Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide FAD2230
Popular in Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach
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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by mak15k on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Chance Bell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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FAD2230 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE FUNCTIONS OF FAMILIES Describe the functions of families, recognize micro and macro perspectives, and describe why families are always changing Legal and religious vs social science definitions o family orientation- born into o family of procreation- choose to make through marriage; cohabitation/same- sex is included in social science definitions o fictive kin- close relationships Nuclear- parents and their children Extended- grandparents, etc. FUNCTIONS OF FAMILIES Time and place Marriage- public, permanence, sexual union, obligations to spouse and children Marriage norms- eligibility (age), who (gender), ceremony, behaviors (loyalty) Six Functions: 1. Regulate sexual behavior (adultery is bad) 2. Reproduce and socialize children (raise them to grow and live in culture as "good" people) 3. Property and inheritance (distribution of family goods) 4. Economic cooperation (families working together- farms- to run a household; man provides, wife takes care of the home) 5. Social placement, status and roles (born into a certain situation/ class- aids in how we behave, who we surround ourselves with, and what we do overall) 6. Care, warmth, protection, and intimacy MAJOR THEMES OF TEXT Linking macro and micro level perspectives change in families over time importance of social science theory IDENTIFY MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL FACTORS MACRO/MICRO PERSPECTIVES micro: personal choices, behaviors, feelings, communication, decisions, constraints, values macro: culture, history, power and inequality, social institutions, economy, political system, dominant religion, social status, sex, race, ethnicity, social class, social movements and social change If a person is born into a low social class, he or she automatically associates themselves with a certain stigma, which may make him or her show feelings of resentment toward upper social classes. The opposite could also occur: an upper class individual may feel entitled to a certain level of respect that he or she does not believe the lower class deserves, or he or she may feel pity for the lower class, resulting in more friction between the two classes, creating even more resentment and misunderstanding. The media controls how many situations are perceived my different classes of individuals; race affects how people interact with one another and how different cultures interact. Self-actualization gives individuals confidence to interact. BENEFITS AND DOWNFALLS OF SPIRITUALITY IN FAMILY LIFE DYNAMIC NATURE OF SPIRITUALITY OVER THE FMAILY LIFE CYCLE Long tradition Patriarchy at its worst o Women- subjugation and abuse; should they divorce or stay together? Listen to convictions or not? Some stay because of faith, some leave in spite of it. relationships skewed with power control and privilege some remain in relationship because of conviction o children- harsh corporeal punishment divorce/separation- ostracized by faith community SPIRITUALITY: A DIMENSION OF HUMAN EXPERIENCE religion- organized institutional faith system with shared traditions doctrine practices and a community of followers spirituality - broad overarching construct refers to transcendent beliefs and practices lived out in the daily life 85% of Americans feel religion is important Christian = 75% roman catholic 23% mainline protestant 14 evangelical born again or fundamentalists Non Christian 15% Jewish 2 Buddhists Muslims and Hindus about 1 others native American Sikh Shinto and Tao ancient atheist 6 agnostic 7 belong to church 62 attend weekly 38, mostly older women 27 never or seldom attend 500000 churches etc Belief in God- higher power Conceptions og God force that maintains nature to a personal God being who watches over and judges individuals guides in decision making Common beliefs: feel closer to God makes you feel better about yourself; solve problems; respect oneself and others; help those in needs; helps refrain from doing wrong; virtue and sin; reward or punishment in afterlife according to variations in heaven or hell 90% of American homes have a Bible in the home 10% of Americans though Joan of Arc was Noah's wife Almost half of teens thought that Moses ws one of the 12 apostles Most research done with couples Positive benefits include family functioning, child development, quality and stable relationships Family process research has found that transcendent values ahs foster healthy family function. A share belief system that transcends the limits of family members' experience enable better acceptance of inevitable risks and losses of living an loving fully Meaningful spiritual beliefs an practices can strengthen family units their members and their bonds Marital and commitment vows inherently spiritual Believe marriage is vital in search for the sacred Couple relationship enhances when meaningful practices and rituals are share strong religious bonds can help the family stay together even when times get tough Interfaith marriage was once prohibited, now about 40% of marriages disapproval can have long-lasting impacts on relationships: discords, superiority of one religion, issues raising children (choose one, allow kids to decide), what is unimportant at first can become important later Divorce and remarriage can cause complications in religion Jewish- need a "get" for a women to be remarried (basically permission to get remarried after the divorce) Catholic- marriage is a sacrament and annulment difficult and can be painful for family members strong in the faith Interfaith- control; custodial vs. non-custodial parent Faith shaped from early childhood Beneficial role for highly religious families: parents live what they preach; children internalize beliefs and values when parents teach and follow spiritual practices; youth are interested in discussing the meaning of life and making moral decisions Vulnerable and distressed families- religion can support positive parenting; involvement in the community can be good for the family Young adults may drift away from a religious upbringing Middle to later life adults- spirituality tends to increase as people deal with illness and face death of loved ones; confront own vulnerabilities and mortality Older adults- later in life there is a striving for meaning connections and continuity with multigenerational family Spirituality can weigh heavily in life-death situations Multiple losses occur: person and their role in the family Relationships continue- spiritual connections via memory, rituals, etc. Spirit's influence- may haunt or harm; may bless and protect Spiritual beliefs, practices and community can facilitate coping, adaptation and resilience Starts in the home- 90% of Americans pray weekly, 75& pray daily Why? For courage...forgiveness...makes them feel better Nearly all report prayers being answered Discontinuation of prayer- out of habit; loss of belief Meditation- mindfulness activities, yoga, or other Eastern traditions, sacred or inspiration music or text, shared meditative experiences for couples and families produce genuine and epithetic reasoning Faith communities- sense of belonging to a home or family; programs to meet may needs (scripture, study guides, choir, community service); distressed individuals often turn to clergy for help; gain sense of interdependence with other individuals with shared values Deep connection found with nature whether religious or not Community service and social activism strengthens social bonds focusing on others as a family helps strengthens family bonds soul-mates; caring bonds can nourish spiritual well-being UNDERSTAND BASICS OF AND EACH THEORY TO FAMILIES: RATIONAL CHOICE AND SOCIAL EXCHANGE FRAMEWORK ASSUMPTIONS Utilitarianism- rationally weigh rewards and costs of behavioral choices Motivation (central focus)- humans are motivated by self-interest o Understand humans by their interests and values- money, religion, relationships, etc. The individual is real. Prediction and understanding come about by understanding the individual and his or her motivation- if we understand why they do what they do, then we create empathy for the other person and his or her situation Actors are motivated by self-interest. Actors are rational. CONCEPTS Rewards (what you get) and costs (what you give up)- more complicated than just considering those two options because not everything is going to balance easily Profit or maximizing utility- helps determine reasons for decisions; ratio of rewards and costs Comparison Level (CL)- compared to someone else in a similar situation- and Comparison Level for Alternatives (CL+)- compared to someone else in an alternative situation o comparing yourself to someone who is also in college and looking for a job (CL) verses comparing yourself to someone who has already graduated and is employed (CL+) o couple who is thinking about having children would compare themselves to other couples who don't have kids but may want them (CL), or to couples who already have kids (CL+). Rationality o time and situation o importance or weight of alternatives Exchange and equity o not necessarily equal or uniform- dating relationship would involve exchange of kindness, respect, care, etc. but would be unequal if one member of the relationship feels that the other member s not putting in effort Human capital- what one person has to offer to another person (humor, skills, income, etc.) Social capital- network of human capital (different qualities of each person that they can offer to multiple people, forming connections for different reasons between various people) Need for generalizability Sources of general rewards Homans, 1961 Blau, 1964 Social Approval Social Approval Love Autonomy Personal Attraction Status Predictability Social acceptance Services Ambiguity Instrumental services Goods Security Respect Information Agreement Power Money Equity PROPOSITIONS Actors in a situation will choose whichever behavior maximizes profit Actors in a situation in which there are no rewards seek to minimize costs (principle of least costs). When immediate profits are equal, then actors choose according to which alternative provides the most profit in the long term. When long term profits are equal, then one chooses the alternative that provides the most profit in the short term. Actors will prefer stable structures where rational calculation of profit are possible and hence will support structural norms enhancing stable structures. Social structures and networks produce varying amounts of social capital depending on the properties of the network structure (e.g. closure, membership, etc.) SYMBOLIC INTERACTION Theory is focused on the meaning people make of events and situations Primary focus: acquisition and generation of meaning symbols: shared meaning (signs, symbols, words, language, etc) humans are motivated to create meaning to help make sense of the world o Chevy verses BMW- symbolism of status, class; maybe decision to spend money on something other than a car, symbolizing where they place value ASSUMPTIONS Human behavior must be understood by the meanings of the individuals Individuals describe the meaning of context and situation Individuals have minds that perceive, reason, sense, and imagine. Society preceded the individual CONCEPTS Self and mind; I and ME o I can reflect on myself....Me: How I perceive how other's perceive me Socialization o Process of acquiring the symbols, beliefs, and attitudes of our culture Mead's 2 stages: Play and Game throughout life we play different roles (student), then we acquire more and more throughout life Role: the place an individual takes within a situation, group, family, or in society Expectations within the role depending on what it is o We expect a teacher to grade, inform, etc o Students are expected to read, learn, take the tests, etc. o The more we understand and share what the expectations are for these roles, we experience CLARITY o Lack of clarity leads to confusion Role strain: so many roles that it is hard for the person to meet all the expectations for the roles at the same time Identity: formed upon the multiple roles an individual plays o Society provides the social roles and their meanings that are organized in a hierarchy o Students-Employee-Sister---> I am all three, but when I am at work, my employee role comes first; when I am at home, my sister role comes first to be responsible for my younger brother Definition of the situation: real consequences if someone perceives something as real, they will act and also experience the consequences of those actions PROPOSITIONS The quality of an individual's role enactment in a relationship positively affects the individual's satisfaction with the relationship o If you take good notes, study, and prepare for the exam, do well, and graduate, the quality of your relationship with the university will be good. The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the higher the quality of role enactment. o The better we understand what we are supposed to do in our role, the better we will perform. The more the individual perceive consensus in the expectations about a role they occupy, the less their role strain. o If everyone else also understands what role you play, then there will be less role strain for you. The greater the diversification of a person's roles, the less consensus the person will perceive in the expectations about these roles o If you do a lot of things at once, it is harder to understand what you are supposed to actually do. The great the perceived role strain that results from performing a role, the less the ease on making a transition into the role and the greater the ease in making a transition out of the role. o If there is a new job in which your roles as an employee are unclear, it would be easier to not accept the position than it would to accept the job. LIFE COURSE DEVELOPMENTAL FRAMEWORK Based on 3 different theoretical approaches: o Individual life span theory- individual development and factors impacting it; the way you grow and learn, develop speech, etc. o Family development theory- systematic and patterned changes over time; generally patterns in all families; emphasis on the interaction of time and change o Life course theory- how early life events influence an individual's later life outcomes; how your parents interacted with you and each other ASSUMPTIONS Developmental processes are inevitable and impact in understanding families o change with the passage of time: members within the family change individually interactions between the members change the structure of the family changes the norms change The family group is affected by all levels of analysis. o institutional family- general American family...family subunits of mother, father, daughter, son o time is multidimensional- monotonic: once time passes it can't come pack o periodicity: how time is measured by a recurring event (birthday, anniversary, etc.) o subjective experience of time o social process of time- marked by significant events (little brother born, break up, etc.) CONCEPTS family change and development: individuals, families, and relationships grow and change in both predictable and normative but also in unique ways position: kinship structure based on gender, blood, or generational relations (sister, uncle, wife, etc.) Norms: socially constructed rules that govern group and individual behavior that can be... o proscriptive- moral undertone (mother should...) o descriptive- explains what families are doing (many mothers are doing...) Roles: all norms and rules that are attached to a kinship position Events: significant occurrence that happens in a family's life (death, moving locations, newborns, etc.) that mark transitions (single ---> married; childless ----> parent) Family stage: time interval between transitions; stage of child being in pre-school until the child is in kindergarten is one stage; beginning --->duration ---> end are the three elements Transitions: lead to other stages; on time (parenting after being married) or off time (parenting while still in high school) o Disorganization can occur- off time stages Period- geopolitical or sociopolitical event (Great Depression) that would have some sort of effect on everyone Age- the type of effect that a period has on individuals defines their age Cohort- group of individuals that experiences something together at time; Class of 2016 is a cohort because they all experienced similar things at the same time, like entering into college PROPOSITIONS "When societal timing and sequencing norms are out of sync in family development, it is more likely that disruption will occur." o there will be more disruptions in family life if you step outside of the norm "Family members create internal family norms. Family disruption is likely to be great when internal family norms deviate from institutional family norms." o if families allow kids to be disrespectful when in society it is expected that they be submissive, then the kids will have a harder time getting along with other kids who have been raised in the social norm because they will be disrespectful and most likely disciplined because of that "Interaction with the daily group is regulated by the social norms constructing family roles." o the way that a husband demonstrates affection toward his wife is different in the way he demonstrates affection to his kids "Transitions from one stage to another are predicted by the current stage and the duration of time spent in that stage." o transitioning from being a baby to dating does not happen consecutively, because we would predict that there would be many stages in between being a baby and dating, like being a toddler, etc. Families change over time, and these events trigger these different transitions over the life course of a family. SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK ASSUMPTIONS All parts of the system are interconnected (daughter- mother- son relationship(s)) Understanding is only possible by viewing the whole (only looking at the daughter doesn't tell you much about the family other than there is a parent, maybe a legal guardian, not sure if siblings, etc. but if you look at the whole family we know much more information) A system's behavior affects its environment, and in turn the environment affects the system. (School- daughter- mother- son relationship: all have ties to each other and to the school in different ways) CONCEPTS System: set of elements or objects (family members) and relations between these elements or objects (individuals) and their attributes o Components: elements/ objects (family members) relationships attributes of elements/ objects (personalities and characteristics of a member) Boundaries: a border between the system and the environment that affects the flow of information and energy between the environment and system o Impermeable to open- boundaries can be open (lots of flow of information and honesty) or closed (not a lot in information in or out- causes stagnant relationships and communication issues) Mom tells child not to tell therapist about...= closed Mom gives child freedom to tell anything to the therapist= open Rules of transformation output output from family from environme system nt system o output from environment- therapist tells the family, "Don't cuss anymore." o family system- stops cussing OR ignores o output from system- family relationship qualities increase because language is more polite and respectful, OR it continues to decrease because they chose to ignore the advice Feedback- for example, parent finding a job o Positive- Thermostat set at 70...drops to 69, so thermostat send output to fuel pump which tells the heater to turn on which turns the hot air on which then increases the temperature of the room back to 70 o Negative- once the thermostat senses that the temperature is at 70 again, it turns off...no input into the system thermosta t feedback fuel pump indoor temperatu furnace re Negative wants to maintain homeostasis, whereas a positive feedback loop pushes for change in the family...nothing to do with good or bad Variety Systems Levels: goal oriented (negative- to keep the parent from getting a new job (no change); positive- to get the parent a new job (change)) o first order- get the kid to eat o second order- get the kid to be healthy; can change over time o *****higher order- you want to be a good parent; determine the order of the first and second order goals and therefore are the most important, and usually don't change Subsystems o mother- father- child relationships= parental subsystem + parent-child subsystem PROPOSITIONS The adaptability and therefore variability of a family system as contrasted to rigidity and vulnerability is positively related to the amount of variety in the system o if a family is going to change, they will be more able to adapt to the resources that are available to them The adaptability and therefore variability of a family system as contrasted to rigidity and vulnerability is related negatively to conflict and tension in the system o the less ability a family had to adapt, the more tension there is in a family, and the more tension there is in a family the less ability they will have to adapt adaptabili ty More adaptability = more variety variet y Higher level goals define the priorities among lower level goals and are intrinsically less likely to be revised and abandoned PURPOSE OF DATING DATING Dating: mechanism of finding a lifelong mate in order to have companionship, to get married, to share similar interests and beliefs, fun and recreation, social status, intimacy (sexual or emotional), etc. Early American dating relationships: o Calling- spending time with the family for a couple days in order to get to know the young woman and her family o Necessity of marriage Industrialization, urbanization, and emergence of dating o Dating roles changed from what we knew in earlier America to these stigmas about guys asking the girls, paying for the date, driving, opening doors, and the girls are supposed to look pretty, maybe prepare the details for the date, etc. o The roles may be changing because women have jobs, so it is more acceptable for the women to help pay sometimes whereas then it was really taboo for the woman to pay. o Principle of Least Interest: unequal emotional involvement between romantic partners that has implications for the quality and stability of relationships The person with the least emotional involvement has more power in the relationship The less interested the person is the less fear they have of being rejected Dating scripts: a set of expectations around dating that differ somewhat for men and women o Women- go to the bathroom in pairs (for some reason), have to look a certain way o Men- ask, plan, pay How do you know when someone is in a committed relationship? o Facebook status o Time people spend together o Holding hands o Wedding ring/ engagement ring...Why don't guys have engagement rings? Roles of the man providing- asking- through the ring Dating trends o Teenagers don't really go on dates- just "hanging out" with a group of friends that creates less pairing off Homogamous relationships- in relationships with people who are similar to us (age, race, religion, social class, etc.) o Propinquity- living close to someone increases your chances of being in a relationship with them o Pool of eligible individuals- the amount of girls/ guys who are available to you within your location Where do we meet? COHABITATION AND COMMITMENT HETEROSEXUAL COHABITATION Cohabitation- an arrangement of two people who are living together without being married Who? o All groups o About 44% before marriage o From 2000 until now, the number has doubled Why? o Convenience o Financial o Assess compatibility for marriage o Avoid marriage expectations (long term commitment) o Extension of dating o Marriage alternative In a survey, overall, 46% of all groups think that cohabitation isn't really a huge difference between marriage. Cohabitation effect- association between premarital cohabitation and pooper marital outcomes o Pooper marital communication in general o lower marital satisfaction o higher domestic violence risk o greater probability for divorce (people who are willing to cohabitate are more willing to end a marriage as well) Children in cohabitation o 40% have kids (married and cohabiters) o Effect depends on alternatives (i.e. single mom, mom and partner, step- parents, etc.) o Child outcomes: parents who are married have kids who perform better in academics, psychotically, socially, behaviorally, and father involvement relationship Commitment Theory o Dedication - idea of togetherness and shared meaning; loyal, long- term commitment o Constraint- pressures to remain in the relationship even if they don't want to; financial constraints; children o Sliding vs. Deciding- slowly start to live together = sliding (sleep over, leave things, etc.) vs. sitting down and having a talk about what exactly is happening = deciding People who decide instead of slide have much less problems than those who slide (kind of mimics marriage as a whole vs. cohabitating as a whole) GAY AND LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS APA (American Psychological Association) determined that most gays and lesbians are in a committed relationship 0.6% of population of households Gay men have less desire to marry (tends to be the case with heterosexual males as well) Similar outcomes to heterosexual couples on outcomes ATTACHMENT attachment- a strong emotional bond; safe haven or secure base Working Models (way that we perceive ourselves and others)- Adult Attachment Styles o Self positive- worthy of attention, acceptance and love negative- unworthy of attention, acceptance, or love o Other positive- trustworthy, caring, and accessible negative- untrustworthy, uncaring, and rejecting ROMANTIC AND COMPANIONATE LOVE Micro-level: Sternberg’s Theory of Love - sees love as having three elements: intimacy, passion, and commitment - Love types o Nonlove o Empty love o Liking o Infatuated love o Companionate love o Fatuous love o Romantic love o Consummate love - A categorization of six types of love that describe how couples are attracted to one another o Eros: passionate, strong physical attraction o Storge: companionate, mutual love Macro-level Perspectives on love - All societies control the development of love to some degree o Arranged marriage example video What are the benefits? What are drawbacks? Can arranged marriages work? How we experience love - Sex, Gender and love o Men report falling in love sooner and with more people than women. o Men are more preoccupied with love than women. - Same-sex love o Primary difference from cross-sex love is the prejudice and discrimination experienced. - Unrequited love o When one person’s feelings are not reciprocated by the other person in the relationship. BREAKING UP Breaking up is hard to do - Some stats o 50% of people have broken up with a partner at least twice o 25% have been dumped 6-10 times o Among most distressing events: severe emotional distress - Principle of least interest - What leads to breakups? o Micro-level Stop communicating effectively Different interests or values Personality clashes o Macro-level Socioeconomic issues impacting income Adolescents in Romantic Relationships - More likely to become depressed - More likely to have alcohol and delinquency problems - Tend to do poorly in school and with parental relationships - Romantic relationships require emotional effort, which can take away from other relationships. SEX AND GENDER AND SEX DOUBLE STANDARD Early American views of sex o women- no sexual desire, or else they were considered evil o men- thought to lose natural vitality if too frequent Industrialization and urbanization o mixing of sexes, freedom, and privacy o sexual gratification became a right o increased birth control methods 21st century o most adults would approve of non-marital sex o majority of Americans believe that it is morally acceptable to have children outside of marriage o longer duration of singlehood increases chances for non-marital sex consider for a moment...what does this say about our nation as a whole? Sex and gender o sex- biological differences and roles in reproduction o intersex- those born with genitalia that do not clearly identify them as unambiguously male or female Between 1 and 2 in 1000 people (0.001-0.002%) o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences between the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with femininity and masculinity o transgender- feeling comfortable, if not more so, expressing gendered traits associated with the other sex o transsexual- someone undergoes sex reassignment surgery or hormone treatments 0.0001% (males) 0.000033% (females) sexual orientation- pattern of romantic and sexual partners of choice o heterosexual- having an attraction and preference for developing romantic and sexual relations with someone for the opposite sex o homosexual- same sex o bisexual- both sexes o LGBT Population= 3.4% of adults What determines sexual orientation? o many differing viewpoints o genes, environment o nobody knows for sure Attitudes toward LGBT community- people believed differently up until about 2008, and now we are separated by opinion again o homosexuality is more socially acceptable o homophobia- having strong negative feelings toward homosexuality GENDER AND SEXUAL SCRIPTS double standard- idea that men are allowed more permissiveness in sexual behavior than women Learning Activity o What do you believe or what do you think about the double standard? o Do you believe that it is fair? o What is your perspective from your own gender? sexual scripts- socially learned ways of responding to sexual situations o Male sexual scripts- p. 176 a man's looks are relatively unimportant but his status is enhanced if he's with a beautiful woman the man always wants sec and is ready for it all physical contact leads to sex, which equals intercourse, which leads to orgasm a man is in charge o Female sexual scripts- p.176-177 females should be attractive, but not too attractive women shouldn't know too much about sex or be too experienced women shouldn't talk about sex good girls don't plan in advance to have sex or initiate it a man should know how to please a woman sex should lead to orgasm alone, not other stimulation SEXUAL EXPRESSION THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES sexual behaviors o oral sex- duh o cunnilingus (women being stimulated) and fellatio (man being stimulated) how many sexual partners do adults have in their lives? o one...12% men and 25% women o 2-4...16% men and 33% women o 5-10...26% men and 29% women o 11-20...18% men and 6% women o 21+...20% men and 4% women early childhood (2-6) years- develop understanding of gendered behavior middle childhood (7-11 years)- some experiment with masturbation adolescence is a period when children sexually mature what are the trends in teenage sexual activity? o about 50% of all teenagers have had sex between grades 9 & 12 o about a third of all teenagers are currently sexually active o a higher percentage of blacks and Hispanics are more likely to have had sex, but there's not a huge difference o in the 90's, there was a much higher rate of teenage pregnancy than in 2011, almost double the rates in 2011...could be because of increased use of birth control and because it is more socially acceptable non-marital sex and young adults o non-marital sex= sex prior to marriage o morality ages 18-24- 70% believe sometimes or not at all wrong ages 65+- 40% sometimes or not at all wrong hooking up- sexual intercourse without commitment or even affection for one another o how often does this occur? West coast study- 40% of students had hooked up southern study- 52% males and 36% females stanford and indiana- 75% hook up by senior year o reality- men and women prefer dating over hooking up o casual sex related poor phychoogical well-being gay and lesbian sexual relationships are pretty much the same as heterosexual stats, just more acceptable of multiple partners SEXUAL SATISFACTION IN COMMITTED RELATIONSHIPS SEX DIFFERENCES IN COMMUNICATION On average, women... o conversation is used to establish and maintain relationships o smile more o wider range of emotions via facial expressions and other non-verbal o maintain more eye contact o more qualifiers ("it sort of seems..." or "I would like to...") o more polite tone o ask more questions o more likely to show interest and concern o more personal details and self-disclosure o prefer side-by-side talk On average, men... o exchange of information o more direct o more assertive o more authoritative and absolute o dominate in mixed-sex contexts speak more frequently and longer speak of topics of interest interrupt more frequently o occupy more personal space o use hands when speaking o more likely to touch others Why do men and women communicate differently? o biological origins- hormones o social origins o nature and nurture..both SELF-DISCLOSURE Self-disclosure- telling a person something private about yourself that he or she would not otherwise know o Ranges in significance o Unity in Relationships...potential to build or corrode o When it's beneficial, there is reciprocity and disclosure is supported, building trust GOTTMAN'S 4 HORSEMAN OF THE APOCALYPSE Conflict- disagreements over decision making, problem solving, or achieving goals, that can result from differences between group members in personality, perception, information, tolerance for risk, and power or influence Styles of conflict o avoidance o accommodate o competing o compromising o collaborating John Gottman's Four Horseman of the Apocalypse contempt- feeling superior to your spouse/partner, such as rolling your eyes while the other is talking defensiveness- self-protection used when one perceives he/she is being attacked criticism- attacking the partner's personality or character (ad hominem- attack of the person instead of the issue at hand) stonewalling- withdrawing from the interaction (physically or physchologically) belligerence- challenging the authority and power of the other person; testing them MARITAL PERSPECTIVE What is happening to marriage today? (2 perspectives) o Marital decline perspective- the view that the institution of marriage is increasingly being threatened by hedonistic pursuits of personal happiness at the expense of long-term commitment increased divorce rates increased cohabitation increased childbearing outside of marriage o Marital resilience perspective- overall marriage is no weaker than in the past, but that all families need an increase in structural support over time marriage has always had problems (violence or desertion) marry more intelligently now real threats- social problems (poverty, discrimination, poor schools, lack of social services) family issues result from social problems instead of causing them o What perspective do you prescribe to and why? ATTITUDES ABOUT MARRIAGE, SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE Why are marriages being delayed? o career focus o women aren't as reliant on marriage to have a comfortable life since they can support themselves individually o longer life span because of increased quality of life could possibly delay marriage o increased cohabitation decreases need for marriage o cultural shifts in values associated with marriage and singlehood o occupational and educational opportunities with marriage and singlehood o structural changes in the economy Qualities for marriage: o honesty o communication o financial stability o responsibility o understanding o quality and stability of parental relationships (how you were raised) o frequent sex o shared values and goals (kids, career, traveling, etc.) Changing attitudes and beliefs o attitudes about non-marital sex o attitudes about cohabitation o attitudes about non-marital childrearing o attitudes about shared breadwinning o attitudes about division of labor in the household ADOPTION AND INFERTILITY Remaining childfree o infertility- inability to have become pregnant after trying for a year o 12% of adults- 7 million people o medical treatment Assisted Reproductive Treatment (ART)- all fertility treatments in which the egg or sperm (or both) are handled In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)- eggs removed surgically, fertilized in a dish, then implanted in women's uterus- need 3-4 attempts for success; about $12,000 per attempt Surrogacy- giving birth to a child for another person or couple Ethical considerations- lifestyle of surrogate, renting bodies, etc. o Hidden emotions- personal experience, suffer loss on many fronts o Voluntary choice Adoption o 135,000 children adopted yearly o 1850's Orphan Trains 1850-1929: approximately 250,000 relocated beginning of organized foster care in U.S. PARENTING STYLES 1. Traits o low income- obedience, conformity, staying out of trouble, keeping neat and clean o higher income- creativity, ambition, independence, curiosity, good judgment 2. Parenting Style o low income- controlling, authoritarian, arbitrary in discipline, apt to use physical punishment o high income- more democratic and willing to hear opinions of kids 3. Warmth o higher income- more affection, talk more, more complex language Diana Baumrind- Parenting Styles o Authoritative- demanding, high level of control, warm receptive children- perform better in school and more socially competent o Permissive- nurturing, caring, responsive but place little demands or controls on kids children- more aggressive and impulsive Authoritarian- strict, punitive, less warmth and support, less communication children- more fearful and aggressive THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT RAISING CHILDREN many ways to raise healthy and productive kids...it's not the same everywhere emerging parenting themes o increasing involvement of others and social institutions (grandparents, schools, etc) o increased permissiveness and child independence o higher value placed on boys than on girls (mostly other countries) Theoretical Approaches o Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalytic Perspective human behavior comes from unconscious forces: id- want, need, now...devil on the shoulder; bad ego- want it, but can wait...reasoning; what happens superego- patience...angel on the shoulder; good o John Piaget- Cognitive Development how children understand world and make meaning 4 stages of cognitive development sensorimotor (0-2 yrs.) o understand world through 5 senses preoperational (2-7 yrs.) o understand through language, symbolic play and drawing, no abstract concepts concrete operational (7-12 yrs.) o understand hierarchy and categories, beginning to see causal connections in their surroundings formal operational (12-adult) o develop capacities for abstract thought and can conceptualize more complex issues or rules that can be used for more complex problem solving o Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead- The Self Cooley- looking-glass self: come to see ourselves as others see and respond to us Mead- role taking: process of mentally assuming the role of another person to understand the world from their point of view and to anticipate their response from us o Alfred Bandura- Social Learning Theory children learn by watching and imitating others Bobo Doll experiment rewarded/ reinforced behaviors more likely to be repeated non-rewarded/ reinforced behaviors less likely to be repeated UNEMPLOYMENT AND DIVISION OF HOUSEHOLD LABOR LIFE IN A RECESSION Unemployment and families...how does unemployment impact families? o causes tension between members o reduced income o possible bankruptcy o home foreclosure o loss of health insurance o lower marriage rates o endangered relationships o domestic violence o children's social well-being may be harmed 2007 unemployment rate was 4.7%...recession in 2008 was 6.8%...2013 it was still 7.0% Unstable working conditions o low minimum wage o Living wage: wages that are above the federal or state minimum wage levels, usually ranging from 100 to 130 percent of the poverty line depending on affordability of housing part time work... non-standard work: job schedules that are part-time, subcontracted, temporary in nature, occur at night, often irregular work schedules Part Time Nonstandard Temporary Less income Irregular schedule- not pay Constant moving, decreased bills on time, picking up kids stability Less benefits, insurance, and Difficult to save money Ration money paid time off Increased stress CRISIS AND STRESS FAMILY STRESS AND CRISIS: VIOLENCE AMONG INTIMATES Crisis: A critical change of events that disrupts the functioning of a person’s life. Family Stress: Tensions that test a family’s emotional resources. Acute Stress: Short-term stress Chronic Stress: long-term stress Ten most common family stressors 1. Finances 2. Children behavior 3. Insufficient time as a couple 4. Lack of shared responsibility in family 5. Communication with children 6. Insufficient time for me 7. Guilt for not accomplishing more 8. Relationship with spouse 9. Insufficient family play time 10. Overscheduled family calendar THE NATURE OF STRESS AND CRISIS Patterns of Family Crisis o Three Distinct phases: The EVENT that causes the crisis The period of disorganization that follows The reorganization that takes place afterwards Family Coping or Not o ABC-X Model: A model designed to help us understand the variation in the ways that families cope with stress and crisis. The outcome of the crisis will depend on the combo of ABC factors POWER, CONTROL, AND DECISION MAKING Power: authority to exercise your will Personal Power: degree of autonomy to exercise one’s own will. Social Power: the ability to exercise your will over another person. Intimate partner power: involves decision making among intimate partners, divisions of labor, and their sense of entitlement. TYPES OF IPV, CHILD AND ELDER ABUSE VIOLENCE AMONG INTIMATES Violence is a social problem because: o It affects large numbers of people o Violence is not completely random o Risk factors Low self-esteem Low income Low academic achievement Young age Aggressive behavior as a youth Etc. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE (IPV) IPV- Violence between those that are physically and sexually intimate, spouses and partners. o Physical o Economic o Sexual o Psychological/emotional Frequency of Intimate Partner Violence o 1.4—4.3 million female victims o 1 in 3 women likely to be a victim o 1 in 4 men likely to be a victim Types of Intimate Partner Violence o Common couple violence—arises from a specific argument, less frequent. o Intimate terrorism—physical, psychological, or sexual violence motivated by a desire to control the other partner o Violent resistance—non-legal term for self-defense o Mutual violent control—both partners are violent and battling for power and control. CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT child abuse- an attack on a child that results in an injury and violates out social norms o in 2011- 700,000 child victims o 27% under the age of 3 Types of child abuse: o neglect- physical and/or emotional; most common o physical o sexual o psychological or emotional maltreatment ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT most common is financial abuse and neglect can be other, more common forms as well STATIONS OF DIVORCE AND THE EFFECTS ON CHILDREN WHY DO PEOPLE DIVORCE? MICRO-LEVEL FACTORS Parental Divorce o if one's parents have been divorced, the chance of the children also divorcing rises Age at Marriage o the younger they are at marriage the higher the chance of divorce Parental status o couples that don't have kids are more likely to divorce than couples who do have kids Non-Martial Childbearing o kids before marriage increase chance of divorce Sex of Children o parents who have more boys are more likely to stay together; dads are more likely to be involved with their sons Race and Ethnicity o Asian are less likely to divorce than Blacks; may be attributable to significance of religion, culture of family vs. individuality, etc. Education o more education = less likely to divorce Income o more income = less likely to divorce Degree of similarity between spouses o more similarity = less likely to divorce Couple's Age o longer they are together = less likely to divorce MACRO-LEVEL FACTORS Level of socioeconomic Development o Countries that are less developed have a decreased chance of divorce, because the family relies on one another to survive and thrive o More developed countries have a greater chance of divorce because there is more chance for individuality and separation and still succeeding Religion o most religions want the couple to stay together, not separate Divorce Laws o in some countries it is much easier for the man to get a divorce than it is for a women to get a divorce Women's status and employment o this varies from nation to nation, but generally the women who are able to have jobs themselves will not rely on a man for a sustainable way of life, and therefore have a higher divorce rate o the opposite is also true, in that divorce is risky for women who have little options outside of marriage Attitudes toward divorce o in the U.S. it's generally okay as a last resort, but in some countries it is looked down upon EXPERIENCING DIVORCE PHASES OF SEPARATION pre-separation: thinking about benefits of separating early separation: begin facing issues of not separating mid-separation: reality of daily living; stuff that makes separation sound better than staying together late-separation: learning to live single; not separated yet, but may as well be STATIONS OF DIVORCE The Emotional Divorce Emotional difficulties Divorce Emotional difficulties o Anger - Resentment - Sadness - Rejection o Men tend to struggle more than women...why? Women have a bigger support network than men usually do in terms of social comfort and interaction for emotional issues Not seeing the children (not the primary care-taker) is tough for men who still want to be involved in their kid's lives Legal Divorce: termination of the marriage by contract of the state court order o Division of assets Economic Divorce o Who is impacted the most? About 1/3 of women end up at or below the poverty line after divorce because of taking care of the children on top of supporting themselves Co-parental divorce: must try to agree on parenting strategies o Legal custody- who is legally responsible for the kids in situations that would require legal action o Physical custody- who the kid lives with physically o Sole physical custody- only one of the parents takes care of the kids o joint physical custody- splitting the time between parent as equally as possible Community divorce: impact of divorce on other relationships o grandparents- want visitation rights to the kids, even if the grandparent and the caretaker don't get along, etc. Psychic divorce: developing an autonomic sense of self-wholeness as a single person Effects of Divorce on Children Short Term Long-Term Parental conflict Non-marital childbirth Loss of parent Drop out of school Reduced standard of living Use alcohol or drugs Adjusting to transitions Behavior problems Experience depression Poor overall health Anxiety about future marriage *Doesn't apply to all kids who experience divorce Is divorce or marital conflict worse for children? o worst situations: high-conflict without divorce, low-conflict with divorce Happier after divorce? o not necessarily... o arguing stress and unhappiness may go away, but other stresses about taking care of kids, etc. may arise (can eliminate some but new ones are created) UNIQUE FEATURES OF STEPFAMILIES AND THE EFFECTS OF STEPFAMILIES ON CHILDREN UNIQUE FEATURES stepfamilies come about because of a loss through death, divorce, or separation the parent-child relationship has a linger history than the new couple relationship does a biological parent lives somewhere else children in stepfamilies hold membership in two households the model for step-parenting is ambiguous and poorly defined no legal relationship exists between stepparents and stepchildren children in stepfamilies have multiple relationships with extended family members CHILDREN difficulties remain compared to children with 2 biological parents: o social o behavioral o emotional o academic high quality stepfather relationships risk explanations ADULTS Stepmothers o outsider o little control over visitation o accepting husbands making alimony payments Stepfathers o full-time with stepchildren o loyalty issues o demands of mother's attention o may support biological and stepchildren STRENGTHENING STEPFAMILIES open communication eliminate criticism of parent/stepparent nurture couple relationship support system of individuals in similar situations LIFE-EXPECTANCY INCREASE Since the 1900s there has been a significant increase in the population of those older than 65 o medical advancements o better nutrition and more access to healthier food o just after the 1940s, the number of kids increased dramatically, and in modern days the baby boomers have contributed to the spike in elderly people as well o the rise may continue with the rise in medical advancements and other technological aspects that improve life How does this demographic chance affect you? o the jobs related to medical fields will be in high demand due to the amount of patients that will be coming in needing help, specifically in geriatrics o the older generations receive social security that is supported by the rest of the population so taxes may rise DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION the "oldest-old" increasing (85+)- old = 65+ and oldest old = 85+ o life expectancy- the amount of time in years that a person can expact to live females = 81 years males = 76 years o more elderly women than men o men tend to be the ones who are married and women tend to be the ones who are widowed...why? men are more likely to marry after divorce men are more likely to marry younger women after divorce whereas women are more likely to marry older men...but women live longer than men WIDOWHOOD loss of a spouse id one of life's most stressful events o loss of companion, friend, income, and way of life 14 million widowed individuals Widow effect: increased likelihood of death after a spouse dies o less true for blacks; possibly because of the culture of family support that is generally in place to a great extent than in other races; more likely to be living with other relatives GRANDPARENTS AND GRANDCHILDREN changing grandparenting role over the last century: o grandparenting had become a role distinct from parenting o grandparents are healthier and better educated o grandparents are more likely to recognize the importance of emotional involvement Grandparent-grandchild relationship types o companionate- fun only mindset o remote- distant because of various reasons (location, emotional reasons, etc.)
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