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Study Guide Exam 1

by: Dae 'Janae Anderson

Study Guide Exam 1 Political Science 317

Dae 'Janae Anderson
GPA 3.5
Media and Politics
Sanne Rijkhoff

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About this Document

Study guide with written answers for the first exam!
Media and Politics
Sanne Rijkhoff
Study Guide
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Popular in Media and Politics

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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dae 'Janae Anderson on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Political Science 317 at Washington State University taught by Sanne Rijkhoff in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Media and Politics in Political Science at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 02/23/15
Political Science 317 Media and Politics Midterm Examination Review Sheet Spring 2015 Models of the media s role Reporters of objective factljinforming us with unbiased information Neutral adversaryljwatchdog role Public advocateljprovide a platform for discussion Profitseekerljhave an audience but think of the audience as consumers Propagandistljneed to tell favoritism stories to gain money from those sources Roles American media should ful ll pg20 0 Electoral forum to provide a forum for candidates and political parties to debate their qualification for office before a national audience 0 Public sphere to contribute to informed citizenship by providing a variety of perspectives on the important issues of the day 0 Watchdog to serve as a watchdog scrutinizing the actions of government officials on behalf of citizens most of whom do not have the opportunity to closely follow the actions of politicians and the government Differences American amp European news media 0 American News Media frame to make story relevant to the US 0 How can it affect Americans why should Americans care I Americans do not care about anything unless it affects them directly 0 European News Media Reports from foreign press is more balance 2 factors in uencing success in ful lling roles 0 Market forces 0 Professional norms and values Public ownership of media and impact on the news 0 Public ownership is funded by the government 0 Run on the basis of what the public wants to see 0 Wide variety of different shows targeting different audiences 0 Viewers will only listen to news that is like minded to their beliefs if they do not tune into other public ownerships of media then they are blocking out information 0 Political information is typically blocked out at this time 0 Public is less educated on issues around the world Crossownership 0 Single ownership of two or more related businesses that allows the owner to control competition 0 1970probation on crossownership of radio and TV stations Federal Communications Commission 0 1934 regulates broadcast media as the airwaves are publicly owned newspapers are not 0 5 members are appointed by the president there to promote the public interest 0 The Federal Communications Commission FCC sets limits on the number of broadcast stations radio and television an entity can own as well as limits on the common ownership of broadcast stations and newspapers Equal time rule 0 You have to give candidates running for office the same amount of time on as 0 Still in place but kind of irrelevant 0 Political candidates can buy air time now 0 There is a great deal of expectations Fairness Doctrine 0 1949required the holders to broadcast licenses to both present controversial issues of public importance and to do so in a manner that was in the Commission s view honest equitable and balanced Telecommunications Act consequences 0 Removed all limits on the number of television and radio stations free ownership as long as combined they are reaching less than 35 of the population 0 Builds monopolies 0 Few phone stations fewer companies Role of constitution first amendment on media 0 The first amendment to the US Constitution is what guarantees the freedom of the press in the United States 0 Freedom of speech freedom of press 0 They can decide what their journalist can write 0 Owners say they cannot appeal the first amendment History of media in US 0 Partisan medial 177051 8403 0 An adherent or supporter of a person group party or cause especially a person who shows a biased emotional allegiance 0 Bias did not make people want to read 0 Hamilton newspaper is the Kezetl positive views of the government I Ran an elite newspaper 0 Jefferson national newspaper Kezetl shows all sides of the government I Post only critical ideas I Wanted democracy in the hands of the land owners 0 Commercial medialjl84OSl9203 0 Media which derive part of their income from advertising 0 National funding was decreasing in the media 0 They needed to appeal to a wider audience to gain money I The penny press more people were able to buy the newspaper I 18403 telegraphs were created news stories could be broadcasted further invention of the railroad I Establishment of the printing office 1860 cutoff government funding I Civil war people wanted to know about the civil war public demand I Powerful editors yellow journalisml add exaggeration I Spanish American War 1898 news outcry was established 0 Objective medial 1920519705 0 Journalistic objectivity is a significant principle of journalistic professionalism Journalistic objectivity can refer to fairness disinterestedness factuality and nonpartisanship but most often encompasses all of these qualities Truth Justice Fairness Objectivity 0 Media was powerful in this era the public loved them 0 Interpretive medialjl97OSl99OS 0 Media was starting to contextualize subjects I More aggressive I Make a story out of facts 0 Reporters leads you into a certain direction 0 Journalist want to inform the public about issues that are going on that they may not be aware of 0 The reporter leads the reader into a direction 0 Fragmented medialjl99OSpresent 0 Describes a trend to increasing choice and consumption of a range of media in terms of different channels such as web and mobile as well as within channels 0 Increases opinions of the viewers I Audience can be journalist I Most information is opinion based 0 Local news is cheap to produce 0 FCC allows for Cross ownership 0 Gatekeepers used to have to site sources but now they do not need to anymore Yellow Journalist 0 Journalism that is based upon sensatialism and crude exaggeration Joseph Pulitzer 0 Realized yellow journalism was not good started the school of journalism 0 Had to have a degree in the field of study you wanted to report on 0000 0 Pushed for education and profit of the media 0 Improved the training of writers 0 1940s 600 journalism schools Models of communications media effects 1 Direct effectljl920 media was in uential whatever the media put out there directly injected the people 2 hypodermic needle theoryljmakes democracy impossible therefore people cannot have a mind of their own 3 Minimal effect 4 Cumulative effectElinformation is not directly injected to people but makes you see things more important than others 5 cultivation theoryl 4 Not so minimal effect modelljl987 bribing and framing tries to make us think about considerations that will make us believe one candidate over the other tells us what to think about not how to think 5 Receive accept sample mode1l992 Selective exposure 0 Selective exposure is the motivation selection of proattitudinal messages and the motivated avoidance of counterattitudinal messages 0 Seeing what you want 0 Reading what you want 0 Receiving and listening to what you want to see 0 Select views that support your views likeminded Theories of selective exposure 0 Cognitive dissonancelja con ict or anxiety resulting from inconsistencies between ones beliefs and ones actions or other beliefs 0 News that does not agree with you makes you feel uncomfortable 0 Want to avoid con ict 0 No dissonance you do not seek new information 0 Some dissonance you seek out some new information but information that is not ne g ative 0 A lot of dissonance you seek out a lot of information and get rid of information that has the least resistance 0 Cognitive misersl 0 we avoid thinking too much use labels and stereotypes 0 thinking is time consuming search behavior follows a trend that is most proficient to use as individuals 0 Information qualityljif you agree with the message we tend to believe that the information has a higher quality Selective perception 0 People ignore discount or actively resist information that is inconsistent with their partisan preference Selective retention 0 how you restore that information Selective avoidance 0 avoid information that is not like minded to what you believe 0 selective on what you receive as news Selective approach 0 information that you seek out Negativity bias 0 people seem to gravitate toward negative more than positive information negative information stands out more than positive information 2 forces that shape the news 0 Market forces as commercial enterprises news organizations are subject to the same logic that drives all other economic activity minimize costs and maximize revues Soft news attracts much larger audiences than serious news so producers are under pressure to make their programs more entertaining 0 Professional norms and values professional norms of autonomy and objectivity in journalism lead journalists to interpretive forms of coverage emphasizing as watches candidates strategy the horse of the race and scandal stories Determinants of newsworthiness 0 Local advertise just for the local area target audience 0 Cheaper because only local individual watch that particular news 0 Pertains to that area so it is relevant to their well being Impact end of Cold War on intern news 0 News got rid of foreign departments 0 Wanted to show more exciting news News markets DMA s O Designated Media Assignment 210 local television markets 0 Corresponds to a metropolitan area but in less urban parts may include DMAs 0 Consists of a set of antennabased local television stations licensed by the FCC and assigned to a speci c channel AC Nielsen Company 0 Television news audience are measured by 0 Measuring how many people watch a particular program is the mission of AC Nielsen Company Audit Bureau of Circulations O The price of advertising depends on the number of people reached by any given newspaper or television news program 0 Statistics on newspaper circulation are compiled by Impact of ratings and circulation of news 0 Historical trend in newspaper circulation is not promising Mediality 0 what is going to sell Local news broadcast structure content 0 advertise just for your area target audience 0 cheaper because only local individual watch that particular news 0 mayhem is still important Hostile media phenomenon 0 people who are highly committed to a point of view perceive impartial news stories to be biased in favor of their opponents Friendly media phenomenon 0 highlights the difference between a person s belief about the media in general and the media that he or she uses regularly and puts a new twist on the hostile media phenomenon Stringers 0 local individual 0 individuals who gather news and news stories Parachute journalist 0 comes from the news station 0 dropped on the spot to show that there is something news worthy of showing Media pools 0 should not be able to cover everything have to worry about public opinion 0 small groups of reporters representing several print and broadcast news organizations who would work under close supervision of the Defense Department Embedded journalism 0 a select group of American and international correspondents were to be embedded with the invading forces Models of relationship 0 Elite driven modell media are understood to largely re ect and reinforce elite viewpoints 0 Liberal Democratic modell maintain that media and public opinion certainly should act as an important constraint upon policy makers Public opinion and media should in uence foreign policy formulation acting as checks against corrupt political elites 0 Neo Plurist modelljpolitical contest tries to identify under what circumstances the public in uences the media policy media interaction if policy is certain then media frames are certain and the agenda is made cascading activation disagreement among elites and ambiguity Indexing hypothesis 0 Media is following what the government officials are saying 0 Media does not have anything to criticize 0 If there is a lot of disagreement they show these stories too 0 Media works as faithful servants for the elites CNN effect 0 the rstonetocoverceltainevents 0 media coverage of human suifering leads to desire for helping or covering 0 this could lead to humanitan39an intervention Vietnam Syndrome 0 public support for the war 0 for the US the war was understood as a righteous struggle against the evils of Communism 0 as casualties mount and critical media coverage increases public opinion turns increasingly against a war 0 news media plays a far bigger role in terms of mobilizing public support in favor of war Casualties hypothesis 0 listen to the public and change their strategies 0 as time goes on casualties increase 0 how public opinion is the very broadest terms serves as restraints upon policy makers Democratic Peace thesis 0 most democracies are wealthy and it is risky to go to war because the high cost 0 liberaldemocratic model uses democratic peace model to support them an decide what the best strategy is 0 this thesis maintains that liberal democracies are waraverse because at least in part the consent of the public is required Prior restraint 0 have a made up mind and these restraints make it harder for individuals to change their ideas views and beliefs about topics Transformative power of new technology 0 Due to changes and improvements we can see more horror and vividness 0 Much more confronted and exposed to what the war is like 0 In uencing the relationship between public opinion and the media Fragmented public sphere 0 if news consumers are increasingly divided among those interested in specific issues audiences become fragmented and smaller and less able to generate political in uence 0 rather than empowering publics the intemet may be helping to generate a fragmented public sphere New media 0 when the intemet became accessible the percentage of Americans who get their news online exploded 0 young people rely on digital sources for news 0 websites connected to cable news networks and traditional print sources are among the most popular online news sources Attentive public hypothesis 0 people interested by politics tune in to all form of news whereas the apolitical majority pays very little attention to news in any medium Partisan polarization hypothesis 0 people prefer to encounter information that supports their beliefs and avoid information that is inconsistent with those beliefs Issue public hypothesis 0 people seek out information about subjects that are particularly important or interesting to them and tune out information about their subjects Impact of internet on campaigns 0 over the past decades the landscape of politics has drastically changed with mass adoption of digital technology 0 the adoption of such social media has significantly contributed to the evolution of election campaign practices 0 2006 was the first election in which social media websites were embraced by campaigns Bottom up politics 0 the bottomup model of many blogs in which readers are encouraged to offer feedback and critique news stories may also lead to more attention to nontraditional sources 0 new campaign practices have brought about great potential to bring voters into the foreground of elections campaigns and to provide opportunities to engage in bottomup politics Microtargeting 0 campaigns can now target certain voters with specific information 0 have a better chance of appealing to the specific issues that are more important to different voters 0 targeted websites to focus on a certain candidate Personalization 0 it is about the person not the issue Depoliticizes politics Become more human like Out of touch with the common person 0 Portray that the candidate is a normal person not just an elite Interactivity 0 Ability to lonl the candidate 0 More direct contact 0 Builds this sense of community 0 Anonymously people can join you and share their ideas 0 Increases participation 0 You begin to like this individual for their ideas and opinions Sustained engagement 0 Relying on individuals who are already active but invite the common man to a meeting 0 Invite people who might not be as attentive 0 Opportunity to become active and engaged 0 Ask individuals about their views and opinions 0 What should I address here 0 Has a large psychological effect when people bring in their own opinion Differences in old media and new media coverage Hayes chapter 0 Suggest that new media content may in fact look very much like its traditional predecessors new media is subject to the same realities Slacktivism 0 social media made participation too easy 0 the tendency to replace hard of ine political behaviors with easy social media substitutes was deemed Slacktivism Watergate scandal why was there initially so little attention for the story Plumbers Watergate scandal 0 Staff created PLUMBERS to stop leaks O Began political espionage against democrats Woodsteinl journalist who uncovered the Watergate scandal Consequences of Watergate got journalism 0 July 24 1974 US supreme court orders secret tapes released 0 July 30 1974 house of Judiciary committee votes articles of impeachment 0 Aug 9 1974 Nixon resigns Gerald Ford becomes president Consequences for role journalist PBS nightly coverage of Senate Watergate committee in 1973 Journalism enrollment rise at US colleges Open primaries any registered voter can vote in the primary for any party Modified open primaries registered partisans can vote only in their own party s primacy


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