PSYC 1000 - Exam 4 Study Guide (Chapters 13-16)
PSYC 1000 - Exam 4 Study Guide (Chapters 13-16) Psyc 1000-04
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
PSYC 1000 Exam 4 Study Guide: Chapters 1316 CHAPTER 13 Social psychology: how situations and social factors influence our behavior and thinking Attributions: influences about the causes of behavior Dispositional/internal attributions: behavior is caused by personality Situational/external attributions: behavior is caused by circumstances Fundamental attribution error: overestimating dispositional factors and underestimating situational factors when judging the behavior of others Attitudes: feelings that predispose our reactions How do attitudes relate to actions? Attitudes affect actions; actions also affect attitudes Cognitive dissonance: psychological tension that occurs when behavior and attitudes don't match Cognitive dissonance theory: we're motivated to reduce cognitive dissonance by changing attitudes to match actions Festinger & Carlsmith study: people paid $1 were more likely to lie than people paid $20; $20 people experienced less tension because they could justify the lie; however, $1 people couldn't justify it, so they convinced themselves they actually did find the task interesting; more likely to change their attitude to match their behavior; suggests that working hard to obtain a goal makes the goal more valuable Zimbardo prison study (Stanford prison experiment): showed role absorption and the high influence of situations on our behavior Conformity: changing beliefs/behaviors to match group due to unspoken group pressure Asch conformity studies: subject chose line of obviously wrong length because of peer pressure Compliance: agreeing to a request from someone who is not in a position of authority Footinthedoor phenomenon: tendency for people who agree to a small request to be more likely to agree to a larger related request Doorintheface phenomenon: tendency for people who have been asked a large unreasonable request to be more likely to agree to a smaller request Obedience: agreeing to a demand from an authority figure What were the results of Milgram’s study? What was the main conclusion of Milgram’s studies? 2/3 people gave increasingly intense shocks to a stranger; we obey because of authority, lack of responsibility, and the power of the situation Chameleon effect: we naturally mimic others' expressions, postures, and voice tones Deindividuation: behaving in uncharacteristic ways when they feel anonymous or less accountable Social loafing: tendency for people in a group to exert less effort than when individually accountable Group polarization: tendency for beliefs and attitudes to strengthen when discussed with like minded others Groupthink: the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Under what conditions is groupthink most likely to occur? How can it be avoided? More likely to occur when groups are isolated, with a strong leader, and there is suppression of dissenting views; avoid it by designating a devil's advocate, allowing anonymous expression of opinions, and getting opinions from outsiders Stereotypes: beliefs about a group; false assumptions that all members in a group have the same characteristics Prejudice: unjustified evaluation a person based on group membership Discrimination: treating people differently because of prejudice How is prejudice a legitimizing ideology? Prejudice justifies and maintains inequalities by suggesting some groups are less capable/worthy than others Overt attitudes: attitudes we are conscious of having/expressing Implicit attitudes: have an unconscious influence on us What do measures of implicit attitudes reveal about prejudice? Overt and implicit attitudes don't always match; most Americans think they are not prejudiced but actually are What are some phenomena that contribute to prejudice as discussed in class? We have a tendency to categorize people for simplicity; illusory correlations: we associate the behavior of one person with their whole group; confirmation bias: we notice examples that confirm our beliefs; ingroup favoritism: tendency to evaluate members of our own group more favorably; scapegoating; social inequalities; justword phenomenon: belief that people get what they deserve Bystander effect: tendency for the presence of other people to inhibit helping How does the case of Kitty Genovese relate to the bystander effect? Because there were so many people in the apartment buildings, everyone thought someone else would help, and so no one did What are some other factors involved in helping? If need for help is clear; if people know each other; if person seems similar to us; feel good dogood phenomenon: if we are in a good mood; if we are not in a hurry; population density; if costs outweigh benefits Mereexposure effect: familiarity breeds liking How does love tend to change over the course of time (in terms of passionate and companionate love)? Passionate (intense, sexual, emotional) to companionate (deep, intimate, steady attachment) Frustrationaggression principle: frustration creates anger, which can spark aggression Social script: culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations How might the scripts provided by the media influence sexual and/or aggressive behavior? Nonviolent sexual films make sexual aggression seem less serious; violent sexual films increase men's readiness to behave aggressively toward women Mirrorimage perceptions: mutual views held by conflicting people (ex. when each side thinks of themselves as ethical and the opposing side as evil) GRIT strategy: Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tensionreduction; small conciliatory gestures from each side of a conflict to reduce tension CHAPTER 14 Personality: enduring psychological and behavioral characteristics What are the four main approaches to the study of personality? Psychodynamic approach, humanistic approach, trait approach, and socialcognitive approach Sigmund Freud: psychoanalytic theory: development occurs in stages throughout childhood, each focusing on an erogenous zone; conflict between complying with society and satisfying urges Unconscious: thoughts, feelings and desires below conscious awareness; Freud tried to cure his patients through free association (encouraging patient to say whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial) Psychoanalytic view: structure of personality is in three parts: Id (basic instincts, pleasure principle), Ego (reality, delayed gratification), and Superego (conscience, morality) Iceberg analogy: mind is mostly subconscious thoughts, although we only see the conscious thoughts Defense mechanisms: unconscious tactics that protect us from unpleasant emotions by hiding/distorting reality Repression: pushing troubling thoughts out of conscious awareness; main defense mechanism What are Freud’s psychosexual stages of development and what happens during each? 1. Oral stage (mouth, weaning fixation), 2. Anal stage (anus, toilet training fixation), 3. Phallic stage (genitals: penis/clitoris), 4. Latency period (no erogenous zone), 5. Genital stage (penis/vagina) Orange Animals Play Like Gentlemen Erogenous zones: pleasuresensitive areas of body Fixation: enduring focus on particular erogenous zone; occurs when urges aren't satisfied Oedipus complex: males develop sexual desire for mother and jealousy for father, so he tries to become more like his father Electra complex: penis envy; affection for father; scared of losing mother's affection so tries to become more like her mother What are the major problems with Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory? It's unscientific, doesn't provide testable predictions, and isn't supported by research According to Alfred Adler, why do we struggle for superiority and power? We're trying to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority Who is associated with the idea of a collective unconscious? Carl Jung Projective personality tests: tests that employ ambiguous stimuli to evoke responses that reveal facets of someone's personality What are the problems with projective personality tests? They're subjective, lacking in reliability and validity, and there's no solid way to score/interpret answers False consensus effect: tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors What is the main premise of the humanistic approach? It's an optimistic approach that sees humans as intrinsically good; it assumes people are motivated by their innate drive to fulfill their potential (selfactualization) Rogers’ PersonCentered Perspective: people strive for growth as long as they encounter supportive environments (high quality of relationships) What factors promote or inhibit growth according to this Roger's PersonCentered Perspective? Genuineness, empathy, and acceptance (unconditional positive regard) are vital to growth; conditional positive regard inhibits growth Trait approach: theory that personality is a combination of traits Factor analysis: statistically correlated clusters of items; identifies patterns of how people answer questions and reflects basic traits What are the dimensions of personality in Eysenck’s trait theory? Upon what biological factors were these trait dimensions based? Two dimensions: introversion/extroversion and emotional stability/instability; based on inherited levels of autonomic nervous system arousal and reactivity How do introverts and extraverts tend to differ? Introverts inherit a high level of arousal, so they don't need extra arousal or else they'll get overaroused, and they also have neutral emotions; extraverts inherit low levels of arousal, so they seek out stimulation in order to raise those levels, and they're more likely to have positive emotions Gray’s Biopsychological Theory: personality arises from two interrelated brain systems, the Behavioral Approach System and the Behavioral Inhibition System Behavioral Approach System: sensitivity to reward Behavioral Inhibition System: sensitivity to punishment What traits make up the Big Five Model of personality? Conscientiousness (disorganized/impulsive vs. organized/careful) Agreeableness (ruthless/uncooperative vs. softhearted/helpful) Neuroticism [emotional instability] (calm/secure vs. anxious/insecure) Openness (practical/conforming vs. imaginative/independent) Extraversion (vs. introversion) NEOPIR: Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory Revised; a reliable, valid, objective personality test MMPI: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; an objective personality test that assesses psychological disorders Socialcognitive approach: interaction between personality, thinking, behavior, and the situation Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism: personality and environment influence each other; personalities are shaped by life experiences, and personalities influence environment by choice of friends and activities and spaces Rotter’s expectancy theory: we behave according to our expectation of results; depends on our feelings of personal control Internal locus of control: fate is selfdetermined; associated with health, wellbeing, and achievement External locus of control: fate is out of your control; associated with depression and learned helplessness Learned helplessness: tendency to give up on efforts to control events after previous efforts failed Spotlight effect: overestimating how much others notice and evaluate our appearance, performance, and mistakes What is the relationship between selfesteem and aggressive behavior? Positive correlation between unrealistically high, defensive selfesteem and aggressive behavior Defensive selfesteem: selfesteem that is fragile, insecure, and easily threatened Selfserving bias: tendency to think highly of ourselves Betterthanaverage or aboveaverage effect: tendency to think of ourselves as being above average How does depression relate to the selfserving bias? People with depression often lack selfserving bias CHAPTER 15 Psychopathology: a psychological disorder; ongoing patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that impair functioning, deviate from the norm, and cause distress or disrupt lives (deviant, dysfunctional, and disruptive) Abnormal psychology: subset of psychology that deals with psychological disorders How common are psychological disorders in the United States? When do they typically appear? Almost half of people in the US will meet the criteria of a disorder in their lifetime; most people experience symptoms by mid20's How does the biopsychosocial model explain psychological disorders? Disorders are a combination of biological (genes, physical illness, hormonal imbalance), psychological (self esteem, interpretation of events), and social factors (stress, poverty) How are psychological disorders related to poverty? Psychological disorders twice as prevalent in people living in poverty How does culture influence psychological disorders? Disorders take on different forms in different cultures Culturegeneral disorders: disorders found in all cultures; symptoms may differ somewhat but clearly the same disorder (depression, schizophrenia) Cultural (culturespecific/culturebound) disorders: disorders specific to particular cultures (anorexia, bulemia) How does the diathesisstress model explain psychological disorders? Getting a psychological disorder is a result of a combination of biological predisposition and stress DSMV: classification system of psychological disorders; provides criteria for disorders and consistency for diagnoses In what ways can applying a diagnostic label to someone be stigmatizing? Diagnosed people can experience different treatment by others What are the general symptoms of anxiety disorders? Psychological symptoms: anxiety, irritability, and difficult concentrating; physical symptoms: enhanced nervous system activation (shaking, sweating) What are some biological and psychological factors involved in anxiety disorders? Biological factors: genetic predisposition, autonomic nervous system sensitivity; Psychological factors: neuroticism, attentional bias, low selfefficacy Attentional bias: more likely to notice and remember possibly threatening stimuli Selfefficacy: one's perception of their own ability to cope with difficult situations Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive and longlasting anxiety for no particular reason; symptoms include exaggerated startle response, hypervigilance, insomnia, and nausea Panic Disorder: experiencing recurring, unpredictable panic attacks; may lead to agoraphobia (fear of situations in which escape may be difficult or in which help might not be available) Specific Phobia: strong, irrational fear of a specific object or situation, where the fear is disproportionate to the threat Social Anxiety Disorder: fear of other people's judgments; symptoms include avoidance of social situations PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): symptoms include being jumpy, irritable, withdrawn, experiencing flashbacks, nightmares, and insomnia; common among veterans, victims of sexual assault, people who have experienced other trauma ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder (OCD): urge to engage in repetitive, ritualistic behaviors Obsessions: intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts that create anxiety Compulsions: irresistible urges, repetitive behaviors that provide temporary relief Major depressive disorder: feeling sad/hopeless most of the time, for a period of at least two weeks; physical symptoms include change in eating and sleeping, low energy, pain; psychological symptoms include pessimism, anxiety, isolation, anhedonia (loss of pleasure) What are some of the biological, psychological, and social factors involved in depression? Biological factors: genetic predisposition, lack of serotonin, dopamine, or norepinephrine, increased stress hormones; Psychological/social factors: neuroticism, learned helplessness, external locus of control, perfectionism, lack of selfserving bias, stress Bipolar disorder: experiencing extreme moods out of proportion to events of life; symptoms include manic depression Mania: a highly agitated emotional state; symptoms include emotion (euphoria or irritability), cognition (optimism, poor judgment), and behavior (hyperactivity, insomnia, recklessness) Schizophrenia: disordered thoughts and ideas, psychosis, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors; symptoms include hallucinations (mostly auditory), delusions (persecution, grandeur, ideas of reference), disorganized thinking/speech (loose associations), emotional disturbances (flat affect), motor disturbances (catatonia), and social problems Loose associations: rapidly shifting from topic to topic, with no connection from one thought to the next Flat affect: showing little emotion What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and why is this distinction important? Positive symptoms: presence of inappropriate behaviors; negative symptoms: absence of appropriate behaviors; those with only positive symptoms are more likely to recover When does schizophrenia typically develop? What factors predict outcome? Shows up between late teens early 20's; if symptoms appear suddenly as a result of stress, patient is more likely to recover What are some biological factors associated with schizophrenia as covered in class? Genetic predisposition, older biological fathers, over activity of dopamine and under activity of glutamate; enlarged ventricles in brain; prenatal trauma or viral infection Are adopted kids more likely to get schizophrenia if their adoptive parent has it? No. Personality disorders: disruptive, consistent, dysfunctional pattern of behavior and thought that impairs social functioning Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD): pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others; symptoms include lack of conscience by age 15, problems with job/relationships, manipulative, arrogant, impulsive, less empathy, guilt, and fear What are some biological and social factors that may contribute to ASPD? Biological factors: genetic influence, less nervous system reactivity, lower levels of stress hormones; Psychosocial factors: poverty, childhood instability, abuse Epigenetics: the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change CHAPTER 16 What are the two main types of treatment for psychological disorders? Psychotherapy, biomedical therapy Eclectic approach: using different pieces from different types of therapies instead of focusing on just one Psychoanalysis: making the person aware of repressed, unconscious conflicts Psychodynamic therapy: focus on social relationships, selfunderstanding Humanistic psychotherapy: goal is to enhance selfawareness and selfacceptance Rogers’s clientcentered therapy: therapist provides nonjudgmental support and companionship; methods include providing acceptance/genuineness/acceptance, and reflecting/paraphrasing what the client says Behavior therapy: uses the principles of learning to extinguish undesirable behaviors and condition more desirable responses Exposure with response prevention (flooding): patient is exposed to feared but harmless stimulus Systematic desensitization: client learns relaxation techniques, and then is exposed to dear/desensitization hierarchy What is the main goal of cognitive therapies? What are some techniques used in cognitive therapies? Focus on the role that thinking plays in psychological disorders; correct negative assumptions by pointing out the irrationality of thoughts; selfstatement modification: replacing negative statements with positive statements Electroconvulsive shock therapy: applies electrical current to scalp to produce convulsions; used to treat severe depression; highly effective today; side effects include minor memory loss, mental confusion Psychosurgery: removal or destruction of brain tissue to treat psychological disorders Prefrontal and transorbital lobotomy: cut connections between frontal lobes and limbic areas; side effects include lethargy, immaturity, impulsivity, and loss of personality; today, method involves planting electrodes in the brain instead of removing tissue Deepbrain stimulation: stimulation at a specific point in the brain Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity What are neuroleptics/antipsychotics (Haldol, Thorazine, Risperdal) used to treat? How do they affect dopamine? Used to treat schizophrenia; dopamine antagonist Tardive dyskinesia: repetitive, uncontrollable movements on face/head; side effect of neuroleptics/antipsychotics What are the general classes of antidepressants and which are most commonly prescribed today? Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Tricyclics, SSRI's (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) most common today How long does it generally take for antidepressants to become effective? Are people on antidepressants happy all of the time? Take 46 weeks to reach full effectiveness; don't prevent sadness; don't make people happy all the time Mood stabilizers: (ex. lithium) used to treat bipolar disorder Anxiolytics: used to treat anxiety Benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax): GABA agonists
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