Psychology Study Guide: First Quiz
Psychology Study Guide: First Quiz 71902
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Herscher on Tuesday February 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 71902 at San Francisco State University taught by Margaret Lynch in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see PSY 200 in Psychlogy at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/24/15
Psychology Study Guide First Test 39 Psychology is relevant in all aspects of life Intertwined with Philosophy and Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Systematically assessing information to reach reasonable conclusions Four Levels of Analysis 39 Biological Level how the physical body including the brain contributes to to mind and behavior as through the chemical and genetic processes that occur in the body 39 Individual Level individual differences in personality and in the mental processes that affect how people perceive and know the world 39 Social Level how group contexts affect how people interact and in uence each other 39 Cultural Level how people s thoughts feelings and actions are similar or different across cultures 39 In uential Psychologists and Philosophers Descartes introduced the first idea of dualism between the mind and body which had previously been thought of as two separate entities John Stuart Mill Philosopher 1843 declared that psychology should leave the realms of philosophy and speculation and become a science of observation and experimentation the beginning of Behaviorism Wilhelm Wundt 1879 established the first psychological laboratory 39 Psychological Theories and Terms Structuralism the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components Edward Titchener 1867 Introspection a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts 1875 William James introduced stream of consciousness Functionalism the mind came into existence over the course of human evolution adaptive Darwin evolutionary theory 1859 Gestalt Theory the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its elements Max Wertheimer 1912 Psychoanalysis bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that con icts can be revealed free association Freud 1896 the unconscious the mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness Behaviorism emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior John Watson 1913 Humanism how people can know and accept themselves in order to reach their unique potentials Carl Rogers 1920 Social psychology how people are in uenced by their interactions with others Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow 1920 Cognitive neuroscience neural mechanisms that underlie thought learning and memory Empiricism the theory that all knowledge is derived from sense eXperience 39 Psychological Theories of Individual Psychologists BF Skinner 1948 denied the eXistence of mental states Wolfgang Kohler 1920 animals could solve problems through eXperience Edward C Tolman 1930 psychologists learn by observation became obvious that mental functions were important for understanding behavior Miller 1957 cognition how thoughts affect behavior 39 Steps in the Scientific Method Hypothesis an educated guess for the outcome of an eXperiment EXperiment a study that tests casual hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables Research gathering information from collected data usually from eXperiments or surveys Data Collection compiling the results from one or more eXperiments and attempt to identify causation Replication repeating an eXperiment to see if it yields the same or similar results 39 Aspects Of Experimentation Variable something in the world that can vary and that a researcher can measure Descriptive Studies involves observing and noting the behavior of people to provide a systematic and objective analysis of the behavior Naturalistic observation the researcher is a passive observer making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior Participant Observation the researcher is actively involved in the situation Longitudinal Studies studies the same participants multiple times over a period of time Cross Sectional Studies compares participants in different groups at the same time Observer Bias systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer s eXpectations EXperimenter EXpectancy Effect actual change in the behavior of the people being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer Control the participants in a study that receive no intervention eXperimental the participants in a study that receive the intervention Independent the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter dependent the variable that is affected by the manipulation Confound anything that affects a dependent variable correlational examines how variables are naturally related in the real world without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them Population everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in Sample a subset of a population External Validity the degree to which the findings of an experiment can be generalized outside the laboratory Selection Bias unintended differences between the participants in different groups Placebo Effect an imagined effect brought on simply by knowing that something has changed Random Assignment placing research participants into conditions of an experiment in such a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable IRB groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science Case Study involves the intensive examination of unusual people or organizations Self Report people are asked to provide information about themselves Descriptive Statistics statistics that summarize the data collected in a study Inferential Statistics a set of procedures used to make judgements about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers Correlation the proven relationship between a cause and an effect Negative Correlation as one variable increases the other variable decreases Positive Correlation they move in the same direction ThEFE 3P5 in the This galp separates a bre s quot39I39r39Elll39l 5 93th l39IElF39 end bul frpn39u an adjacent the EEIFIIZlUEtiIIII39I Elf cell bpd39I er a dendrite nerIIe Impulses Hyelin sheath Same fibres have this fattlI cpating which speeds up nerIIe impulse transmissipn Herve fibre alien HerIe bres n39ualiI linl tn the cell bedies er the q H dendrites pfpther i by I neurpns prtp ether cells Synaptic end bulb This swelling at the end pfthe nerIIe bre helds chemicals that are able tc traIIel acrpss the synapse Dendrite A neurcn n39ua39I have up be EIIIEI pfthese shcrt Nucleus branching prcJectIcns Heurpn cell bpdlI 39 Biological Foundations Neurons cells that receive integrate and transmit information in the nervous system They operate through electrical impulses communicate with other neurons through chemical signals and from neural networks Sensory Neurons these afferent carry information to the brain neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain Motor Neurons these efferent transmit signals from the brain to muscles neurons direct muscles to contract or relax thereby producing movement Interneurons these neurons communicate only with other neurons Dendrites branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons Cell Body site in the neuron where where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated Axon a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons Terminal Buttons small nodules at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse Synapse the sight at which chemical communication occurs between neurons Synaptic Cleft the gap between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrites of a receiving neuron it contains extracellular uid Myelin Sheath a fatty material made up of glial cells that insulates the axon and allows for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon Nodes of Ranvier small gaps of exposed axon between the segments of myelin sheath where action potentials are transmitted Neurotransmitter chemical substances that carry signals from one neuron to another 39 Types of Neurotransmitters and Their Functions Acetylcholine responsible for motor control over muscles learning memory sleeping and dreaming Epinephrine energy Norepinephrine arousal and vigilance Serotonin emotional states and impulsiveness dreaming Dopamine reward and motivation motor control over voluntary movement Receptors specialized protein molecules on the postsynaptic membrane neurotransmitters bind to these molecules after passing across the synaptic cleft Central Nervous System the brain and the spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System all nerve cells in the body that are not part of the Central Nervous System The peripheral nervous system includes the somatic and autonomic nervous systems Somatic Nervous System a component of the peripheral nervous system it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the skin muscles and joints Autonomic Nervous System a component of the peripheral nervous system it transmit sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the body s glands and internal and internal organs All or Nothing Principle the principle whereby a neuron fires with the same potency each time although frequency can vary a neuron either fires or not it cannot partially fire Re uptake the process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons thereby stopping activity Agonists drugs that enhance the actions of neurotransmitters Antagonists drugs that inhibit the actions of neurotransmitters Structures and Functions of the Brain Brain Stem an extension of the spinal cord it houses structures that control functions associated with survival such as breathing swallowing vomiting urination and orgasm Cerebellum a large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem it is essential for coordinated movement and balance Hypothalamus a brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily functions including body temperature blood pressure and blood glucose levels it also in uences our basic motivated behaviors Thalamus the gateway to the brain it receives almost all incoming sensory information before that information reaches the corteX 39 Hippocampus a brain structure that is associated with the formation of mtiu tihn t E w I a ransom FEEml L39E39E n PERFETAL EPEWHQl LEE movement 1 DEEIF ITAL Dorianlateral Firfrenfal ES samunive mtala 39 g TEMF39IEIFIM ingiry ulti t 3 LEE 1112 1 mg I u ElanjuagEEg FtEF ivl bit llin i me m g r Kanpuraware Emmi f j n 3 EEHEEELLUM muttnnal resume mygriala f E mmi quotL thaair Emma 5 H in ameml if quotf Lil l HEW Emummm Sorta H39 gfnu Emma STEM Mammy L L body basics LIMEEIE EVETEM memories 39 Amygdala a brain structure that serves a vital role in our learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information Endocrine System a communication system that uses hormones to in uence thoughts behaviors and actions Hormones chemical substances released from endocrine glands that travel through the bloodstream to targeted tissues the tissues are subsequently in uenced by the hormones Pituitary Gland a gland located at the hypothalamus it sends hormonal signals to other endocrine gland controlling their release of hormones Genes the units of heredity that help determine the characteristics of an organism Genome an organism s complete set of DNA including all of its genes Monozygotic Twins twin siblings that result from one zygote splitting in two and the fore share the same genes identical twins Dizygotic Twins twin siblings that result from two separately fertilized eggs and therefore are no more genetically similar than non twin siblings fraternal twins Nature vs Nurture the ongoing debate regarding what exactly defines a person their genetic makeup or how they were raised The study of twins could prove particularly helpful in finding an answer for this question Plasticity a property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience drugs or injury plasticity decreases with age 39 Development Developmental Psychology the study of changes over the life span in physiology cognition emotion and social behavior Teratogens environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus 39 Examples drugs alcohol bacteria viruses and chemicals 39 Teratogens can cause both external and internal birth defects some of which wouldn39t become apparent until later in life Example Fetal Alcohol Syndrome often results in permanent brain damage Sensitive Learning Period time periods when specific skills develop most easily 39 Neuron will form in the brain as long as the child receives the right stimuli 39 Some scientists believe there is a limit to how late in life humans can learn a language 39 However this proves to be almost impossible to determine since its very rare that a child will get so old without ever learning how to speak and even when rare cases do present themselves the child often has brain damage which complicates that study Not to mention that collecting precise data on the subject is beyond tedious Phonemes the smallest units of sound that are understood in language 39 Examples a un and ing Morphemes composed of one or more phonemes essentially all words 39 Children learn words adaptively picking up new language skills as they become useful even if the child isn39t explicitly taught such things Child Neglect can often slow brain development or even cause brain damage often from lack of brain function 39 It also tends to ensure that the child won t try to actively learn anything due to exceptionally low self esteem Attachment a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances 39 Three Types of Attachment illustrate the relationship between parent and child Secure Attachment the infant is confident enough to play in an unfamiliar environment as long as the caregiver is present and is readily comforted by the caregiver during times of distress majority of infants Insecure Attachment the infant may eXhibit insecure attachment through various behaviors such as avoiding contact with the caregiver or by alternating between approach and avoidance behaviors I rur 39 RANGE SITUATION EXPERI ENT ST 11 GEIFEQWEIF sits rehsl wret ehes shits piss i3 reins Etiehrger enters siteht first then teths te eeiegseh theh hterieets with ihieht Eeregver Ileeves the revere i3 thins s First slreeereteh Stirshsgertiies te Interest with Intent 3 miles s Fist reunites EEFIEEQWEIF eerhieits shite stiehigei teeves Eeregieertheh teeses 3 mess is Seeehe seeeretieh Ehite etehe 3 miles Stranger enters ehsl tries te htereet with ehtsl 1 Sees Ii lrd reuhieh eregieer eersierts ehtsl hsrewxer shews CEFEQEVEIFEHEI ihieht ihte the esprerirhehtet teem end then Iteeees If Eeeehsls sirenget Peeves Ail essesles reseeet it test fer rhhs untess the ehtsl heeerhes very upset minority of infants 39 Strange Situation Experiment assesses the attachment style between a parent usually the mother and the child Assimilation the process by which we place new information into an eXisting schema Accommodation the process by which we create a new schema or drastically alter an existing schema to include new information that otherwise would not fit into the schema Eniaariima tnr BirthE yrs F mainpimmIiinal 2 3 years ung rue13n normigzmal Ti HI imam Finanmal ipm nnail 1 1 Emma El39iiiii up Eili araniiatas Eenlf from ninja35 HacrogniEEJE 5am HE agent of un tn and begging Eu an i intentionally Hug pulls a airing in EE mobile in muiim Ir EI39LHHEE a railing tv make a riciEE Anhi iraa bjean i permanence realizes 1139th things mn iinun tv axial Evean when no longer present iv the EEFIEE pang EliEI39mpa Eerieallay iLEEITiE in uses Imguage and In HFmam nahj39relia by imag EII39IIE mid Thill39ili39lii i still B I ih i has d wliy taking 1be wigwp imt elf anthers anairfra ninjaEta iiiij39 E aimgl liaium QI39EHJFIE 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Level middle stage of moral development at this level strict adherence to societal rules and the approval of others determine What it moral 39 Post Conventional Level highest level of moral development at this level decisions about morality depend on abstract principles and the value of all life Cognition Changes with Age 39 Cognitive abilities eventually decline with age most likely because the frontal lobes shrink with age 39 Older people generally have difficulty with memory tasks that require the ability to remember multiple pieces of information at the same time 39 Elderly people tend to be less intelligent than younger simply because a person s IQ often gets lower as they age Erikson s Eight Stages of Human Development Stage llllaalltu39 lllpu mm uutuunilr Conflict Events Infancy birth to 18 llrust vs Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when months Mistrust caregivers provide reliabilty care and affection A lack of this will lead to mistrust Early Childhood l2 Autonomy toilet Children need to develop a sense of personal to 3 years vs Shame Training control over physical skills and a sense of and Doubt independence Success leads to feelings of autonomy failure results in feelings of shame V and doubt Preschool 3 to 5 Initiative vs Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and years Guilt power over the environment Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval resulting in a sense of guilt School Age 6 to i1 Industry vs School Children need to cope with new social and years lnferiority academic demands Success leads to a sense of competence while failure results in feelings of inferiority Adolescence 12 to Identity vs Social teens needs to develop a sense of self and 13 years Role Relationships personal identity Success leads to an ability to Confusion stay true to yourself while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self Yound Adulthood 19 Intimacy vs Relationships Young adults need to form intimate loving to 40 years Isolation relationships with other people Success leads to strong relationships while failure results in loneliness and isolation Middle Adulthood 4D to Generativity Work and Adults need to create or nurture things that will 65 years vs Parenthood outlast them often by having chilldren or Stagnation creating a positive change that benefits other people Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment while failure results in shallow involvement in the world Maturity 65 to Ego Reflection on Older adults need to look back on life and feel a deathl Integrity vs Life sense of fulfillment Success at this stage leads Despair to feelings of wisdom while failure results in regret bitterness and despair
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