Psych of Sex Exam 3 Guide
Psych of Sex Exam 3 Guide PSYCH 210
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Psychlogy
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucas Reller on Monday February 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 210 at University of Washington taught by McDermott in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Psychology of Sexuality Exam 3 Review 1 Childhood Sexualit 0 Dimensions of sexuality in western cultures Adolescence Cognitive dimension development of consciousness O Abstract 0 Social interpersonal dimension nature of the involvement of other humans Otheroriented 0 Gender dimension the impact of core gender and social role Resolved 0 Orientation sexual identity dimension the role of the partner s gender Hetero homo or bisexual 0 Erotic dimension love map emotional tone or behaviors Erotophobia Erotophilia o Infancy 02 years 0 Typical sexual needs I Sexual needs are undifferentiated from other needs I Genital response is enjoyable but unfocussed I Orgasm is uncommon I quotSexual partner must be familiar 0 Physical dimension I Entire skin is erogenous zone I Polymorphus perversity capacity for sensual pleasure from stimulation of any part of the body I High sex hormone levels after birth I Genital response is associated with any pleasurable experience 0 Cognitive dimension preconscious sensorimotor I Infants preconscious direct experience I Sensorimotor discovery through sensation movement 0 Gender dimension undifferentiated unaware of own gender 0 Difference in rearing I Females more fragile dependent beauty softness o Dolls are 60 times more common I Males tough independent strength coordination 0 Vehicles are 18 times more common 0 Erotic dimension pragmatic I Pleasure is reflexive but turns into selfsought I Males are likely to experience their first erection in the womb 0 Social dimension egocentric objects I Attachment to animate objectdeep attachment to caregivers I Transitional objects help get over loss of contact from caregivers O Orientation dimension Unaware of gender but preference to higher pitched voice 0 Early childhood 27 years 0 Typical sexual behaviors O O O O Genitalnongenital behaviors initiated by children Masturbation increases and associated with selfcare Awareness of gender based on different clothing rather than genitals Common kiss hug stroke undress expose body rub bodies talk sex view others play doctor Uncommon oral anal vaginal penetration Cognitive dimension conscious concrete Understands aspects of sexual categoryrudimentary knowledge Curiosity about pregnancybirth Labeling of body map Gender dimension core identity fluid to constant Conscious of gender labelsvaluesdifferences Differences in rearing Both receive same contact comfort Boys 0 More likely to be labeled independent by their fathers than their mothers 0 Tolerance for nuditybody functioning o Weaned from contact comfort 0 Greater body knowledge and pride for boys than girls 0 Remain labeled asexual o More acceptance of different gender roles Erotic dimension social restrictions Parents label body parts Parental imposed privacy 0 Social dimension egocentric to otherincorporative 0 See people not simply as animate objects but as quotpersonsquot Strong attachments love affairs to othergendered parents Occasional sexual interaction Orientation dimension ambisexual Develop strong samesex relationships Parental labeling o Preadolescence 812 years 0 Typical sexual behavior 0 First feeling of sexual attractionfantasycontact with peer Focused masturbationinterest in pornography Samegender sex play Mixed gender activities are not about affection Learn about coitus Conscious awareness of sexual attraction and desire Physical dimension I Adrenarche phase one of puberty onset of sex hormone release from adrenal glands I Menarche first menstruation of female 0 Age of menarche is partially dependent on a girl s body weight I Gonadarche release of hormones from the gonads begins 0 Occurs in 2ncl stage of puberty I Spermarche first ejaculation with semen I Beginning sex drive 0 Cognitive dimension conscious moving toward abstract I Conscious pursuit of sexual information I Sexual fantasiesjoking 0 Gender dimension rigid I Gender segregationstereotyping o Malefemale differences in socialization I Stereotyping jobs I Girls achieve better in school I Girls tend to feel more vulnerable physically unsafeerotophobic than boys 0 Erotic dimension erotophobia erotphilia I Love map established I Feel sexual attraction to peers 0 Social dimension otherincorporative I Increase sexual involvement 0 Orientation dimension homosocial I Selfimposed gender segregation I Selfdiscovery sexual experiences I Same gender sexual activity does not predict adult orientation 0 Schoohng 0 US children are sexually illiterate compared to European children 0 More sexual restriction are placed on children later rather than earlier in childhood lnis Baeg USA North Europe Muria of India KNOW39edge KNOWIedge to correct Knowledge prevents Knowledge enhance corrupts sex is problems problems life taboo Regulate access to Experience left to Enhance sexual Actively suppress info peers pleasure and interest knowledge Stress avoidance of Acknowledge expression Stress fear harm harm pleasure and danger of sex Ignore pleasure 2 Adolescent Sexualit o Pubertal Development 10 year process to full puberty Triggered by a hormone related to the storage of fat on the body Involves the same hormones and same tissues in males and females Average female I Puberty onset adrenarche age 8 I Menarche age 11 I Viable ovulation ages 1314 0 Average male I Puberty onset gonadarche age 10 I Spermarcheejaculation age 13 I High mature sperm count ages 15 o Emotional issues with puberty I Changes in males 0 Penis issues 0000 o Ejaculation o Bodysue o Acne 0 Voice changes I Female changes 0 Breast buttocks thighs legs size shape 0 Vagina onset of lubrication feels quotdirtyquot o Menstruation quotthe curse Genital hygiene quotAttractivenessquot face general body Fear of fat eating disorders 0 Androgenic onset hairy pimples o Rites of passage into adulthood I Preindustrialized societies 0 Puberty marks adult biologicalsocial status 0 Puberty and adulthood begin at the same time o Puberty signifies adulthood readiness for adult rights responsibilities sex marriage reproduction 0 Girls are typically initiated as individuals while boys are usually initiated in groups 0 Boys rites are more elaborate and last longer than girls I Industrialized societies 0 Puberty marks adolescence o Postpone adult social status and marriage due to need for highly educated work force 0 Many teens use coitus as rite of passage into adulthood o Heterosexual patterns 0 Virginity I Reasons for abstinence 0 Fear of negative outcomes STI pregnancy Fear of disapproval parents peers partner Fear of violating personal beliefs Involuntary lack of opportunity Virginity pledge abstinence until marriage 0 25 million teens take pledge of abstinence until marriage 0 80 break pledge 0 Delay coitus 18 months longer than other teens o Masturbation Heterosexuals are more likely to experience first orgasm from masturbation than from coitus Comfort with masturbation is associated with high sexual selfesteem in adukhood 0 Sexual behavior Teen sexual behavior is episodic infrequent Romantic dating is associated with higher ratesmore effective use of contraception 24 year progression from sexual kissing to coitus Erotophobic teens are more likely to be passive participants in sex and have an external locus of control than erotophilic teens Erotophobic teens delay obtaining contraception after first coitus for 15 months Motivation for sex 0 Curiosity Identity formation Control partner 0 Social norms o Proving oneself 0 Communication 0 Tension release Reason given for first coitus 0 Wedding night Affection for partner generally female Curiosity generally male Physical pleasure 0 Want a baby Coitus experience 0 Girls are more likely to feel coerced to have coitus than boys 0 Boys and girls engage in the same types of sexual activity at about the same rates 0 Sexual partners Romantic dyad boyfriendgirlfriend 0 Most teens have first coitus in the context of a romantic dyad dating 0 Fewer total premarital partners 0 Highermore effective rates of contraception use Buddy sex friends with benefits 0 Mixed gender partying o No expectations of relationship beyond sexual encounters Hookingup o Strangeracquaintance o Maymay not engage in coitus usually oral sex 0 Many concurrent or sequential partners 0 No expectation of monogamy o Homosexual patterns 0 Homosexuals experience heterosexual role strain as teenagers 0 Identity acceptance is supported by health organizations as good for mental health 0 Coming out process for gay and lesbians Uden w Identity Identity Identity coimfus coim Acceptance Commitment Integration ogender role strain ocoming out to self ofeel different heterosexual role strain o Adolescent reproductive issues 0 Pregnancybirth control I Many teens 50 are in denial of their own fertility I Males who impregnate teens are typically older than the teen girl and often are adults I Most pregnant 1215 year olds have been victims of sexual abuse in their homescommunities I The incidence of teen coitus is not necessarily predictive of the incidence of pregnancy 3 Sexual Abuse Children 0 Intergenerational sex sex involving different ages based on social legal or biological definitions of child and adult 0 A wide range of adultchild sexual interactions are acceptable in some cultures 0 ncest sex involving kinship status 0 Nonconsensual sex sex without consent 0 Abuse in family sphere o In most cases the perpetrator is someone the childfamily knows o The abuse is more likely to be concurrent with physical abuse 0 Sexual abuse in the US 0 High risk I Working as housemaids I Homelessness I Having mothers who work in prostitution I Females are more likely to be abused by father figure I Males are more likely to be abused by male outside of home I Children between 712 years old are most likely to be sexually abused 0 Child I Legal age lt 17 age of consent at least 4 yrs lt offender some states do not require age difference I Psych person of less advanced psychosexual development 0 Adult I Legal age gt 13 years trend to lower to age 8 at least 4 yrs older than child some states do not require age difference I Psych person of more advanced psychosexual development 0 Longterm psychological harm I Reactions of disbeliefblame from parents I Forced to maintain social contact with abuser I Offender was a quotfatherfigure 0 Sexual contact 0 Legal penetration of vagina anus mouth or with penisfinger I The child is always younger than the legal age of consent 0 Psychological sexual activities that violate body boundaries 0 Types I Traumatic sexualization I Stigmatization I Betrayal I Disempowerment o Benign outcomes 0 30 of sexual contact as children report insignificant longterm effects 0 Offender acknowledged guilt and took responsibility 0 Offender did not have any important ties to the family 0 Child was believed and not blamed when reporting the contact 0 Child felt totally free of coercion 0 Sexual contact was not reoccurring 0 Social environment was supportive 0 Child had good relationship with at least one parentsibling 0 Boys are more likely to report benign outcome 0 Pedophilia 0 Biological pedophilia adult attraction and sexual behavior with individuals who have prepubescent bodies 0 More common attraction to boys 0 No attraction to adults male or female 0 Prefer children who have not yet developed secondary sex characteristics 0 Hebephilia 0 Sexual attraction to postpubescent children 0 May have secondary sexual attraction to adults 0 More common attraction to girls 0 Very common in the world often not illegal 0 Child sexual molesters 0 Secondary sexual attraction to children target age and gender vary 0 Primary sexual attraction is to adults usually women 0 Theoretical models of male sex abusers o Finkelhor Preconditions model of sexual abuse I Motivation factors 0 Emotional congruence regress psychosexual development 0 Child as only acceptable sexual stimulus 0 Blocked adult sex 0 Alternative sexual outlets taboo o Undoing own trauma history of sexually abused I Overcoming internal inhibitors 0 Patriarchy o Alcoholism 0 Failed parental role I Overcoming external inhibitors 0 Disempowered mother 0 Rigid family boundaries I Gaining compliance 0 Emotional blackmail 0 Social powerlessness o Manipulation of trust 0 Ignorance of sex Situational regressed model 0 Characteristics I Primary sexual orientation adults age mates I Behavior emerges in adulthood I Maladaptive response to psychological distress I Behavior is situational impulsive unpredictable I Substitute for conflicted adult relationship I Perceive treat related to child as pseudo adult I Focus on gratification of offender s needs I Example incestuous fathers Preference fixated model 0 Characteristics I Primary sexual orientation children I Interest is evident in adolescence I Chronic compulsive interest I Preplanned opportunities I Identified with child I Pseudoparental role I Focus on gratification of child s quotneeds pleasure misidentified I Example classic pedophile The fixated and regressive models explain that the molester have difficulty in sexual relations with adults Recovery 0 Intervention for children needs to be recurrent as the child s understanding of the events deepens Immigrant sexual abuse 0 Primarily based on the dominant culture s norms regarding autonomy and privacy 0 The majority of Asian groups accept parentchild cobathing at later ages than other groups 4 Sexual Coercion Adults Sexual harassment o Prohibited behaviors Quid pro guo coercion and bribery to engage in sex in exchange for some bene t Hostile environment impairs victim s performance andor mental and emotional health victim feels humiliated intimidated devalued Thirdparty effect a person misses the opportunity for a benefit by virtue of prohibited sexual behavior of other parties 0 Motivation of male harassers Earnest harasser desire for relationship misinterprets target s behavior non compliance leads to persistence Hostile harasser feels humiliation want to dominate target noncompliance leads to escalation Paternalistic harasser feels benevolent wants target to succeed non compliance leads to retaliation Competitive harasser feels ambivalent sexual attraction and wants to dominate noncompliance leads to retaliation 0 Impact on victims Sexual threat Negative effect on emotional and physical health Decrease ability to perform wellnegative attitude toward work Ambivalence toward perpetrator want a working relationship Victims may blame themselves Depression anxiety psychosomatic disorders Male victims are often treated with ridicule by peers o Paraphilic courtship Courtship phases 0 Voyeurism peepers finding phase 0 Often select the same victim repeatedly o Exhibitionism flashers affiliative phase 0 Scatologia breathers affiliative phase 0 Frotteurism gropers tactile phase 0 One time contact with victim Effects on victims 0 Usually female 0 Experience fear helplessness disgust sense of violation and sometimes shame or selfblame o Intimate partner Victim s failure to leave permanentlypress charges 0 Shame 0 Social isolation o Sanctity of marriage 0 Economic dependence 0 Retribution 0 Mental illness 0 Behavioral pattern of domestic abusers TensionBuilding Phase weeks oabuser is moody sullen suspicious verbal abuse ovictim tries to calm appease placate abuser Violence Phase dayhours oabuser physically assualts victim ovictim fights back tries to flee prtoect children may call police Reconciliation Phase months oabuser apologizes tries to make amends retract statements Spiral of Escalating Violence oeach cycle the level of violence increases otensionbuildingreconciliation shorten to point that beating occur each weekdaily 0 Sexual Manipulation o Unexamined strategies for sex can cause communication difficulties which may result in unwanted sexual acts 0 Majority of males and females have participated in unwanted sexual acts because they felt psychologically unable to get out of the situation 0 Verbal sexual pressure persistence I Gaining compliance is not gaining consent I Emotional threats withdraw love breakup I Persistent comments requests I Guilttripping imply obligation I Punitive withdrawal designed to punish I Deceit lie about self commitment I Trickery put person in compromised unsafe situation 0 Legal definitions I Forcible compulsion weapons physical strength threats of physical harm with means to victim or other I Incapacitation drugs alcohol incoherent disoriented unconscious I Inability to flee disability abduction isolation restraint imprisonment I Inability to consent mental impairment below legal age of consent I Consent is absent lack of consent is expressed via words or conduct 0 Rapeprone societies I Rape is legitimized rite of passage or punishment I Fraternal interest groups are dominantinferior social status for females I Glorification of aggression I Sex is adversarial wives are acquired through warfare I Victims of rape are dishonored o Lowrape societies I Nurturance and cooperation are valued I Men and women share power I Respect environment and nature I Female spirituality is celebrated 0 Honor killings female victims of rape are dishonoredmurdereddisfigured Patriarchal Egalitarian Violation of property rights father s Violation of the victim s rights Blame victim loose Misuse of power Dishonors family No blaming the victim Rape of wife is legal Spousal rape illegal Rape of daughter is unlikely to be prosecuted 0 Theoretical explanations of sexual assault 0 Femaleprecipitated model I Female sexual power produces rapists I Female behavior provokes rape I Males fall prey to female seduction I This model is scientifically discredited o Sociobiology model I Male genetics and biology produce rapists I Hyperactive male sex drive causes rape I Model predicts uniform rates of rape not supported by data 0 Social learning sexual scripts model I Socialculture expectations cause rape I Males learn social roles which cause need to maintain power I Males over learn sexpower gender roles I Rape is a form of gender role dysfunction I Model supported my most research 0 Psychosexual model I Disturbed development creates rapists I Traumatic physical emotional sexual love maps I Rape is a paraphilic attachment style I Same psychological variables predictive of criminalantisocial behavior 0 Sexual assault 0 Most sexual assaults over 50 occur during daylight hours and in the victim s home 0 Patriarchal societies usually blame the female victim rather than the male offender 0 Marital rape I Marital rape frequently occurs when wife asserts herself I Former husbandsboyfriends commit rape at higher rates than other acquaintances I Motivation to rape o Sadism o Anger o Domination I Historical rights of marriage Wife s body is husband s property Father has legal custody of children Women have no right to divorce Married woman has no separate standing I Legal protection 0 Rape of spouse is illegal in US 0 Courtspolice do not enforce law 0 Shelterssupportprotection are lacking 0 Legal Definition of sexual assault using drugs or alcohol to incapacitate a person in order to gain sexual compliance 0 Acquaintance rape college samples I Alcohol 0 53 are perpetrators o 42 are victims I Male date rapists characteristics 0 Many partnersfrequent coitus o Prefer hooking up 0 Had prior consensual sex with victim 0 Positive response to sex aggressive porn 0 Misogyny negative attitudes about females 0 History of own victimization 0 Usually heterosexual males 0 Have different cognitions about malefemale roles compared to other males 0 Have a history of engaging in other antisocial behavior I Perception of male role 0 Peersocial approval is best indicator of sexual assault 0 Need to prove manhoodprove heterosexuality 0 Sex is a game Believe rape myths I Perception of female role Female friendliness seduction Agree to date agree to have sex Females are sexually ambivalent Female responsible for male s feelingacts o Malamuth model I Motivation to have sex 0 Willingness to have sex by any means 0 Prove self masculinityheterosexuality o Powerlessness o Sexaggression paraphilia o Misogyny unresolved anger to women create negative attitudes I Overcome internal inhibitors 0 Justify one s own actions to one s self 0 Belief in rape myths 0 Sense of entitlement o Retribution o Aggression is legitimate problem solving strategy I Overcome external inhibitors 0 Perceived social supporttolerance Social boundaries patriarchymarriage 0 Male dominance structures 0 Male group bonding I Selecting victims 0 Perceive females as inferior Desirable female traits Prefer female dependencyvulnerability Small physical sizelack of strength 5 Love and Marriae 0 Marital functions 0 Crossculture functions of marriage I Paternity rights children I Property rights land goods money I Labor and services sexualdomestic I Rights of inheritance I Nonbiologic kinship networks 0 Marital forms I Crosssex male to female I Samesex male to male or female to female I Crossgender TwoSpirit or Hijra I Samegender gayslesbians I Polygamy more than one concurrent spouse 0 Polygyny male permitted more than one concurrent wife 0 Polyandry female permitted more than one concurrent husband 0 Polygynandry polyamory multiple husbands and wives group marriage I Monogamy single spouse 0 Lifetime remarriage isn t allowed 0 Siial remarriage is allowed Family forms Dominance Type Lineage Residence Male lineage Patrilocal Patriarchy Female lineage Matrilocal Matriarchy Both Either Shared mixed 0 0 Marital process I Marriage by capture coitus Used evidence of coitus as evidence of marriage Consummation by force deception seduction Groomsmen abduct bridefight off challengers Occurs through war and capture of women I Marriage by degree Focus on prizeproperty Religiousroyal legal privilege Property to bestowspoils of warrewards Right of prima nocturne a girl inhabiting a man s land is his property and can be wed to anyone he chooses slavery I Marriage by arrangement Focus on alliances economicsocial Dowries paid by wife s family Bride price paid by husband s family Betrothal may occur at any time birth puberty adolescences Parents have right I Marriage by personal choice Sexual love Focus on individual happiness Role of lovesexual attraction Courtshippersonal negotiations Individuals have right Egalitarian marriage new vs traditional marriage old 0 Sexual fidelity is expected during marriage same as traditional marriage 0 The female does the majority of the housework in both Traditional marriages produce more children 0 Traditional couples tend to marry at earlier ages 0 0 Transformation of marriage through history Patriarchal Transformation of marriage I Egalitarian Benefit to society Create social stability Kinship concerns Spouse as property Segregated roles Gender opposites Sito produce heirs Marriage bound by writ Hetero coupling only Benefit to self Create emotional bond Couple concerns Spouse as friend Shared roles Genders complimentary S for pleasure Marriage bound by love Varied couplings Sex is expected in both societies o Sternberg s model of romantic love 0 Physcial attraction 0 high rate of fantasyenergy LOVE 0 Sharing deepeest thoughtsfeelings 0 Shared valuesbeliefsgoals 0 Seel accepted 0 Compassion 0 Enduring hardships I Incompatibility o Incompatibility of love types can be the cause for conflict or growth in relationship 0 Dissimilar emphasis on love type 0 Changes in love over time o Intimacy is best predictor of sexual frequencymarital satisfaction 0 Love template I Degree of physical affectioncomfort I Degree of emotional affection I Degree of involvement I Degree of sharing and caring 0 Bond coalesces I Physical attractiveness I Proximity I Similarity I Reciprocity 0 Attachment theory nature of bond with parents in childhoods strongly influences our sexualemotional attachments patterns in adulthood I Ambivalent lovers 0 Fall in love quickly and reject quickly when disappointed o Overly dependent o Insecure 0 Terrified of abandonmentclingy I Secure Lover o Closeness and openness o Affectionate and reasonably independent 0 Emotionally secure I Avoidant Lover 0 Marriage 0 Difficulty trusting o Remains aloof and closed 0 Crossculturally Some societies have more than one type of marriage Some societies arrange marriage between living people and the dead Almost all societies allow marriage to be ended by divorce A male is permitted more than one concurrent wife 0 Samesex relationships 0 Divorce Same importance of attachment Same phases of development of longterm relationships Heterosexism prevents equal rights and serves to destabilize samesex relationships 0 Preexisting factors Early marriage Short courtship Early pregnancy Dissimilarity of background Lack of social support Differing valuesgoals Poor financial preparedness Numerous premarital partners 10 partners Infidelity early in marriage Relationship dynamics predict divorce within 4 years 0 Stonewallingwithdrawal o Contemptdisrespect o Criticismnegativitypessimism o Defensivenessreversal of blame o Belligerencevolatility o Sexuality and aging o Climacteric final stage of psychosexual development in males and females Onset 4560 years Experience in most males and females General reversal of the process of puberty 0 Sexual expression among aged men and women is significantly affected by negative valuations on their desirability made by younger people 0 Sexual changes in women Diminished lubrication Elasticity of vagina decreases coitus becomes painful Stress incontinency during sexual activity Changes in the menstrual cycle 0 Perimenopause o Onset 4050 years 0 Hot flashesinsomnianight sweatsdepression o Menopause o Onset 50 years 0 Most unpleasant symptoms of perimenopause o Postmenopause o Osteoporosis 0 Heart disease 0 Sexual changes in men I Slowed absent erection I Decreased orgasmlonger refractory period I Diminished strength of ejaculation
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