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GSU - SOCI 1160 - SOCI Final Exam Study Guide - Study Guide

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GSU - SOCI 1160 - SOCI Final Exam Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Social Problems Concept List for Exam 4 All students must take the final exam and final exam scores 
can’t be dropped.  The exam is not cumulative.
There will be approximately 10 questions from the 
readings/articles assigned listed for this exam in the syllabus.  
The other approximately thirty to forty questions will come 
from the material identified below:
***= not answered GENDER INEQUALITY
-Sex vs gender (definitions, descriptions and examples)
-Sex refers to biological characteristics used to assign gender -has a socially constructed aspect (i.e. Australia has a 
section for male, female, and asexual while the U.S. only 
has male and female)
-Gender= attributes, behaviors, personality characteristics  expected to be  associated w/ a biological sex -something we “DO”.. we DO gender- masculinity & 
femininity (i.e. wearing a dress or categories like boy, girl, 
man, woman, transgender)
-Gender stratification = ranking or evaluating social worth based on  your gender  -How things are “gendered” (ubiquitous yet not identical 
across cultures)
-Virtually everything is socially gendered; Language is gendered -What we learn when we compare the gendering of jobs/tasks 
across cultures (chart)
2 ways that language is gendered
1. language reflects and expresses ideas about gender Male generic language (what it is, examples, why research says  we should care/it matters)  supposed to include women and men in its  construction (i.e. policemen, mankind, fireman, mailman, 
congressman, using the generic “He”. 
-12% of the time women were the focus of the story to  42% of the time -Spotlighting (what it is, examples)  highlighting terms like “lady”  to emphasize the gender (i.e. “lady panthers” where panthers is the 
male normative)
Women get defined in terms of their appearance and their  relationship to men (what it is, examples, research results) - Men are more defined w/ accomplishments; Woman  running for President: focus on hair, clothes
background image -Gabby Douglas: amazing gymnast and first AA to win 
Olympic gold; social media focused on her hair rather than 
her accomplishment
-News Media Study: women’s marital status noted 64% of 
the time while men’s is mentioned 12% of the time
-Single man before/after marriage= Mr., Single 
woman=Miss, Married=Mrs., Divorced= Ms. 
-Language evaluates gender (examples, how it reflects cultural  devaluations) -Women’s presence devalues name/category (i.e. 200+  words to describe sexually permissive women but only 22 to describe 
sexually permissive men
2. Women and men are taught to use language differently A. Lack of Assertiveness (i.e. Tags)   -Uptalking= when you make a statement into a 
question by uplifting your voice at the end; takes 
away power and authority; women use it to not be 
overly assertive or “bitchy”
-Avoiding strong statements
-Apologies (ways gendered, matching)=  “one down”  position:   women are more likely to apologize even  when they did nothing wrong; tend to over apologize 
for existing (i.e. getting bumped into; apologize to be
back on the same level)
B. Interruptions (results of research I described—know data on cross-sex interruptions; how interruptions are perceived, based on 
gender)
-31 Ten-Minute Convos: -20 same sex convos 7 interruptions
-11 cross-sex convos 48 interruptions 
(46/48 M  interrupting F) 96% 
-Men had more talk time; women fell silent 
after being  reinterrupted; “true interruptions”= cutting  someone off  and starting a new topic -Orcutt and Mennella: did not notice men’s  interruptions (underestimated); noticed women’s interruptions  (overestimated) Body language (all the ways we discussed it is gendered)=  men  more likely to man-spread (sit wide-legged) women sit restricted, men
background image more likely to touch women w/o permission, women likely to do a 
canted head (head to the side while talking)
-Socialization approach to gender inequality/stratification
-
How the process works (punishments/rewards) 
-Girls: get more restrictions and control (curfews, relationships, 
and roaming while playing, clothing)
-Boys: more achievement demands, encouraged to be daring and
fearless; punished more physically 
-When it begins  babies are gendered even before birth (nursery, baby  clothes) ***-Waiting Room example
-How it continues
- Women:  compete against other women for men’s attention;  learn to be dependent on a man -Men: women to enjoy success vicariously through men’s  success; fathers teach sons to fiend for themselves; boys punished 
more as kids punish their boys more
-How girls and girl infants are treated differently than boys and boy 
infants
-Girls: get talked to more, more likely to be rocked/held
-Boys: more likely to be sat up facing away; not as coddled
-Video:  Toy Ads and Gender Socialization -difference in ads for boys/girls  toys -Boys: toy ads encourage building, power, competition, control 
fighting/aggressiveness
-Girls: toy ads encourage homemaking, less creative, beauty, 
popularity, domestic work, and childrearing
-How parents today compare to 1970s parents regarding sex 
stereotypes
- in the 70s we have the women’s movement drastic decline in  how toys are gendered; toys challenging stereotype  -out toys are more gendered now than 50 years ago -Why, when parents make a conscious effort to socialize their boys and
girls more comprehensively, they are more likely to do it with one 
gender. . . .
-we allow girls to take on more masculine things while boys  aren’t given that freedom because they’ll be called “sissy”; they’re 
more confortable to broadly socialize girls than boys
-we devalue the feminity of women -Critique of the socialization approach:  ignores social structure;  becomes very person blamed (either blaming women for bad 
socializations or their socializers) 
-Structural approaches to gender inequality/gender stratification -Media’s role as both a socializer and a structure

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School: Georgia State University
Department: Sociology
Course: Intro to Social Problems
Professor: Mindy Stombler
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: sociology
Name: SOCI Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers material for exam 4
Uploaded: 04/22/2016
9 Pages 72 Views 57 Unlocks
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