Psych of Sex Exam 2 Guide
Psych of Sex Exam 2 Guide PSYCH 210
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Psychlogy
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucas Reller on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 210 at University of Washington taught by McDermott in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Psychology of Sexuality Exam 2 Review 0 Cultural Diversity 0 Beliefs about Conception I The male s role in pregnancy is insemination sperm and semen I The female s role is the carrier uterus and the egg I Coitus awakens the embryo and nourishes it but is irrelevant for conception and is dangerous for the embryo 0 Ownership of Offspring I Different cultures believe the child belongs to different people I Examples of that are the husbands family the mothers family mothers husband not necessarily biological biological father biological mother 0 Beliefs and Practices Related to Childbearing I Childbirth confinement who is involved with the pregnancy the duration of labor and paternity rights I Couvade lessens pain for female transfers pain and suffering of child birth to the male I Postpartum confinement sexual taboos avoidance of sex with men and just avoiding men in general mother and child bonding time full attention to be given by mother I Breast Feeding to ensure childhood health ritual male lactation to earn paternity rights 0 Becominq Preqnant 0 Preparing for pregnancy I Planned pregnancies are healthier for child and mother I Pre screen for STI s before getting pregnant same for father I Avoid use of steroids alcohol cigarettes hot tubs gas fumes radiation This is all vital for the health of ova and sperm as well as the embryo I Prenatal care and parenting classes to optimize the health of the baby I Optimize your sexual experience basically only have sex to have kids and make it a special thing boring o Conception I Methods to increase your likelihood of conception include estimating the time of ovulation and having sex every 24 hours during that period I Use a position that will pool semen around cervix aka girl on her back or missionary leave legs raised for 20 minutes after sex so you look like a fucking idiot I Don t douche or use lube it affects the pH of the vag and that fucks the sperm up I Signs you might be pregnant missed period nausea and fatigue tender boobies peeing a lot some uterine cramping I False pregnancies pseudocyesis I Shows presumptive signs of pregnancy missed period weight gain morning sickness enlarged abdomen 0 Pregnancy Tests I It is important to determine the pregnancy ASAP I The embryo is most sensitive from days 2056 LMP before the women usually knows she is pregnant I You have to find out if the pregnancy is ectopic I Methods to test for pregnancy 0 Test of human chorionic gonadotropin HCG secreted as embryo implants 0 Ultrasound visualization 0 Home test kits can determine a week after fertilization and has a 2530 false negative rate more accurate after a week 0 Blood serum test can detect as early as 48 hours after fertilization expensive and can also give a false negative if done too early 1416 Days Zygote and fertilized ovum 2125 Days Blastocyst and implantation 26th Day Chorionic villi and HCG levels rise 8 Weeks Prolonged E and P from corpus luteum 810 Weeks Chorionic villi sampling CVS i Second Trimester 1012 Weeks Placenta forms E and P begin to stabalize 12th Week Placental hormones maintain pregnancy 13th Week HCG and morning sickness disappears 16th Week Amniocentsis to determine errors and ultrasound 1620 Weeks Quickening percieved fetal movement 1920 Weeks Colostrum production beings in breast and not secretion Third Trimester A g OJ W A 7 7 L LJ I r e l v I i l l s aincy viiaildlollel W My an 9mg w mal m 7 42 1 L n A in 7 9746 Blralzxs toilnlel l Hicks comm acukon e w omit not ergllllflllllglm o Emotional Response of the Couple 0 Emotions are mixed excitement and joy of getting pregnant while being worried about the future and expenses 0 Worries about miscarriages 1 in 7 0 Men and women experiences with pregnancies are polar opposites women see it as part of self where as guys see pregnancy as abstract Second Trimester Weeks 1324 LMP 0 Sexual Experiences and Concerns for couples 0 Birth Female body changing and females become increasingly concerned with attractiveness Fear of injuring the fetus during sex most couples have sex until the 9th month Change in secretions and pelvic engorgement concerns about libido sex drive arise 0 Time of Birth Full term 40 weeks post LMP Only 4 of deliveries occur on due date Neonate survival is almost 100 Preterm births Delivery prior to 37 weeks Infants weighing less than 55 pounds 12 of all births are pre mature 50 of twins and 90 of 3 and up 75 of neonatal deaths are preterm deliveries Post Term births 2 weeks after due date Induced pregnancies by Pitocin and prostaglandins 10 of births are post term fetus becomes too large for the vag so they do Csections post term infants are 3 times more likely to die than infants born at term 0 Vaginal Birth vs CSection O vaginal delivery 15 mo to full recovery lochia bleeding from endometrial wound vaginal bruises tears perineum episiotomy stitches afterbirth pains uterus contracts shrinks Csection 1 mo1 year to full recovery major abdominal surgery abdominal muscles uterus surgery complications complicates inhibits nursing infant care Postpartum Week 112 after delivery Lactation Mothers can breast feed during this time Drops in P and E cause prolactin production causing milk production I Stimulation of the nipple sends messages to the mother to release milk I Oxytocin causes ejection of the colostrum from the breast Continued suckling inhibits release of FSH and P 0 Benefits of breastfeeding for mother and infant I Mother suckling helps shrink the uterus to prepregnancy size and reduces afterbirth pains I The hormonal state supporting lactation reduces risks of cancer breast and ovanan I Infant colostrum contains the mother antibodies to help the baby fight infections and grow their immune system breast milk is the perfect food for babies has the perfect balance of nutrients for a growing baby 0 Disadvantages I Time consuming and the mother can pass pathogens to the infant HIV Hepatitis I Father is sidelined from feeding the baby feels less involved 0 Emotional response of the couple I Postpartum depression for females I 80 get the baby blues few days weeks after I 20 experience depression couple of weeksmonths after I 01 experience psychotic depression distortion of reality prone to harm self or infant I males postpartum depression 62 involves a lot of stress and fatigue along with the demands of an infant 0 Sexual Concerns for the Couple I coital taboo 6 weeks healing uterus infection lochia I low libido high prolactin if nursing fatigue I painful coitus low E causes reduced lubrication healing tissues I milk ejection oxytocin orgasm nipple stimulation I sexual arousal orgasm nursing infant cuddling 0 Impact of Parenthood I marital satisfaction plummets does not return to prior levels for many years I birth of infant is major stressor will not fix broken marriage may precipitate divorce I child disrupts marital sex life fatigue privacy emotional intrusion I unrealistic expectations kill marital happiness I life satisfaction increases accomplishment of goal new attachment love 0 Contraception o Condoms I Been used since 1356 BC I Are now polyurethane o Cervical barriers I Been used since 1850 BC I Are now polyurethane female condoms o Spermicides I Used since 1550 BC I Are now used as spermicide as well as spermicide lubricated condoms o Intrauterine Devices IUD I Used since 2000 BC I Now called progestasert 0 Surgical Contraception Sterilization I Used since 2000 BC I Vasectomy Males I Tubal ligation Females Hormonal contraceptive Pill I Used since 600 BC I Used to be sold on the streets before legal I Todays forms 0 Plan B o Vaginal ring nuva Ring 0 Birth control pill Fertility awareness I Used since 1931 I Used to detect ovulation to avoid sex during this period I Very difficult I Need to be a seasoned veteran European witch trials 12001600 I A way of communicating with the devil to kill fetuses and babies Supreme court rulings in America I Salem witch trials 1670 o Contraception and abortion were crimes against nature I Comstock Obscenity Law 1873 o Prohibited dispensing contraception s or information I Margaret Sanger National Birth Control League Planned Parenthood o Lobbied for married women to use contraception o Opened illegal clinic was arrested I 1918 0 Laws passed allowing doctors to prescribe contraception to control pregnancy and disease I 1930 s 0 Repeals of Comstock laws 0 Some state allowed married women to use contraception I 1972 o All states allow married women to use contraception under the quotright to Privacy I 1991 0 Right to use contraception is questioned by Supreme Court Justice Thomas I 2005 0 Some states pass laws allowing pharmacists to refuse to fill contraception s 30 years of possible contraception I 1747 women 25 years of contraceptive use I 56 kinds Impact of Erotophobia I Lack of general knowledge I Underestimate the risk of getting pregnant Multiple methods of contraception increase protection from pregnancy O O O 0 Reason for failure of abstinence High sex drive Lack of resolve during times of temptation Use of alcohol and drugs Peer pressure Fertility awareness Adjunct method 0 Determining contraception after knowing relative fertility and risk of pregnancy Sole method 0 Used alone to space out pregnancies Caveat o Fertility awareness Calendar method 0 Used to predict expected ovulation 0 Least effective Cervical method 0 Change to the cervix o Hardness texture mucus Basal body temperature 0 Check temperature everyday Enzymehormone ovulation kit 0 Test strip tests urine and saliva Daily pill Inability to ovulate Pill taken daily There are gaps when you do not take the pill or take an inert pill that does nothing Missedlate pills must be taken right away Reduce risk of cancer Negative 0 Blood clot o Tumors 0 High blood pressure Safer than aspirin Types of emergency contraceptive o Yuzpe 0 Contains E and P 0 Plan B o P only Long lasting hormonal methods Sub dermal implants o 35 years 0 Under skin in arm Progestin injections 0 12 weeks 0 Time release progestin IUD Vaginal rings 0 3 weeks 0 Time release estrogenprogestin Transdermal patch 0 1 week 0 Absorbed through skin Progestin T o 5 years CopperT o 10 years Inserted into uterus Safest long term contraceptive Male condoms Protection against sti Female Condom Provides barrier to Cervix Fitted to the cervix Types 0 Diaphragm o Fitted in vagina o Cervical clap o Fits tightly over cervix o Cervical shield 0 Valve that creates vacuum seal 0 Disposable sponge o Inserted into upper vagina All use Spermicide Spermicides Types 0 Jellycream o Sponge o Vaginal tablets Kills sperm Impedes movement of sperm into cervix May not spread around cervix Female Sterilization Tubal litigation 0 Cutting and stitching Tubal electrocoagulation 0 Burning and sealing Tubal blockade 0 Fill with medicationplugs Tubes may regrow Expensive Male sterilization Vasectomy 00000 O 0 Cutting and stitching I Vas cautery o No incision I Vas valve 0 In development 0 Reversible I Sperm can live in tubes for up to 6 months I Cheaper I Safer I More effective Sterilization is the most used contraceptive Eastern Asia ranks number 1 in use of contraceptive Japan is number 1 in condom use China and India are highest in sterilization Europe is highest in post sex pills China is first in iud o Resolvinq unwanted preqnancv 0 000000 59 million abortions per year I 36 million legal I 22 million illegal Highest abortion rates I Romania Cuba Vietnam Lowest abortion rates I Netherlands Belgium Germany Switzerland 40 of nations allow abortions on demand 25 of nations have restricted access 35 of nations restrict Netherlands has highest access China forces abortions to control populations Motivation for abortion I Health considerations 0 Illness fear of childbirth I Political causes 0 Excess I Social structure 0 Social pressure I Economic factors 0 Poverty I Family dynamics 0 Illegitimacy I Herbal preparations 0 Plants I Maneuvers o Squeezing bodymassaging I Instrumentation o Insertion of various devices External applications Heat Weakening Starvationbleeding Magical rites Garmentsposturebath 0 Mostly teens abort 0 At current rates 43 of women will have an abortion 0 Preembryo period Develops from pin point to sesame seed Zygote Chonon Single cell develops into several Moves to uterus to implant itself Blastocyst Fluid ball filled with 100 cells Same size as fertilized egg Outer layer forms fetal membranes nter cell mass will form embryo Eventually form umbilical cord and placenta Establishes life support Allows transfer of O O 0 Oxygen Glucose Nutrients Transfer of waste 0 Embryo period 1St trimester Inner cell develops into embryo C shaped hollow tube with 3 layers develops Ectoderm o Nervous system and skin Mesoderm 0 Muscle 0 Skeleton o Reproductivecirculatory systems Endoderm o Digestive 0 Respiratory Nervous system 0 Week 3 I Brain begins to develop hollow neural tube Week 4 I Spinal cord begins to develop Week 5 I First neurons form Week 8 I First synapse form o Circulatory systems 0 Week 4 I Heart forms with contractions but no circulation 0 Week 8 I 4 chambered heart with circulation 0 Motor system 0 Week 5 I Precursors to limbs form 0 Week 67 I Limb movement twitches 0 Week 10 I Extremities are formed 0 Other systems 0 Week 5 I Facial features I Umbilical cord 0 Week6 I Ears I Eyes 0 Week7 I Gonads I Organogenesis 0 End of embryo period and all systems are present with little function 0 Fetal period 2quot 1l trimester I Rapid development and structures an functions of major organs I Nervous system 0 Week 12 o Differentiation of cortical and subcortical areas of the brain 0 Week 24 0 Sleep and wakefulness are evident o Senses begin to develop 0 Month 5 o Detectable heart beat 0 Month 6 o Responds to light and sounds 0 Sucks thumb 0 Fetal period 3rel trimester I Fat deposits create energy storage I Maturation of nervous system 0 Synaptic connection between brain and spinal cord 0 Control of body functions I Maturation of respiratory system 0 Breathing I Significant weight gain 0 Viability I Development outside uterus I Week 24 0 5080 of all babies survive o 15 reach normal health 0 85 have high risk of deformities 0 Cost 0 551 million 0 3 moth stay at Nice 0 Menstrual extraction I Mechanical extraction of endometrium I May be ineffective because of small size of egg I Brief recovery 0 Mifepristone I Impairs growth of endometrium I 95 affective I Used during weeks 34 I Can be used as post coital pill o Insertion of IUD I Mechanical explosion of endometrium I 95 effective during weeks 34 0 Methods during 1St trimester I 90 of abortion by week12 50 by week 9 I Mifepristone plus misoprostol 0 Medical abortion 0 Earliest abortion takes 4 days 0 Oral pills I Methotrexate plus misoprostol Medical abortion 96 effective Cheaper No need to go to abortion clinic 0 Oral pill I Vacuum aspiration o 86 of total abortions 0 Surgical abortion 0 Vacuum out uterine contents 0 Takes 5 minutes I Dilation and curettage 0 Surgical abortion 0 May require hospitalization o Scrapes uterine wall 0 Used primarily after miscarriage 0 Methods used during 2quot l trimester I 10 of abortions I 8 because of fetal defects I Dilation and evacuation 0 Surgical 0 Fetal is sectioned and vacuumed out I Mifepristone plus gemeprost 0 Medical abortion 0 Hospital clinic more rapid than labor induction I Late term intact D amp X 0 Surgical abortion 0 Safest method in 2quot l trimester o Inject fetus to stop heart I Labor induction instillation 0 Medical abortion 0 Fetus is born dead I Hysterectomy 0 Emergency procedure 0 Surgical abortion 0 Basically a Csection Methods used during 3rel trimester I 1 of abortions I Pregnancy is a threat to women s life I Intact DampX I Emergency Csection I Labor induced Protect women from harm 18201841 I Crime to harm women but not fetus I Induced labor was most used I Oppose abortion due to risk to women s health Establish doctor control 18691880 I Illegal to have abortion without physician I Threat to mothers life determined abortion Protect unborn souls 1869 I Judged as immoral but not murder Preserve the public moral good 1870s I Passage of Comstock laws I Black market contraceptives Preserve white Anglo Saxon protestants heritage in America I Concerns about high catholic birth rate I Terminating pregnancy was immoral 1973 Roe vs Wade I Abortion is established as a constitutional right 19001990 I Increase use of contraception lowered birth rate 1960 I Abortion banned in all states except for extreme conditions 0 Rape o Incest Concern about black market abortions leads to lobbying to allow abortion Harris v McRae decision1976 I Hyde amendment I States are allowed to fund abortions I Government isn t obligated to pay for abortions 1989 Webster vs Reproductive Health Services I Women have limited constitutional right to abortion 1994 Madison vs women s health clinic I Banning protests at abortion clinics 1999 I Federal jury fines prolife 107 million for inciting murder and violence 19952004 I Fight to ban DampX procedure 0 Ban held in 2006 2000 I Congress pass unborn victims violence act I Crime to injury women s fetus except abortion 0 Sex and gender 0 0 Sex chromosomes I XX I XY 22 pairs of chromosomes Fetuses are relatively the same through week 7 Male week 7 I Testes begin to develop from ovaries Female week 1116 I Ovaries begin to develop Weeks 812 internal ducts differentiate I Wolffian ducts o Mesonephric tubes I Mullerian Ducts o Paramesonpheric tubes Males week 810 I Testes begin to secrete testosterone I Testosterone cause wolffian tubes to turn into 0 Vas deferens o Ejaculatory duct 0 Epididymis o Seminal vesicles Females week 1012 I Pg 191 chart I Lack of hormones causes wolffian tubes to disintegrate I Mullerian tube develops into 0 Uterus o Oviducts 0 Upper vagina Weeks 1214 I Gene Talia and glands differentiate Males I DHT in testes I Penis and scrotal sac develop I DHT differentiates o Para urethral glands into prostate and Cowper s glands 0 Females I Elongation and swelling of tubercle and fusion of partial slit I Clitoris and labia develop I Paraurethal gland develop into 0 SkenesBartholdi s glands 0 Brain development I Men 0 Estrogen formed from release of testosterone in testes 0 Ability to menstruate is lost I Female 0 Potential for menstruating stays 0 Brain protected from estrogens by FNBP o Pubertal process I Males 0 Growth of vas deferens and semen 0 Sex steroids produced on noncycling basis I Females o Stimulation of vaginal secretion 0 Sex steroids on cycling basis 0 Adrenogenital syndrome I Over production of masculine hormones I Women born with testes instead of ovaries I Publicly the same 0 Males will have male characteristics 0 Females will have female characteristics I Higher likely hood to be gay or lesbian I Not able t ejaculate or menstruate I No way to reverse this 0 Aspects of biological sex I Primarycharacteristic o Ovariestestes I Secondary characteristics 0 Breastsbeard I Reproduction o Menstruationejaculation 0 Modes of gender I Dichotomy o Masculine and feminine I Continuum o Masculinity and feminist are at the opposite ends of the spectrum and androgyny is the mid point I Vectors o Androgyny masculinity femininity undifferentiated I Gender sub cultures 0 Gender bendergender blender gender outlawgender free o Androgynous male I Biological male that has male and female behaviors o Androgynous female I Biological female with male and female gender behaviors o Transgender I MTF 0 Biological male who acts like a female I FTM 0 Biological female who acts like male 0 Autogynephile I Biological male dresses like female 0 Autoandrophile I Biological female who dresses like male 0 Gynemimic I Biological male that s a drag queen o Andromimic I Biological female with masculine traits Females are likely to underreport sexual behavior Males are likely to over report sexual behavior Education social class religion have higher effect on women More females require love to be present to have sex Primary purpose for sex I Females 0 Express loveemotion I Males o Satisfy biological need 0 Gynephilic I Attracted to females 0 Androphiic I Attracted to males Males more involved in purchasing sex Females more involved in commercial sex Most western countries MTF is more popular than FTM Crossed dressed males are a large majority straight I 89 heterosexual I 64 marries I 74 fathers I Try to pass as females in public 0 TV makes children more gender stereotyped 0 Sexual orientation 0 Sexual identity I Sense of self 0 Sexual lifestyle I Role in society 0 Dichotomous categories model I Heterosexual 0 Straight 00000 0000 I Homosexual o Gaylesbian Continuum model I Homosexuality one ne side I Heterosexuality on another side I Bisexuality in the middle Vectors model I Heterosexuality I Homosexuality I Bisexuality I Asexuality Dimensions model I 45 styles of sexuality not based on orientation 0 Attraction 0 Attachment 0 Behavior 0 Identity 0 Role schema Am bisexual I Attachment to anomalous gender Monosexual I Sex with only same or opposite gender Ambisexual I Sex with both genders Sequen al I Same sex sex and cross sex sex take place at different times in life Trans generational I Partners of different psycho sexual ages 0 Milfs Intergenerational I Same age Extramarital I Marry heterosexual and engage in same sex outside of marriage Contra marital I Don t want to marry hetero sexual so prior to marriage set up same sex relationship Erroneous assumptions I A phase of development leading to homoheterosexuality I Denial Mon sexism I Assumption that there are only 2 sexual orientations I Bisexuals are confused Half males and females experience some attractionfantasy to same sex PFLAG I Parents and friends of lesbians and gays Gay subcultures I Queens I Muscle boys I Bears 0 Lesbian subcultures I Lipstick lezzies I Motorcycle dykes I Feminists o Humans are usually attracted to people with similar traits Same gender sex is evident in over 400 species 0 Sociobiology I Biodiversity I Balanced polymorphism o Trait occurs with another trait as well I Kinparental selection 0 First degree relatives share similar genes I Indirect adaptive advantages 0 Same sex alliances have reproductive advantages I Male femininity 0 Some degree of feminine traits 0 Differences in straight and gay male brains I Genetic instruction 0 Possible gene on x chromosome I Prenatal environment 0 Fetal or maternal hormones I Postnatal environment 0 Pubertal hormones O o Androphilic o attracted to males 0 Gynephilic o attracted to females 0 Autogynephile o biological male with male core gender identity gains satisfaction by dressing as a woman in SOME circumstances 0 Autoandrophile o biological female with female core gender identity gains satisfaction by dressing as a man in SOME circumstances egodystonic or egosyntonic o Graphscharts that you need to understand Attraction to other sex HIGH Attraction HGH Attraction t0 same t0 same sex sex Asexual LOW Attraction to other sex Masculine Traits HIGH Feminine HGH Feminine Traits Traits Undifferen Femininity tiated LOW Masculine Traits
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