Biology Exam 4 Study Guide
Biology Exam 4 Study Guide Biology 1120-001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anzlee on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1120-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Andrew Brower in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Biology Exam 4 Study Guide The Biosphere The Climate and Ecosystems: • Different ecosystems result in the interaction of various features of the earth o Solar heat variations result into seasonal changes § Earth is tilted at a 23.5 degree angle § Temperature decreases as you move up into the atmosphere or away from the equator o Atmosphere air circulations results in various things such as ocean currents (in combination with location of land masses) § Three cells of circulation in each hemisphere o Deserts form in the interior of large continents § Rain shadow effect- dry air creates desert conditions • Biomes o Major community of organisms that have a characteristic appearance and are distributed over a wide land area; defined by regional variations in climate o Temperature and precipitation differences o Distinct vegetation differences o Predictors of biome distribution: o Major Biomes: § Tropical rain forest § Savannah § Desert § Temperate grassland (prairies) § Temperate deciduous forest § Temperate evergreen forest § Taiga (boreal forest) § Tundra (contains permafrost) o Marine Ecosystems: § Neritic zone- less than 300m below the surface along coasts § Intertidal region- exposed to air when tides recede § Pelagic zone (oceanic)- open sea § Benthic zone (aphotic)- depths below 1000m; abyss; volcanic vents is a popular location for life o Freshwater Ecosystems: § Lakes and Ponds § Photic zone- area of photosynthetic organisms § Littoral zone- shallow area along shore § Limnetic zone- surface water away from shore § Profundal zone- area below light penetration § Thermocline- where higher water is warmer than lower water which drops and mixes together in colder temperatures § Eutrophic- rich in nutrients and organic matter § Oligotrophic- poor in nutrients and organic matter; often deeper; very susceptible to chemical pollutants o Streams and Rivers § Temperature, rate of flow, oxygen content, sediment o Wetlands § Diverse ecosystem o Estuaries (rivers join oceans) § Brackish (partly saline) Pollution: (effects climate, and therefore species) • Human causes o Agriculture, ex. DDT • Acid rain • Ozone hole o Stratospheric ozone protects life from ultraviolet rays o Depletion majorly due to CFC’s • Carbon dioxide o Traps heat in the atmosphere which leads to warming o Greenhouse effect Animal Behavior • Behavior- how an organism responds to stimuli • Proximate causation- how it works • Ultimate causation- evolution of the behavior • Nature vs. Nurture- instinct or learned behavior Innate Behaviors: • Early ethologists believed behavior was mainly innate • Fixed action pattern- stereotypical behaviors which are species specific o Repeated again and again o Triggered by sign stimulus • Super normal stimuli o Ex. aggressive behavior in sticklebacks- aggressive behavior to anything that looks like other males (red bellies) • Some behaviors are heritable due to genetics o Ex. twin studies o Single gene effects Learning: • Non-associative learning- does not form an association between response to stimuli o Habituation- decrease in response to repeated action due to no positive or negative consequences o Sensitization- increase response to a particular stimulus, ex. PTSD • Associative learning- forms a connection between a stimuli and response o Classical conditioning- parried presentation of two stimuli creates an association, ex. Pavlovian conditioning (Pavlov’s dogs) o Operant conditioning- animal learns to associate a behavior with a positive or negative reward, ex. trial and error learning o Mimicry is possible due to associative learning- species learn that certain species are dangerous with certain physical characteristics and therefore will leave species with those characteristics alone § Mullerian mimicry- all toxic species honestly share similar characteristics § Batesian mimicry of a butterfly where a toxic and nontoxic species look the same o Instinct and learning- animals have predispositions to forming certain associations § Learning preparedness- learning influences by selection/ecological factors o Spatial learning- ex. scrub jays cache food; remember where they put it and prevent other birds from stealing Development of Behavior: • Parent-offspring interactions o Imprinting- social attachment to individuals (usually during sensitive/critical period) o Filial imprinting- social attachment with parent and offspring • Genetic templates- form a connection between instinct and learning • Complex learning- ex. birdsong will develop over time • Animal cognition- do various animals think?? o Problem solving of certain animals can be very interesting § Ex. sea otters who drop their rocks will swim down to find them § Ex. chimpanzees will pile boxes to reach something • Orientation and Migration o Taxis- movement towards or away from a given stimulus, ex. moths to light o Kineses- increase in activity level in response to increased stimulus levels o Migrations- long-range, two-way movements § Navigation § Orientation- ability to follow a bearing, (magnetic field, celestial cues) • Courtship o Stimulus-response chain- behavior of one individual leads to the behavior of another § Signals are often species-specific o Pheromones- chemical messages between individuals, often used for sexual attractants o Acoustic signals- ex. grasshoppers o Level of specificity relates to the function of the song • Communication o Modes include: visual, sound, smell, pheromones, etc. o Chemical communication- alarm and trail pheromones o Social groups can increase chance of survival or lower one while it heightens others • Behavior Ecology - the study of how natural selection shapes behavior o Adaptive significant/survival value is examined to understand the level of fitness o Trade-offs with other selective pressures, such as mating o Optimal foraging theory- maximize net energy to intake efficiency o Territoriality- maintain exclusive use of an area with specific resources o Mate choice- when mating is not random o Parental investment- usually higher in females § Offspring needs: altricial- extensive and prolonged care; precocial- require little care o Bateman’s Principle: male make many large gametes and females make few large gametes (and bear resource cost), which means females are resource limited and males are mate limited o Sexual dimorphism- differences in characteristics between males and females besides the genitals o Monogamy- mate exclusively with one individual for a season or for life o Polygamy- (usually) males that mate with multiple females • Sexual Selection o When individuals compete for mating opportunities § Intrasexual selection- usually males competing for opportunity to mate with females; sperm competition (and adaptation, ex. promiscuous primate species have faster sperm than monogamous species); mate guarding § Intersexual selection- direct and indirect benefits • Handicap-hypothesis- only genetically superior males can survive with a handicap • Sensory exploitation- evolution of an attractive signal in males • Extra-pair copulations- may be very pervasive (males benefit by increased success and females benefit by increased rearing assistance § Leads to the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics § Trade-offs: exposure to predators, balancing the cost of breeding with survival, time • Altruism- an action that benefits another at a cost to the individual • Reciprocity- individuals form partnerships where altruistic acts are performed for one another • Kin selection- by trying to help genetically close individuals, there is a chance that one’s genes will be a part of the reproductive success • Cooperative breeding Population Ecology • Response to environmental change: physiology, behavior, morphology, evolutionary responses • Population- all the individuals of one species in a given place at a given time • Metapopulations- networks of populations working together by exchanging genes • Source-sink metapopulations- areas where some habitats are suitable for long-term maintenance and others are not • Dispersion: randomly, clumped, uniformly • Demography- study of population o Birth rate and immigration increase population size o Death rate and emigration decrease population size o Factors: density dependent factors (resources), density independent factors (environment), specie interactions, growth, survival, fecundity o Fecundity: how many times an organism reproduces § Semelparity- many produced at one time § Iteroparity- fewer produced over multiple seasons o Exponential growth rate- rate of which a population will increase when no limits are placed § Carrying capacity (K)- is the maximum amount of individuals an area can support § Logistic growth- as the carrying capacity is closer to being reached, the growth rate slows § K-related species- stable size at carrying capacity § r-related species- rapid population growth Community Ecology • Community- all the species that occur together at a particular area • Community assembly: o Individualistic- community will flux and can be hard to predict o Holistic- interactions are important; structure is generally predictable and stable • Environment can change quickly with ecotones • Niche- are and way the resources are used of a particular organism o Fundamental- entire niche available and best circumstance o Realized- actual niche used o Principle of competitive exclusion- two species using the same niche cannot coexist indefinitely • Interactions: o Resource partitioning- sharing resources so organisms don’t have to compete directly § Sympatric- similar species that live in the same general geographic area (usually greater morphological differences than allopatric species) o Interspecific competition § Interference- individuals fighting over shared resources § Exploitive- individuals sharing resources o Organisms often co-evolve when they share interactions o Interactions may indirectly involve other organisms not specifically present at that instance • Predation- one organism consumes another o Leads to natural selection, ex. plant defenses such as thorns and chemicals; ex. aposematic coloration in poisonous organisms to warn others; ex. cryptic coloration in organisms that can camouflage themselves • Commensalism- one species benefits while the other is neither hurt nor helped • Mutualism- both species benefit • Parasitism- one organism is benefiting while hurting the other o Ectoparasitism- external parasite o Endoparasitism- internal parasite o Parasitoids- lay eggs on living host Measuring Biological Diversity: • Species richness- number of species within a community • Species evenness- relative abundance of species • Species diversity- combination of richness and evenness • Diverse areas are more productive and stable Succession: • Change in community over time • Primary- occurs in bare or open areas • Secondary- follows disturbance • Climax community- when a stable community is reached o Tolerance- weedy species arrive first o Facilitation- changes allow colonization of other species o Inhibition- changes that allow some species to go extinct o Intermediate disturbance hypothesis- moderate levels of disturbance will allow for better species richness that either very low or very high levels of disturbance Ecosystem Ecology • Energy flow o Sun is the abiotic primary energy source o Producers (light energy to chemical energy) o Consumers o Decomposers • Biogeochemical cycles o Water cycle o Carbon cycle o Nitrogen cycle o Phosphorus cycle
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