MCY 124 final exam bundle of notes
MCY 124 final exam bundle of notes MCY 124
Popular in The Evolution of Jazz
Popular in Musicology
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Souaid on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCY 124 at University of Miami taught by Charles Bergeron in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see The Evolution of Jazz in Musicology at University of Miami.
Reviews for MCY 124 final exam bundle of notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/22/16
Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 14 Jan Jazz Essence of Jazz is improvisation Birthplace: New Orleans Cultures of Africa and western Europe (France) Only indigenous art form in America *Art imitates life* History of Jazz 1718: founding of New Orleans by La Salle Marquis Iberville/ Marquis de Beinville (French architects) built Nola Finished construction in 1723 named after Duke of Orleans who found it (French) 1763: France becomes Spain, Nola under the influence of Spain cultures combine//1765 fire burns Nola, rebuilt with French/Spanish architecture Napolean Bonapart rebuilds France and French take back Nola in 1801 50% of population European/ 50% of population slaves from Africa 1803: Louisiana Purchase ($0.04 per acre) by Pres. Jefferson 3 Elements that make up Music 1. Melody 2. Harmony 3. Rhythm Melody Genre: The Blues Indigenous to America “Blue notes”: sad or somber emotional quality Evolution of Jazz Tues. 19 Jan *3 Elements of Music= melody harmony rhythm PLUS LYRICS* Lyrics tell story, history, and “Love” is most popular idea and topic for lyrics “Name 3 types of music performed by slaves” 1. Work songs 2. Field hollers 3. Ring shouts “What is the technique used to perform this music?” Call and Response Nonsecular/religious music Slave owners force slaves to participate in religious (protestant/catholic) services Secular music American Blue’s men “Tremadors” craft of songwriting applied by “Tremadors” for entertainment, about everyday life (not religious!) instruments had to be travelfriendly (acoustic guitar, etc.) Syncopation playing with rhythm to be more “dance friendly” syncopating the rhythm=unpredictable (idea that is very French) Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 21 Jan Townsquare in Nola=Congo Square Marketing technique: blues notes/putting on a show to sell products Ragtime: Scott Joplin: debuted Ragtime at World’s Fair Maple Leap Rag Storyville (18971917) Red Light District in Nola= where jazz thrived/ where everything (vices) was legal Jelly Roll Morton Composer of Maple Leaf Rag (different from Joplin’s version) Innovator of jazz (swing feel) *Syncopation* Evolution of Jazz Tues. 26 Jan “Ragtime” piano Marching band instruments that all together can make the sound of Ragtime piano: tuba (brass) trumpet (brass) trombone (brass) (lower in pitch) clarinet (woodwind) (higher in pitch) drums (percussion) banjo (similar to guitar) (African) Downsizing of band: lighter, more economical Test Question: What was the most popular form of entertainment in America in the first half of the 20 century? Ans.: Dancing Venue: when and where the music is being played size of band changes *social and economic issues changes that* ~Art imitates Life~ Riverboats: source of travel, entertainment, economic travel, activities Dixieland Music (not quite jazz) Instruments trying to sound like ragtime piano trumpet very important Uptown Musicians played by ear improvisation couldn’t read Downtown Musicians trained professionals could read Buddy Bolden: uptown trumpet player; made melody by ear Joe Oliver “King Oliver”: Innovator, led band of great influence King Oliver’s Creole Jass Band Innovator’s of Dixieland style of music No recording because color of skin (black) Original Dixie Jazz Band (ODJB) All white Led by Trumpet player who was racist Made very first historic recording 1917 made first jazz recording of song “Dixie Jazz Band One Step” Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 28 Jan “Dippermouth Blues” Collective improvisation: each member of band improv. (audios on Black Board) Sound system: Victrola mechanical, not electronic Drums and Vocals were hard to record Bessie Smith Black vocalist Sang song St. Louis Blues; composed by W.C Handy *The most important/influential musician in the development of America’s indigenous art form* Louis Armstrong Louis Armstrong Father of Jazz Music Significant role in American history Plays trumpet Born in August of 1901 during Nola’s 3 war 1 of 2 children, mom was a maid, dad left the family, little supervision got in trouble, went away to school, forced to join band (trumpet) “King” Oliver got Louis first job with Kid Ory, a trombone player, on a riverboat Song: Mack the Knife One of three versions of the song From the 3 Penny Opera (story about Jack the Ripper) Roaring 20s Gov’t took over Storyville, New Orleans Prohibition People traveled north “King” Oliver and his Creole Jass Band moved to Chicago and had Louis Armstrong move up too, and join the band. Evolution of Jazz Tues. 2 Feb Video: James Reese Europe “The Hellfighters” Lit. Reese takes “ragtime” to Europe for the first time ever “Negro music, but American music” First black to play in Carnegie Hall Trumpet vs. Cornet Cornet: fast and rough (“King” Oliver) Trumpet: complicated and mellow Manuel Perez: classically trained//Creole of color “King” Oliver played in Perez’s ensemble Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 4 Feb 1920’s venues change from brothels to “speakeasies” (drinking and gambling during prohibition) ensemble changes from 1 person playing ragtime piano in 1912 to numerous people playing together in the 1920’s prominent entertainment: dancing James P. Johnson Black Piano Player/Composer First black to write for Broadway stage wrote “The Charleston”; the song of the 1920’s Louis Armstrong King Oliver does 3 things for Armstrong 1. Helps him get his first job on riverboat playing for Kid Ory 2. Summoned Armstrong to move to Chicago in 1919 and adds him to band 3. Ultimately encourages Armstrong to go solo (Louis Armstrong and Hot 5) Louis Armstrong and Hot 5 (mid 1920’s) 1. Kid Ory (Past Boss): Trombone 2. Johnny St. Cry: Banjo 3. Johnny Dodds: Clarinet 4. Louis Armstrong: Trumpet 5. Lil Hardin (female): Piano “Gut Bucket Blues” song where Louis Armstrong introduces the Hot 5 Armstrong then adds two more members to band becoming Hot 7 1. Bill Johnson: Bass 2. Johnny Dodds’ little brother “Baby Dodds”: Drums San Francisco newspaper first publishes the name “Jazz” Unlike Jack Johnson (heavy weight champion), Armstrong was humble Armstrong connected with audience and was recognized around the world after performing in Europe Louis Armstrong’s contributions to the Art form (most important musician) Jazz music’s first virtuoso He separates improvisation from melody, prioritizes improvisation. His creativity makes improv a higher priority, no longer the melody Jazz is only form of music where improve is priority He creates vocabulary of Jazz music Creates “scat sing” and records scat singing in 1928 for a record Socially, aside from musically, he was America’s first cultural Ambassador Invited to perform in Europe; same stages as classical artists, operas, symphonies Jazz becomes respected Armstrong takes a 2minute part as playing “Gabriel” in a musical movie first black on screen Armstrong’s solo on trumpet: “West End Blues” (scat song) Evolution of Jazz Tues. 9 Feb Mardi Gras: Green fate, Purple justice, Gold power Louis Armstrong (cont.) Career lasts many decades Jazz evolves but Armstrong’s style remains constant and eventually becomes passé Accused of “tomming” the audience (sucking up to whites for special treatment) Miles Davis said “No him no me.” Song “Ain’t Misbehavin’” in 1960s (when television was median) Song “Hello Dolly” 1964 in Major Key (also Broadway musical) Song “What a Wonderful World” Cotton Club Elite and exclusive speakeasy New York//Harlem 1929 (illegal) 1933 (appealed and legal) Duke Ellington Most influential and important composer Classically trained Same era as Louis Armstrong Ragtime piano evolves to stride (large movement by left hand) Applied improvisation, syncopated rhythm Composes with classical format= level of sophistication Duke Ellington’s Contributions to the Art form 1. Stride piano player / ThroughComposed 2. Musical director at the Cotton Club 3. Incredibly prolific composer wrote over 2000 pieces (opera, etc.) 4. Same era as Louis Armstrong; born 1899, died 1974 5. Wrote specifically for each band member 6. Incredibly experimental 7. Considered 2 greatest ambassador of the American cultural art form Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 11 Feb Duke Ellington Big band ensembles: 4 sections 4 Trumpets 4 Trombones 5 or 6 Saxophones (different sizes) Rhythm section Piano Bass Drums Guitar Dance Halls 1933=no more prohibition Large dance halls for large band ensembles Duke Ellington Song: “Things ain’t what they used to be” Song: “Prelude to a Kiss” feat. Johnny Hodges Johnny Hodges: alto sax **Song: “Cotton Tail” Ellington transcribes the “Major Scale” Major role in evolution of Jazz Cootie Williams Trumpet Song: “Concerto for Cootie” Count Basie Kansas City Big band ensembles in the MidWest “BoogieWoogie” was his piano playing style (rather than stride) “Rifforiented”: short melodic fragments put together in orchestration Song: “1 o’clock Jump” **Song: “Splanky” Duke Ellington and Count Basie are equally important to composure and evolution of Jazz. Duke Ellington Count Basie New York Kansas City Stride Piano BoogieWoogie Through Composer Rifforiented Harmonic Development Rhythmic Development Evolution of Jazz Tues. 16 Feb Adolph Sax Saxophone soprano, alto, tenor, bass Coleman Hawkins Modern Jazz Saxophone player Vertical style (notes up and down), rather than linear Wide, fast bravado Help of Duke Ellington Bright sound (metal mouthpiece) Lester Young Equally as influential as Coleman Hawkins Song: “Body and Soul” (1939 Coleman Hawkins recorded) Sounds opposite of Coleman Hawkins Dark sound (brass mouthpiece) Straight tone (modern technique) Flow melody, not short notes: linear style Help of Count Basie Song: “Lester Leaps In” Ella Fitzgerald 1917 Harlem Best Jazz singer (scat singing) Song: “How High the Moon” Chick Webb Drummer Own band Recruits Fitzgerald Song: “ATisket, ATasket” Norman Granz Concert promoter “Jazz at the Philharmonic” Recruits musicians to Philharmonic Halls Song book series: records many covers of songs Song: “Mack the Knife” 1958 Song: “Lets Call the Whole Thing Off” feat. Louis Armstrong Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 18 Feb Billie Holiday Hard upbringing Tragic life Legacy of music Song: “God Bless the Child” Lester Young: friend (platonic relationship), taught her singing with straight tone Song: “Strange Fruit” Song: “Good Morning Heartache” 5 of the most successful big band leaders up to 1947 Glenn Miller Trombone Left band joined army Song: “In the Mood”, Dance: “jitter bug” Artie Shaw Clarinet Evolved art form Song: “Begin the Beguine” Tommy Dorsey Trombone Made the most money, most successful Singer: Frank Sinatra Drummer: Buddy Rich Harry James Trumpet Song: “You Made Me Love You” Discovered Frank Sinatra Benny Goodman Produced the 1st Jazz Concert at Carnegie Hall: Jan. 16, 1936 Song: Sing Sing Sing ft. Gene Krupa on drums Frank Sinatra Harry James (discovered him) called him “Frankie Satin” Colombia Records called him “The Voice” Launched in 1947 Evolution of Jazz Tues. 1 March True or False: Modern Jazz develops smoothly from swing style, not as a reaction against it. False High art form: does not require an audience Popular art form: relates to audience BeBop Minton’s Playhouse - Bar in Harlem - No cabaret license (illegal to dance there) - Jam Session 1. Band members play music for themselves, no dancers or audiences 2. Music stand on own as art form 3. Melody faster, hard to understand, cannot dance along 4. Clubs got smaller, band ensembles got smaller (Big Band Era) Thelonious Sphere Monk - Led jam sessions at Minton’s Playhouse - Piano player - New York Charlie Parker “Bird” - Development of Modern Jazz - Alto sax - Song: “KoKo” - Kansas City - Heroine addict Dizzy Gillespie - Trumpet - South Carolina - Performer like Louis Armstrong - Song: “Salt Peanuts”, different, comical Monk, Bird, Dizzy all contributors to vocabulary of BeBop AfroCuban Jazz - Style of jazz in Cuba (preCastro 19461948) - Mario Bauza, band leader - Chano Pozo, percussionist - Song: “Manteca” Pozo and Bauza Tues. 15 March Evolution of Jazz Miles Davis - East Illinois, St. Louis - 18 yrs old student at Juliard in NY - trumpet - influenced by Charlie Parker - member in Charlie Parker’s Quintent - became heroine addict Miles Davis and The Cool School - boplicity - 2 Famous Albums - The Birth of the Cool: 1949 - Kind of Blue: 1959 - Song: “So What” 10 year long significant Jazz period: 19591969 Kind of Blue 1959 - Miles Davis: trumpet - Cannonball Adderley: altosax - First Sunny Rollins then John Coltrane: tenorsax - Bill Evans: piano, voice - Paul Chambers: bass Greatest of era and most recorded - Jimmy Cobb: drums What are the 5 different in design albums in 1959? 1. “Kind of Blue” by Miles Davis 1959 2. “Time out” by The Dave Brubeck Quartet 1959 3. “Giant Steps” by John Coltrane 1959 4. “The Shape of Jazz to Come” by Ornette Coleman 5. “Mingus Ah UM” by Charles Mingus Style of Beebop - Fast tempos - Complex harmony - Unable to sing melodies - No written arrangements Thurs. 17 March Evolution of Jazz Style of Cool School - Light weight tone quality - Moderate tempos - Lyrical approach to improvisation - Sometimes use of written arrangements Dave Brubeck - Cool School - Song: “Take 5” - “Blue Rondo Al La Turk” Bill Evans - Piano Trio - Song: “All of You” Stan Getz - The Duke Ellington of Brazil - Song: “The Girl from Ipanema” - Composer: Antonio Carlos Jobism - Rhythm: Bossa Nova Nat King Cole - Song: “It’s Only a Papermoon” Tues. 22 March Evolution of Jazz Dizzy Gillespie Cuba Stan Getz Brazil Hard Bop East Coast/ NY More drums Recordings Blue Notes Records (onsite recordings) Producer: Alfred Lyon Style Characteristics of Hard Bop Dark, rough edged texture More activity from drummers More original compositions Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers Song: “Caravan” (4 drum solos) Horace Silver: piano Clifford Brown: trumpet Horace Silver Piano Most important COMPOSER of the Hard Bop Era Composer for Jazz Messengers Funky piano Song: “The Preacher” Clifford Brown Trumpet Song: “Cherokee” Thurs. 24 March Evolution of Jazz Miles Davis “Prince of Darkness” “Kind of Blue” Album is highest selling album Worked with Gil Evans Third Stream: The Cool School Miles Davis 1 Quintet in the ‘50s and ‘60s Post Bop Era Hard Bop (Art Blakey) Modal Avant garde Free jazz Miles Davis 2 Quintet (Defines Post Bop) Tony Williams 17 years old found by Art Blakey drums Herbie Hancock 23 years’ old Piano Song: “Footprints” *composer* Song: “Maiden Voyage” Song: “Cantaloupe Island” Ron Carter Bass Wayne Shorter Saxophone “Miles Smiles” – Album of post bop Style Characteristics of Post Bop Harmony is ambiguous Time keeping: drums on symbol, bass is steady or walking Not contra fact (old music, new melody), the songs are the band member’s=New Songs Tues. 29 March Evolution of Jazz 3 Major Albums 1. “Kind of Blue” by Miles Davis 1959 2. “Time out” by The Dave Brubeck Quartet 1959 3. “Giant Steps” by John Coltrane 1959 John Coltrane Born in North Carolina in 1926, grew up in Philadelphia Tenor Sax Career with Miles Davis from 19551959 (“Kind of Blue” Album) Song: “’Round Midnight” Left Miles Davis and made his own album “Giant Steps” 1959 Recorded for a label owned by two brothers from Turkey Song: “Stepping out” (harmony, melody, rhythm=complex) John Coltrane Quartet John Coltrane: tenor sax Elvin Jones: drums McCoy Tyner: piano Jimmy Garrison: bass Song: “My Favorite Things” John Coltrane’s album “A Love Supreme” Coltrane’s most important album of his career December 1964 Song: “My One and Only Love” by John Coltrane and Johnny Hartman 4 movements (like a symphony) Thurs. 31 March Evolution of Jazz The John Coltrane Quartet=complexity PostBop Style Characteristics complex harmonic approach rhythmic complexity Elvin Jones led incredibly influential quartet great ballad player (Voice: Johnny Hartman) ushers in free jazz movement soprano saxophone Song: “The Jupiter Variation” Album: “A Love Supreme” recorded in ’64 and released in ‘65 Avante Garde // Free Jazz Movement Ornette Coleman alto sax Texas Album: “The Shape of Jazz to Come” Song: “Lonely Women” Charles Mingus Worked in all 5 subsets of modern Jazz Bassist/ composer Album: “Mingus Ah UM” Song: “Fables of Faubus” Modern Jazz: 5 Subsets 1. Bee Bop 2. Cool School (Miles Davis, Stan Getz) 3. Hard Bop (Horace Silver, Composer and Clifford Brown, Trumpet) 4. Post Bop (Coltrane) 5. Avante Garde (Coleman) What are the 5 different in design albums in 1959? 1. “Kind of Blue” by Miles Davis 1959 2. “Time out” by The Dave Brubeck Quartet 1959 3. “Giant Steps” by John Coltrane 1959 4. “The Shape of Jazz to Come” by Ornette Coleman 5. “Mingus Ah UM” by Charles Mingus Tues. 12 April Evolution of Jazz Rise of Rock and Roll Cream (band) Song: “Sunshine of your Love” Guitarist (American blues): Eric Clapton The Who (band) Song: “Won’t get Fooled Again” Carlos Santana Song: “Black Magic Woman” Guitarist: Pete Townshend Jimmy Hendrix Song: “Purple Haze” Very influential Career 4 years’ long Led Zeppelin Two major albums in 1968 and 1969 Album: “Led Baloon” Song: “Whole lot of fun” Guitarist: Jimmy Paige Summer of 1967 San Francisco Monterey Festival Woodstock Barry Gody 1959: “MoTown” George Wein Producer He and Miles Davis heard “Sly and the Family Stone” at the Monterey Festival and signed them Together they started new sound Guitarist: Sylvester Stallone Rise of the Electric Guitar Miles Davis 1979 creates new style of Jazz called “Fusion”. 3 style of jazz he participated in. Fusion Elements of Jazz and Rock Album: “Bitches Brew” by Miles Davis and John McLaughlin (British guitarist) Song: “Spanish Key” Thurs. 14 April Evolution of Jazz Electric guitar The most prominent instrument of the 1960’s Synthesizers The most prominent instrument of the 1970’s Rise of disco era Monophonic synthesizers A lot of computer gear Manipulate sounds Polyphonic synthesizers As technology advances Keyboards Change sounds and textures Can play sounds of other instruments Weather Report Band in the 1970’s Started by Joe Zawinul and Wayne Shorter Other members: Miroslav Vitous Manelo Badrena Jaco Pastorios “World Music” Song: “Milky Way” Album and Song: “Black Market” Acoustic and Electric instruments Song: “Bird Land” 1977 Tues. 19 April Evolution of Jazz 80s smooth Jazz Jazz and Pop Music Kenneth Garlick Seattle Improv of Jazz mixed with pop mentality “Song Bird” neoclassical movement 1981 take on “Caravan” =neoclassical style Wynton and Branford Marsalis Harry Konic Jr. Song: “It Has to be You” Pat Metheny production and use of instruments Song: “Beat 70” Thurs. 21 April Evolution of Jazz Nat King Cole Song: “Route 66” (Cool School) 1950’s Capital Record Label Song: “Mona Lisa” (Not Jazz, Pop) Song: “The Christmas Song” First Black to have own talk show (longer 30 min) Two most recognizable voices in 20 century: Elvis Presley and Frank Sinatra Frank Sinatra Song: “Fly Me to the Moon” Born on Dec. 12, 1915 Crooner: Style of singing Nicknamed: The Voice Signed Columbia records Arranger of music: Nelson Riddle (with Capital Records) Song: “I’ve Got the World on a String” Song: “Come Fly with Me” with Count Basie Orchestra Movies with Sam Davis Jr.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'