sky it instructed the Minoans what they needed to do It was a moment of interest to the Minoans captured in the sky and then portrayed in these paintings and such 61 What happened to Daedalus39 son Icarus While ying with wax wings he ew too close to the Sun and the wings melted He fell into the sea and drowned died THE SEUS 62 The myth of Theseus king of Athens explains what about the land around Athens The land around Athens is ravished with bandits It is dangerous 63 Once a traveler bent down to wash the feet of Sciron he would kick them off a cliff where what would happen They would be eaten by a giant turtle 64 The English word quotprocrusteanquot coming from the criminal whom Theseus met named Procrustes meaning what Stretcher quotProcrustean in English has come to refer to an arbitrary standard to which exact conformity is demanded 65 When Medea discovered Theseus was the son of Aegeus she attempted to do what She tried to convince Aegeus who did not know that Theseus was his sonI to poison Theseus so that her Medea s child would be the one that was the heir to Aegeus 66 Theseus abandoned Ariadne on the island of Naxos because who demanded it Dionysus 67 Theseus39 abduction of Helen and her later rescue at the hands of the Dioscuri relates to the way that she was worshiped at Sparta as a goddess of what A goddess who bestows desirability on women 68 According to an anecdote of Herodotus in which a Spartan girl is regularly brought to the temple of Helen one could expect to gain what by going there Beauty Helen would make an ugly girl beautiful and desireable 69 The Dioscuri brothers came to be thought of as savior gods who appear to soldiers in battle and to sailors in what form electrical dischargesI savior gods says Grant riding white horses 70 The attack of the Amazons on the Athenians became a convenient way for the Athenians to talk about what How the Amazons represent everything that the Athenians hateI and how their way of life is the absolute incorrect way The way the Athenian women behave is the appropriate way Saying quotOur norms are right and look what happens when you turn it around on its head invert SayingI quotWe worked hard for this structure so follow it SLIDE QUESTIONS 7180 not much help I can give you hear Just review the slides There s one of Orpheus looking serene and another where he s attacked by Maenads Pay attention to those ANCIENT OLYMPIA For these I ve just given you the actual questions without the multiple choice answers 81 Which of these is NOT an ancient Olympic event See Exercise 3 82 Which of these structures would you NOT nd at ancient Olympia See Exercise 1 83 Which of these would most likely be part of an athlete s training See Exercise 2 84 Which of these would serve as a prize for a winner while still at the site of Olympia Olive branch 85 When athletes swore an oath before the contests they swore it before the altar of Zeus with their hand on Boar meat Exercise 1 A Altar of Oaths a This it39s the building where the statue of Olympian Zeus one of the seven wonders of the ancient world was created along with many other stunning works of art B The Temple of the Mother of the Gods Cybele In Roman times it housed statues of the emperors a Metroon C In this building which dates to the 3rd Century BC wresters were trained and socialized a Palaestria D This was a limestone building with Doric columns dating to 600 BC The statue of Hermes made by PraXiteles was found here a Temple of IIera E This is where the running events took place Notice that there are no seats a Stadium F This is where Olympic officials met and kept their records An altar to Zeus Horkios god of oaths stood here where athletes swore not to cheat a Bouleutarion G This is where during the Olympic events 100 oxen were sacrificed in honor of the gods a Altar of Zeus H This was an aqueduct built by Herodes Atticus in 160 BC a Spring I These were buildings which housed votive offerings from various cities around the ancient world a Treasuries J These were bronze statues of Zeus built with money collected from cheaters a Who the hell knows O 90 O 90 O 90 O 90 K Here was housed one of the seven wonders of the ancient world IT was the central religious building of the sacred precinct quotAltisquot of Olympia a Temple of Zeus L This building was a stoa with unusual acoustics which housed all kinds of paintings a Echo Hall M This structure was a shrine to one of the original founders of the Olympic games a Pelopion N This building nished by Alexander the Great housed ve statues of him and his royal ancestors a Philippeion Exercise 2 Training gt Trains hard hires choosing a coach who puts him on a strict diet and a rigorous exercise routine He takes up a parttime job to help make ends meet Approaching Day gt Arrives at Olympia a month early to present himself to the officials Must train intensely and prove himself or face elimination before the competition even begins He dances to ute music to tighten his muscles To Olympia gt Joins a 2day procession of athletes that travels from Elis to the Olympic site The journey includes a stop by a spring for sacri ces Arrival gt He goes to Bouleutarion or council house to register his name and hometown First Day gt He stands before the altar of Zeus Horkios and places his hand on a slab of boar meat and swears an oath that he will not break the rules or bribe the judges Food gt After participating in a huge sacri ce of 100 oxen to Zeus joins his fellow athletes the priests and judges and the spectators in a fabulous feast 0 Event Begins gt Opens a jar of sweetsmelling olive oil and smears it all over his naked body then scrapes it off with a special instrument called a strigil His coach dusts him with sand Now he is ready to compete Exercise 3 Hoptilodromos Chariot Racing LongJumping Horseback riding Running Javelin throw Discus throw Boxing Pantikapion 0 Wrestling PPONFDP PWP E
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