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SOC 101 final

by: Bailey Souaid

SOC 101 final SOC 101

Bailey Souaid

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soc 101 w Samson final
Intro to Sociology
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Souaid on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101 at University of Miami taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
Chap. 13 Which theory claims that media texts are created to deliver specific messages and that individuals actively interpret them? Encoding/decoding model A period of time that can be spent relaxing, engaging in recreation, or otherwise indulging in freely chosen activities is: Leisure The ideas and theories that audience members bring to bear on a particular text to understand its meanings are called: Interpretive strategies. A theory that explains the effects of media through the activity of the audience members is called the: Active audience theory. The central distinction between popular culture and high culture involves: the characteristics of the audiences associated with a given work or form. People paying 50 dollars per month to belong to an organized softball league rather than playing informal games on their own is an example of the commodification of leisure. The widespread public panic that stemmed from people believing H. G. Wells’s fictitious "War of the Worlds" broadcast would support the: magic bullet theory. A mutually beneficial relationship between parts of a single company that allows the company to create something greater that the sum of the individual parts is called: Synergy A situation in which there is only one individual or organization, without competitors, providing a particular good or service is called: Monopoly Which of the following is true about Robert Bellah’s view of lifestyle enclaves? They differ from real communities in that they are more likely to remain private and segmented. An individual who serves as an example for others to strive toward and emulate is: a role model. Some people saw the 1999 film Fight Club as a call for men to be more traditionally masculine and seek out direct physical conflict. Others saw the movie as a critique of consumerism, while still others thought its main message was about the futility of violence. This illustrates the idea of polysemy. According to Roy Oldenburg, the decline of third places is directly hurting participation in: civil society. Which of the following is an example of a third place? A local coffeehouse According to the textbook, what is the relationship between leisure and work? Sociologists see them as complementary activities within a capitalist economic system linked by consumption. According to the textbook, how does Apple illustrate a shift in the nature of media companies in the United States? Apple’s main focus is on distributing, rather than producing, content. Ecotourism is characterized by the efforts of tourists and the travel industry to lessen the negative consequences of tourism on the environment as well as local cultures. In what way does the TV show The Simpsons illustrate the idea of polysemy? The show can be "read" in multiple ways. For example, small children may miss allegories and critiques hidden in the show that adults might notice and interpret. What did Kerry Ferris find in her research on Star Trek and soap-opera fan clubs? While the members did initially bond because of their common interest, eventually they did branch out and began to pursue things like community service projects. People who have taken footage of Star Trek episodes and created new stories out of it by splicing together different scenes are practicing: Textual poaching. A law designed to prohibit monopolies in the mass media would be an example of: Antitrust legislation. A political and moral philosophy focused on strengthening civil society and communal bonds more than addressing individual concerns is called: Communitarianism. The term for groups of people who share similar artistic, literary, or intellectual preferences is: Taste publics. According to the textbook, what is it that makes something a recreational activity? Any activity that is enjoyable, liberating, and even transformative. In Richard Sennett’s view, a major contributor to the decline of public life in the United States was: the spread of television. Chap. 14 One major reason why more people don’t use "concierge medicine" is likely that: It is too expensive. What is a food desert? An area with little access to healthy, fresh food. What is rescission? When insurance companies revoke someone’s coverage after that person gets sick. Which of the following could be an example of eugenics? When parents decide whether to abort a fetus if they find it is likely to have a disability, based on tests performed on it in utero. Wealthy industrialized countries that do not provide universal health care for their citizens include: only the United States. The phenomenon that occurs when our individual disease risks are amplified by social factors such as inequality is called: deprivation amplification. The study of the social aspect of disease patterns is known as: epidemiology. According to the textbook, one environmental factor that could exacerbate the spread of diseases is: global warming. The process through which issues that were once seen as personal come to be seen as medical issues is called: Medicalization. Which of the following is an example of complementary or alternative medicine? Meditation Yoga Deep breathing Which of the following is an example of a locavore? Someone who lives in Maryland and eats food grown in Maryland. On what basis did Milton Friedman criticize the American Medical Association? It is a monopoly that artificially restricts the supply of doctors. "Selection" theories argue that various people who live in a single location such as Las Vegas might exhibit similar patterns of behavior because: similar types of people are drawn to similar environments; similar behavior pat-terns stem from people’s underlying similarities more than social or environmental influences. The combination of conventional and new types of medicine is known as: integrative medicine. Which of the following is NOT part of the health care reform bill passed in 2010? Government officials will choose which doctors patients can see. Chronic diseases are those diseases that: develop over a long period of time. Which of the following is NOT an advantage when it comes to living a longer life? Being white rather than nonwhite The way that insomnia has come to be treated as a health problem in its own right, rather than simply a personal issue or a symptom of other health issues, could be seen as one instance of: medicalization. The term for the actions and attitudes that are expected from someone who is sick is: the sick role. The Division of the United Nations charged with overseeing global health issues is: the World Health Organization. A broken leg would most likely be treated by using: curative medicine. The study of moral issues related to advancement in science and medicine is known as: Bioethics. According to the textbook, one problem generated by medical advances that allow people with HIV to live much longer than they used to is that: people who can live longer with HIV may serve as a disincentive for people to protect themselves against it. Which of the following claims supports the view that perceptions of health and beauty are shaped by social context and are not just biological? Women who would be considered of healthy weight in Senegal are considered overweight in the United States. Acknowledging and incorporating a patient’s background as part of the treat-ment process is called: cultural competence. Chap. 15 The transformation of the physical, social, economic, and cultural life of formerly working-class or poor neighborhoods into more affluent middle-class communities is called: Gentrification. Which of the following is the U.S. political party established in 1984 to bring political attention to environmentalism, social justice, diversity, and related principles? The Green Party The use of violence or criminal methods to protect the environment, often in high-profile, publicity-generating ways is called: Ecoterrorism. Which of the following is true concerning consumption and resource depletion? In 1950, rainforests covered twice as much area as they do today. What is the measure that estimates how much land and water area is required to generate all the goods a person or company consumes and waste they produce? Ecological footprint. The dramatic decline in population of Vietnam due to refugees leaving the country during the Vietnam War is an example of: Emigration. The study of human populations and their impact on the natural world is called: social ecology. The study of the size of, composition of, distribution of, and changes in human population is called: Demography. What is the treadmill of production? A term describing the operation of modern economic systems that require constant growth, which causes increased exploitation of resources and environmental degradation. Most social scientists and historians credit the beginnings of the American environmental movement to the writings of Henry David Thoreau Although cities offer a great deal of freedom and choices, sociologists argue that this freedom prevents city dwellers from developing intimate personal relationships or community, a situation that is often referred to as alienation. Grassroots environmentalism is distinguished from mainstream environmentalism by: its belief in citizen participation in environmental decision making. If someone is interested in an area’s variety of species of plants and animals existing at a particular time, they are studying that area’s: biodiversity. The bystander effect contends that during a moment of crises, the more people present to witness the event: The less likely anyone will provide assistance. The conservation era of the environmental movement focused on: the preservation of wilderness areas. Malthusian theorem states that at some point in the future, people will far outnumber the available land and food sources. The study of the interaction between society and the natural environment, including the social causes and consequences of environmental problems is called: environmental sociology. The modern environmental movement focused on: the environmental consequences of new technology, oil exploration, and nuclear power plants. The Industrial Revolution led many people to move from rural to urban areas. Which of the following is an example of a renewable resource? Oxygen According to the text, what has caused the recent increase in global warming? An increase in greenhouse gases from air pollution. The number of deaths in a given year per 1,000 people is referred to as the: mortality rate. Which of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource? Oil To prevent the clearing of a redwood forest in California, Julia "Butterfly" Hill practiced which form of environmental activism? Conducting a two-year-long tree sit. The dense connection of the Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. metropolises is an example of: a megalopolis. Chap. 16 Which of the following would be an example of a regressive social movement? A movement that encourages members to downsize in all areas of their lives to return to a simpler approach to life. The time between changes in material culture or technology and the resulting changes in the broader culture’s relevant norms, values, meanings, and laws is called: cultural lag. Which of the following was an early theory on collective action that suggested individuals who joined a crowd or mob became "infected" by a mob mentality and lost the ability to reason? Contagion theory. Which of the following saw the advent of computer and internet technologies dramatically shift the basis of most countries’ economies? Information Revolution. The increased number of children born directly after World War II, and the impact of this increase on current patterns of labor and retirement is an example of what kind of factor that leads to social change? Demographic factors. Any social group with leadership, organization, and an ideological commitment to promote or resist social change is called a: social movement. The transformation of a culture over time is called: social change. What was the sociological point of Diet for a New America by John Robbins? Our personal and private decisions have public and collective consequences. The fact that many youth in Middle Eastern countries are being influenced by the values and goals projected by shows on MTV or American movies could be considered an example of: cultural imperialism. What is technological determinism? The idea that technology plays a defining role in shaping society. Which of the following U.S. social movements is best seen as a regressive movement? The Tea Party movement that began in 2009. Which theory of social movements focuses on the actions of oppressed groups who seek rights and opportunities already enjoyed by others in society? Relative deprivation theory. According to Armand Mauss, what is the fourth stage in a social movement? The movement declines. According to the textbook, slap bracelets or bell bottom jeans are examples of a: fad. Which of the following would NOT be considered a social movement? The effort to elect John Kerry President of the United States in 2004. According to resource mobilization theory, social movements will mobilize if: potential participants can gather and deploy enough resources to mobilize. The fact that McDonald’s restaurants are now in India can be seen as an example of: Cultural leveling. The need for individuals to give blood, even when they may never need a blood transfusion, in order for the blood donation system to work is an example of: public goods dilemma. The fact that MTV can now be seen in about 166 countries is an example of: cultural diffusion. What does postmodernity focus on rather than material things? Ideas and cultural debates. According to the text, which of the following is a characteristic of modernity? An increase in individualism. Large groups of people engaging in similar behavior without necessarily being in the same place is called: mass behavior. A tragedy of the commons occurs when: rational individuals following their self-interest create a bad outcome for the group. The process by which societies lose their uniqueness by becoming increasingly similar is called: cultural leveling. Which of the following is true concerning a tragedy of the commons? The benefit is to the individual, but the cost is shared by all.


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