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GSU / Sociology / SOCI 1160 / What is gender inequality?

What is gender inequality?

What is gender inequality?


School: Georgia State University
Department: Sociology
Course: Intro to Social Problems
Professor: Mindy stombler
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: sociology
Cost: 50
Name: SOCI Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers material for exam 4
Uploaded: 04/22/2016
9 Pages 15 Views 22 Unlocks

Andrew Stokes DVM (Rating: )

Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Amber has the best notes period!

Social Problems

What is gender inequality?

Concept List for Exam 4

All students must take the final exam and final exam scores  can’t be dropped. The exam is not cumulative.

There will be approximately 10 questions from the  readings/articles assigned listed for this exam in the syllabus.  The other approximately thirty to forty questions will come  from the material identified below:

***= not answered


-Sex vs gender (definitions, descriptions and examples) -Sex= refers to biological characteristics used to assign gender -has a socially constructed aspect (i.e. Australia has a  section for male, female, and asexual while the U.S. only  has male and female)

-Gender= attributes, behaviors, personality characteristics  expected to be associated w/ a biological sex -something we “DO”.. we DO gender- masculinity &  

Who is gabby douglas?

femininity (i.e. wearing a dress or categories like boy, girl,  man, woman, transgender)

-Gender stratification= ranking or evaluating social worth based on  your gender  

-How things are “gendered” (ubiquitous yet not identical  across cultures)

-Virtually everything is socially gendered; Language is gendered -What we learn when we compare the gendering of jobs/tasks  across cultures (chart)

2 ways that language is gendered

1. language reflects and expresses ideas about gender Male generic language (what it is, examples, why research says  we should care/it matters) supposed to include women and men in its  construction (i.e. policemen, mankind, fireman, mailman,  congressman, using the generic “He”.  

What led to the advent of cafos?

-12% of the time women were the focus of the story to  42% of the time

-Spotlighting (what it is, examples) highlighting terms like “lady”  to emphasize the gender (i.e. “lady panthers” where panthers is the  male normative) Don't forget about the age old question of bio rutgers mitosis

Women get defined in terms of their appearance and their  relationship to men (what it is, examples, research results) -Men are more defined w/ accomplishments; Woman  

running for President: focus on hair, clothes

-Gabby Douglas: amazing gymnast and first AA to win  Olympic gold; social media focused on her hair rather than  her accomplishment

-News Media Study: women’s marital status noted 64% of  the time while men’s is mentioned 12% of the time

-Single man before/after marriage= Mr., Single  

woman=Miss, Married=Mrs., Divorced= Ms.  

-Language evaluates gender (examples, how it reflects cultural  devaluations)

-Women’s presence devalues name/category (i.e. 200+  words to describe sexually permissive women but only 22 to describe  sexually permissive men

2. Women and men are taught to use language differently A. Lack of Assertiveness (i.e. Tags)  

-Uptalking= when you make a statement into a  

question by uplifting your voice at the end; takes  

away power and authority; women use it to not be  We also discuss several other topics like o Why are they important?

overly assertive or “bitchy”

-Avoiding strong statements 

-Apologies (ways gendered, matching)= “one down”  

position: women are more likely to apologize even  

when they did nothing wrong; tend to over apologize  

for existing (i.e. getting bumped into; apologize to be

back on the same level)

B. Interruptions (results of research I described—know data on cross-sex interruptions; how interruptions are perceived, based on  gender)

-31 Ten-Minute Convos: If you want to learn more check out physics electricity and magnetism study guide

-20 same sex convos 7 interruptions

-11 cross-sex convos 48 interruptions

(46/48 M  

interrupting F) 96%  

-Men had more talk time; women fell silent  

after being  

reinterrupted; “true interruptions”= cutting  If you want to learn more check out ramdius

someone off  

and starting a new topic

-Orcutt and Mennella: did not notice men’s  


(underestimated); noticed women’s interruptions  


Body language (all the ways we discussed it is gendered)= men  more likely to man-spread (sit wide-legged) women sit restricted, men

more likely to touch women w/o permission, women likely to do a  canted head (head to the side while talking)

-Socialization approach to gender inequality/stratification -How the process works (punishments/rewards)  

-Girls: get more restrictions and control (curfews, relationships,  and roaming while playing, clothing)

-Boys: more achievement demands, encouraged to be daring and fearless; punished more physically  

-When it begins babies are gendered even before birth (nursery, baby  clothes)

***-Waiting Room example We also discuss several other topics like wei wang fiu

-How it continues

-Women: compete against other women for men’s attention;  learn to be dependent on a man

-Men: women to enjoy success vicariously through men’s  success; fathers teach sons to fiend for themselves; boys punished  more as kids punish their boys more

-How girls and girl infants are treated differently than boys and boy  infants

-Girls: get talked to more, more likely to be rocked/held -Boys: more likely to be sat up facing away; not as coddled

-Video: Toy Ads and Gender Socialization We also discuss several other topics like priot restraint

-difference in ads for boys/girls toys

-Boys: toy ads encourage building, power, competition, control  fighting/aggressiveness

-Girls: toy ads encourage homemaking, less creative, beauty,  popularity, domestic work, and childrearing

-How parents today compare to 1970s parents regarding sex  stereotypes

- in the 70s we have the women’s movement drastic decline in  how toys are gendered; toys challenging stereotype  

-out toys are more gendered now than 50 years ago

-Why, when parents make a conscious effort to socialize their boys and girls more comprehensively, they are more likely to do it with one  gender. . . .

-we allow girls to take on more masculine things while boys  aren’t given that freedom because they’ll be called “sissy”; they’re  more confortable to broadly socialize girls than boys

-we devalue the feminity of women

-Critique of the socialization approach: ignores social structure;  becomes very person blamed (either blaming women for bad  socializations or their socializers)  

-Structural approaches to gender inequality/gender stratification -Media’s role as both a socializer and a structure

-1) women’s voices are not heard, 2) women do not have  equal power to choose what stories are important to tell, 3) women are generally deemed less important

-Evidence that women’s voices are not heard (findings on being  interviewed, bylines, reporting, being quoted)  

-Women= only 14% of people interviews on Sunday talk  shows

-Men outnumber women’s bylines 3 to 1 in the top paper’s  front page

-Men report on more topics (business, politics)

-Men are far more likely to be quoted in papers, tv, and  radio

-Evidence the women do not have equal power to choose what  information/story is important (gamers, percentage of directors,  percentage of TV station owners)

-Women’s are 9% of directors of top 250 domestic grossing  films and own only around 6% of the commercial tv  


-Evidence that women are not deemed important (obituary data) -Women’s deaths reported on the news only 23% of the  time compared to 77% for males

-VIDEO: Killing Us Softly 4 (a lot of questions—long video—available in  library—be able to apply themes to ads):  

-The average American is exposed to over 3000 ads everyday -Advertising influence is cumulative & subconscious

-Women’s bodies turned into objects and products, dismembered in ads

-1) advertisers surround us with the ideal image of female  beauty, 2) silencing women with their gestures and passive/  vulnerable body language in ads, 3) being “hot” becomes the  most important thing

-“Pornification” of food/ clothing advertisements (

-Virginal vs. experienced image encouraged in ads (appear pure  but sexy) ads  

eroticize murder


-Percentage of Senate and House (and how they compare to Western  Europe)  


-US world ranking in women’s representation in government -Women in foreign countries hold sig. representation in politics  than U.S. women


-Description of unpaid labor caring for kids, reproduction, house work -Results of housework research (comparing women’s housework hours  across working for pay (26 hours/week) and stay-at-home moms (50

hours/week); comparing men’s housework hours when their wives work for pay (11 hours/week) or stay at home (11 hours/week) -Typical ways women and men divide chores

-Men: yard work, taking out trash, maintenance (weekly chores) -Women: washing dishes and clothes, cooking, cleaning kitchen  and house  

(hourly chores)

-Across all possible living arrangement, who does the least amount of  housework  

-Married men

-Reasons why men do less housework: feel like their actual work makes up for it

-Child rearing research

-Percentage of women with children in the paid labor force - 70%= mother w/ kids <18; 30% =mothers w/ kids <6 work  FTYR

-Impact of women’s entrance into the labor force on parental attention  received by children

-1) fewer children= more attention to each one, 2) men have  increased their active parenting, 3) many women work part-time, 4)  working moms learned to cut back on other activities (leisure, personal care, sleep, housework, community)

-How parents today spend more time with their kids (compared to  50’s / 60’s families)

-1950s= moms stayed home  “relatively little consequences”,  1960s= moms  

spent 10 hrs/week, dad’s spend 2.5 hrs/week with kids) -in 2 parents HH today, kids are getting more parental  attention that they were  

in the 50s 2011- moms spent 14 hrs/ week and dads  spent 7 hrs/ week

-Paid work

-in recessions, women’s jobs tend to grow whereas men’s job’s  tend to decline

-Wage gap= women make 78 cents to every dollar a man makes

-Wage gap patterns over time

Explanation for much of the gap closure (especially in the last decades) -Women taking on more occupations that were once occupied  solely by men

-in a recession, women’s jobs are safe and men’s jobs decline reduces wages for men creating the illusion that wage gap gets closed

-How much the career gender wage gap costs women with bachelor’s  degrees over 40 yrs. $434,000; $713,000 with a BA

-The gap would be much greater if we included part-time work -Using white men (largest group of workers) as comparison group,  know gender wage gaps by race

-Compared to White Men: Asian = 94%, Latinas= 61%, Native  Am.=4%,  

Black= 68%, White= 82%

-9 Explanations for the wage gap (bulk can be explained by  what?)

 1) Occupational sex segregation (OSS)  

-women and men often separated into certain occupations which  are valued by the gender of the workers

-Female concentrated/dominated occupations/jobs

- receptionist, day care workers, dental hygienists

-The relationship between the percentage of women in an occupation  and that occupation’s average earnings

-the higher the % of women, the lower the average earnings -As women move into occupations, what do men do? Move out -The direction that occupations tend to shift (exceptions)

-when women enter male dominated fields, men move out -Male-dominated occupations= industry, manufacturing, job unions -Resegregation (what it is, examples)=

-Real estate- women moved in & took over residential, men  stayed &moved to  


-Waiting tables- men are more likely to be seen in fine dining as  waiters

2) Internal job ladders  

-women domination floral, bakery; men heavy in butcher and  produce; a mix of both in grocery

-only route to becoming a store manager is through butcher  (male dominated) women don’t get the same oppurtunity 3) Glass ceiling 

Percentage of CEOs in Fortune’s top companies that are women= 4.6%

-women climb a ladder and can’t get pasta certain level 4) Motherhood penalty (how work outcomes differ for mothers and  fathers as a result of childbearing)

-women take financial hit to their salaries when bearing children 5) Homosocial reproduction 

-mostly men are in power hire other men based on like  minds/interests

6) Women as leaders/contradiction with femininity 

7) Sticky floor

-women trapped in jobs where wages, mobility, and benefits are  low

-“Pink Collar” Jobs (full time waitressing, maid at hotel, childcare) 8) Glass escalator 

-When men move into traditional female jobs (nursing, teaching,  floral work) they are pressured to move up and out into top managerial positions

9) Subtle discrimination 

-excluding women from upward mobility and networking  opportunities  

What erasing the wage gap by gender would do to poverty rates:  dramatic reduction

-Who is most keenly affected by the wage gap: women in single parents households

Cost of being female (know %) 7%

***-Know % of households with children where women are the sole or  primary breadwinners (earners)  


Video: Tough Guise 2 (a lot of questions—long video—available in  library—we skipped An American Tale and Cool Pose sections) -“tough guise”= the front men put up to prevent being seen as  weak/feminine

-“wussification” of America= feminizing diff. sectors

emasculating them

-BumFights video series were young men attack defenseless  homeless people

-in race, sexual orientation, and gender, the dominant group  (white heterosexual male) is always left ou

-86% armed robberies, 77% aggravated assaults, 99% rapes  committed by men; 61/62 shootings committed by men -3/4 of men suffers from “covert depression”

-Aggrieved entitlement= some groups of men feel entitled to  power, are victims of feminism use control and violence as a  way to get power back


-The food system and its effects  

-all the working systems are hidden and effect:

1) Types of foods we have access to, 2) affordability, 3)  environmental impact, 4) individual/public health

-Food policy (definition)

-controls how food is produced, processed, distributed,  purchased

-The contradiction between the U.S. government’s dietary  recommendations and agricultural policies

-The foods we’re advised to avoid are the easiest to  


-The three most highly subsidized categories of agricultural products -1) Processed starches, 2) most animal products, 3) sugars -Trends in U.S. agriculture (industrialization, consolidation,  specialization) and their effects/results

-“Get Big or Get Out!”

-Statement from Earl Butts: farms go from family owned to  corporate owned; farmers start planting according to their subsidies

-How sugar enters our diet

-Most sugar we consume is hidden because it’s in processed  foods

-Low-fat foods compensated w/ more sugar; high fructose corn  syrup

-Percentage of foods with added sugar= 80%

-Effects of subsidies (sugar, grain)= a lot cheaper and more  conveniently found

-Why the sugar lobby is powerful

-Big Food Industry doesn’t want their economic gain  


-What led to the advent of CAFOs

-Big Grain (grains led by corn (feed grains) are the largest  commodities that receive subsidies)

-Why CAFOs are often invisible to most Americans

Usually in rural/ economically disadvantaged areas

-How CAFOs affect the communities where they are located, the  environment and public health

-air quality and climate suffers from methane, fecal matter -animal welfare: stressed animals get sick routine antibiotics;  results in antibiotic resistance for the animals and us (the meat  consumers)

GMOs- consumers concerned w/ biotechnology that takes genes from 1 species and put then into unrelated organisms; 88% of corn crop and  94% of soy crop are GMOs

-Most reliable food labels say “organic” or “non-GMO project  verified)

-GMO sends that are “Roundup Ready”= withstand Round-up  herbicides (glyphosate- cancer causing agent)

-Environmental impacts

-cancer causing agents (DDT, Agent Orange, Bovine growth  hormone) come into direct contact with out food

-Economic impacts for farmers

-Farmers HAVE to buy their seeds from Monsanto, and can be  held liable if the wind carries Monsanto seeds into their yards -Big 6 companies over seeds/ herbicides/ pesticides:  Monsanto, BASF, Dow, DuPont, Syngenta

-small farmers really can’t compete with the corporate farmers

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