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PSYC 1000 - Exam 4 Study Guide (Chapters 13-16)

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Exam 4 Study Guide (Chapters 13-16) Psyc 1000-04

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Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
PSYC 1000 Exam 4 Study Guide: Chapters 13­16 CHAPTER 13 ­ Social psychology: how situations and social factors influence our behavior and thinking ­ Attributions: influences about the causes of behavior ­ Dispositional/internal attributions: behavior is caused by personality ­ Situational/external attributions: behavior is caused by circumstances ­ Fundamental attribution error: overestimating dispositional factors and underestimating  situational factors when judging the behavior of others ­ Attitudes: feelings that predispose our reactions ­ How do attitudes relate to actions? ­ Attitudes affect actions; actions also affect attitudes ­ Cognitive dissonance: psychological tension that occurs when behavior and attitudes don't  match ­ Cognitive dissonance theory: we're motivated to reduce cognitive dissonance by changing  attitudes to match actions ­ Festinger & Carlsmith study: people paid $1 were more likely to lie than people paid $20; $20  people experienced less tension because they could justify the lie; however, $1 people couldn't  justify it, so they convinced themselves they actually did find the task interesting; more likely to  change their attitude to match their behavior; suggests that working hard to obtain a goal makes  the goal more valuable  ­ Zimbardo prison study (Stanford prison experiment): showed role absorption and the high  influence of situations on our behavior ­ Conformity: changing beliefs/behaviors to match group due to unspoken group pressure ­ Asch conformity studies: subject chose line of obviously wrong length because of peer pressure ­ Compliance: agreeing to a request from someone who is not in a position of authority ­ Foot­in­the­door phenomenon: tendency for people who agree to a small request to be more  likely to agree to a larger related request ­ Door­in­the­face phenomenon: tendency for people who have been asked a large unreasonable  request to be more likely to agree to a smaller request ­ Obedience: agreeing to a demand from an authority figure ­ What were the results of Milgram’s study? What was the main conclusion of Milgram’s  studies? ­ 2/3 people gave increasingly intense shocks to a stranger; we obey because of authority, lack of responsibility, and the power of the situation ­ Chameleon effect: we naturally mimic others' expressions, postures, and voice tones ­ De­individuation: behaving in uncharacteristic ways when they feel anonymous or less  accountable  ­ Social loafing: tendency for people in a group to exert less effort than when individually  accountable ­ Group polarization: tendency for beliefs and attitudes to strengthen when discussed with like­ minded others ­ Groupthink: the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision­ making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives ­ Under what conditions is groupthink most likely to occur? How can it be avoided? ­ More likely to occur when groups are isolated, with a strong leader, and there is  suppression of dissenting views; avoid it by designating a devil's advocate, allowing anonymous  expression of opinions, and getting opinions from outsiders ­ Stereotypes: beliefs about a group; false assumptions that all members in a group have the same characteristics ­ Prejudice: unjustified evaluation a person based on group membership ­ Discrimination: treating people differently because of prejudice ­ How is prejudice a legitimizing ideology? ­ Prejudice justifies and maintains inequalities by suggesting some groups are less  capable/worthy than others ­ Overt attitudes: attitudes we are conscious of having/expressing ­ Implicit attitudes: have an unconscious influence on us  ­ What do measures of implicit attitudes reveal about prejudice? ­ Overt and implicit attitudes don't always match; most Americans think they are not  prejudiced but actually are ­ What are some phenomena that contribute to prejudice as discussed in class? ­ We have a tendency to categorize people for simplicity; illusory correlations: we  associate the behavior of one person with their whole group; confirmation bias: we notice  examples that confirm our beliefs; in­group favoritism: tendency to evaluate members of our  own group more favorably; scapegoating; social inequalities; just­word phenomenon: belief that  people get what they deserve ­ Bystander effect: tendency for the presence of other people to inhibit helping ­ How does the case of Kitty Genovese relate to the bystander effect?  ­ Because there were so many people in the apartment buildings, everyone thought  someone else would help, and so no one did ­ What are some other factors involved in helping? ­ If need for help is clear; if people know each other; if person seems similar to us; feel­ good do­good phenomenon: if we are in a good mood; if we are not in a hurry; population  density; if costs outweigh benefits ­ Mere­exposure effect: familiarity breeds liking ­ How does love tend to change over the course of time (in terms of passionate and  companionate love)? ­ Passionate (intense, sexual, emotional) to companionate (deep, intimate, steady  attachment) ­ Frustration­aggression principle: frustration creates anger, which can spark aggression ­ Social script: culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations ­ How might the scripts provided by the media influence sexual and/or aggressive behavior?  ­ Nonviolent sexual films make sexual aggression seem less serious; violent sexual films  increase men's readiness to behave aggressively toward women ­ Mirror­image perceptions: mutual views held by conflicting people (ex. when each side thinks  of themselves as ethical and the opposing side as evil) ­ GRIT strategy: Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension­reduction; small conciliatory gestures from each side of a conflict to reduce tension CHAPTER 14 ­ Personality: enduring psychological and behavioral characteristics ­ What are the four main approaches to the study of personality? ­ Psychodynamic approach, humanistic approach, trait approach, and social­cognitive  approach ­ Sigmund Freud: psychoanalytic theory: development occurs in stages throughout childhood,  each focusing on an erogenous zone; conflict between complying with society and satisfying  urges ­ Unconscious: thoughts, feelings and desires below conscious awareness; Freud tried to cure his  patients through free association (encouraging patient to say whatever comes to mind, no matter  how trivial) ­ Psychoanalytic view: structure of personality is in three parts: Id (basic instincts, pleasure  principle), Ego (reality, delayed gratification), and Superego (conscience, morality) ­ Iceberg analogy: mind is mostly subconscious thoughts, although we only see the conscious  thoughts ­ Defense mechanisms: unconscious tactics that protect us from unpleasant emotions by  hiding/distorting reality  ­ Repression: pushing troubling thoughts out of conscious awareness; main defense  mechanism ­ What are Freud’s psychosexual stages of development and what happens during each? 1. Oral stage (mouth, weaning fixation), 2. Anal stage (anus, toilet training fixation), 3.  Phallic stage (genitals: penis/clitoris), 4. Latency period (no erogenous zone), 5. Genital stage  (penis/vagina) Orange Animals Play Like Gentlemen ­ Erogenous zones: pleasure­sensitive areas of body ­ Fixation: enduring focus on particular erogenous zone; occurs when urges aren't  satisfied  ­ Oedipus complex: males develop sexual desire for mother and jealousy for father, so he tries to  become more like his father ­ Electra complex: penis envy; affection for father; scared of losing mother's affection so tries to  become more like her mother ­ What are the major problems with Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory?  ­ It's unscientific, doesn't provide testable predictions, and isn't supported by research ­ According to Alfred Adler, why do we struggle for superiority and power? ­ We're trying to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority ­ Who is associated with the idea of a collective unconscious? ­ Carl Jung ­ Projective personality tests: tests that employ ambiguous stimuli to evoke responses that reveal  facets of someone's personality  ­ What are the problems with projective personality tests? ­ They're subjective, lacking in reliability and validity, and there's no solid way to  score/interpret answers ­ False consensus effect: tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs  and behaviors ­ What is the main premise of the humanistic approach?  ­ It's an optimistic approach that sees humans as intrinsically good; it assumes people are  motivated by their innate drive to fulfill their potential (self­actualization) ­ Rogers’ Person­Centered Perspective: people strive for growth as long as they encounter  supportive environments (high quality of relationships) ­ What factors promote or inhibit growth according to this Roger's Person­Centered  Perspective? ­ Genuineness, empathy, and acceptance (unconditional positive regard) are vital to  growth; conditional positive regard inhibits growth ­ Trait approach: theory that personality is a combination of traits ­ Factor analysis: statistically correlated clusters of items; identifies patterns of how people  answer questions and reflects basic traits ­ What are the dimensions of personality in Eysenck’s trait theory? Upon what biological factors were these trait dimensions based?  ­ Two dimensions: introversion/extroversion and emotional stability/instability; based on  inherited levels of autonomic nervous system arousal and reactivity ­ How do introverts and extraverts tend to differ? ­ Introverts inherit a high level of arousal, so they don't need extra arousal or else they'll  get over­aroused, and they also have neutral emotions; extraverts inherit low levels of arousal, so they seek out stimulation in order to raise those levels, and they're more likely to have positive  emotions ­ Gray’s Biopsychological Theory: personality arises from two interrelated brain systems, the  Behavioral Approach System and the Behavioral Inhibition System ­ Behavioral Approach System: sensitivity to reward ­ Behavioral Inhibition System: sensitivity to punishment ­ What traits make up the Big Five Model of personality? ­ Conscientiousness (disorganized/impulsive vs. organized/careful) ­ Agreeableness (ruthless/uncooperative vs. soft­hearted/helpful) ­ Neuroticism [emotional instability] (calm/secure vs. anxious/insecure) ­ Openness (practical/conforming vs. imaginative/independent) ­ Extraversion (vs. introversion) ­ NEO­PI­R: Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory Revised; a reliable,  valid, objective personality test ­ MMPI: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; an objective personality test that assesses psychological disorders ­ Social­cognitive approach: interaction between personality, thinking, behavior, and the  situation ­ Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism: personality and environment influence each  other; personalities are shaped by life experiences, and personalities influence environment by  choice of friends and activities and spaces ­ Rotter’s expectancy theory: we behave according to our expectation of results; depends on our  feelings of personal control ­ Internal locus of control: fate is self­determined; associated with health, well­being, and  achievement ­ External locus of control: fate is out of your control; associated with depression and learned  helplessness ­ Learned helplessness: tendency to give up on efforts to control events after previous efforts  failed ­ Spotlight effect: overestimating how much others notice and evaluate our appearance,  performance, and mistakes ­ What is the relationship between self­esteem and aggressive behavior?  ­ Positive correlation between unrealistically high, defensive self­esteem and aggressive  behavior ­ Defensive self­esteem: self­esteem that is fragile, insecure, and easily threatened ­ Self­serving bias: tendency to think highly of ourselves ­ Better­than­average or above­average effect: tendency to think of ourselves as being above  average ­ How does depression relate to the self­serving bias?   ­ People with depression often lack self­serving bias CHAPTER 15 ­ Psychopathology: a psychological disorder; ongoing patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that impair functioning, deviate from the norm, and cause distress or disrupt lives (deviant,  dysfunctional, and disruptive) ­ Abnormal psychology: subset of psychology that deals with psychological disorders  ­ How common are psychological disorders in the United States? When do they typically  appear? ­ Almost half of people in the US will meet the criteria of a disorder in their lifetime;  most people experience symptoms by mid­20's ­ How does the biopsychosocial model explain psychological disorders?  ­ Disorders are a combination of biological (genes, physical illness, hormonal imbalance), psychological (self esteem, interpretation of events), and social factors (stress, poverty) ­ How are psychological disorders related to poverty? ­ Psychological disorders twice as prevalent in people living in poverty ­ How does culture influence psychological disorders?  ­ Disorders take on different forms in different cultures ­ Culture­general disorders: disorders found in all cultures; symptoms may differ somewhat but  clearly the same disorder (depression, schizophrenia) ­ Cultural (culture­specific/culture­bound) disorders: disorders specific to particular cultures  (anorexia, bulemia) ­ How does the diathesis­stress model explain psychological disorders? ­ Getting a psychological disorder is a result of a combination of biological predisposition and stress ­ DSM­V: classification system of psychological disorders; provides criteria for disorders and  consistency for diagnoses ­ In what ways can applying a diagnostic label to someone be stigmatizing? ­ Diagnosed people can experience different treatment by others ­ What are the general symptoms of anxiety disorders?  ­ Psychological symptoms: anxiety, irritability, and difficult concentrating; physical  symptoms: enhanced nervous system activation (shaking, sweating) ­ What are some biological and psychological factors involved in anxiety disorders? ­ Biological factors: genetic predisposition, autonomic nervous system sensitivity;  Psychological factors: neuroticism, attentional bias, low self­efficacy ­ Attentional bias: more likely to notice and remember possibly threatening stimuli ­ Self­efficacy: one's perception of their own ability to cope with difficult situations ­ Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive and long­lasting anxiety for no particular  reason; symptoms include exaggerated startle response, hyper­vigilance, insomnia, and nausea ­ Panic Disorder: experiencing recurring, unpredictable panic attacks; may lead to agoraphobia  (fear of situations in which escape may be difficult or in which help might not be available) ­ Specific Phobia: strong, irrational fear of a specific object or situation, where the fear is  disproportionate to the threat ­ Social Anxiety Disorder: fear of other people's judgments; symptoms include avoidance of  social situations ­ Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): symptoms include being jumpy, irritable, withdrawn,  experiencing flashbacks, nightmares, and insomnia; common among veterans, victims of sexual  assault, people who have experienced other trauma ­ Obsessive­Compulsive Disorder (OCD): urge to engage in repetitive, ritualistic behaviors ­ Obsessions: intrusive, uncontrollable thoughts that create anxiety ­ Compulsions: irresistible urges, repetitive behaviors that provide temporary relief ­ Major depressive disorder: feeling sad/hopeless most of the time, for a period of at least two  weeks; physical symptoms include change in eating and sleeping, low energy, pain;  psychological symptoms include pessimism, anxiety, isolation, anhedonia (loss of pleasure) ­ What are some of the biological, psychological, and social factors involved in depression?  ­ Biological factors: genetic predisposition, lack of serotonin, dopamine, or  norepinephrine, increased stress hormones; Psychological/social factors: neuroticism, learned  helplessness, external locus of control, perfectionism, lack of self­serving bias, stress ­ Bipolar disorder: experiencing extreme moods out of proportion to events of life; symptoms  include manic depression ­ Mania: a highly agitated emotional state; symptoms include emotion (euphoria or irritability),  cognition (optimism, poor judgment), and behavior (hyperactivity, insomnia, recklessness) ­ Schizophrenia: disordered thoughts and ideas, psychosis, and inappropriate emotions and  behaviors; symptoms include hallucinations (mostly auditory), delusions (persecution, grandeur,  ideas of reference), disorganized thinking/speech (loose associations), emotional disturbances  (flat affect), motor disturbances (catatonia), and social problems  ­ Loose associations: rapidly shifting from topic to topic, with no connection from one thought to the next ­ Flat affect: showing little emotion ­ What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and why is this distinction  important?  ­ Positive symptoms: presence of inappropriate behaviors; negative symptoms: absence  of appropriate behaviors; those with only positive symptoms are more likely to recover ­ When does schizophrenia typically develop? What factors predict outcome? ­ Shows up between late teens ­ early 20's; if symptoms appear suddenly as a result of  stress, patient is more likely to recover ­ What are some biological factors associated with schizophrenia as covered in class?  ­ Genetic predisposition, older biological fathers, over activity of dopamine and under  activity of glutamate; enlarged ventricles in brain; prenatal trauma or viral infection ­ Are adopted kids more likely to get schizophrenia if their adoptive parent has it? ­ No. ­ Personality disorders: disruptive, consistent, dysfunctional pattern of behavior and thought that  impairs social functioning ­ Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD): pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the  rights of others; symptoms include lack of conscience by age 15, problems with  job/relationships, manipulative, arrogant, impulsive, less empathy, guilt, and fear ­ What are some biological and social factors that may contribute to ASPD? ­ Biological factors: genetic influence, less nervous system reactivity, lower levels of  stress hormones; Psychosocial factors: poverty, childhood instability, abuse ­ Epigenetics: the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a  DNA change CHAPTER 16 ­ What are the two main types of treatment for psychological disorders? ­ Psychotherapy, biomedical therapy ­ Eclectic approach: using different pieces from different types of therapies instead of focusing  on just one ­ Psychoanalysis: making the person aware of repressed, unconscious conflicts ­ Psychodynamic therapy: focus on social relationships, self­understanding ­ Humanistic psychotherapy: goal is to enhance self­awareness and self­acceptance ­ Rogers’s client­centered therapy: therapist provides non­judgmental support and  companionship; methods include providing acceptance/genuineness/acceptance, and  reflecting/paraphrasing what the client says ­ Behavior therapy: uses the principles of learning to extinguish undesirable behaviors and  condition more desirable responses  ­ Exposure with response prevention (flooding): patient is exposed to feared but harmless stimulus ­ Systematic desensitization: client learns relaxation techniques, and then is exposed to  dear/desensitization hierarchy ­ What is the main goal of cognitive therapies? What are some techniques used in cognitive  therapies? ­ Focus on the role that thinking plays in psychological disorders; correct negative  assumptions by pointing out the irrationality of thoughts; self­statement modification: replacing  negative statements with positive statements ­ Electroconvulsive shock therapy: applies electrical current to scalp to produce convulsions;  used to treat severe depression; highly effective today; side effects include minor memory loss,  mental confusion ­ Psychosurgery: removal or destruction of brain tissue to treat psychological disorders ­ Prefrontal and transorbital lobotomy: cut connections between frontal lobes and limbic areas;  side effects include lethargy, immaturity, impulsivity, and loss of personality; today, method  involves planting electrodes in the brain instead of removing tissue  ­ Deep­brain stimulation: stimulation at a specific point in the brain ­ Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain;  used to stimulate or suppress brain activity ­ What are neuroleptics/antipsychotics (Haldol, Thorazine, Risperdal) used to treat? How do  they affect dopamine?  ­ Used to treat schizophrenia; dopamine antagonist ­ Tardive dyskinesia: repetitive, uncontrollable movements on face/head; side effect of  neuroleptics/antipsychotics ­ What are the general classes of antidepressants and which are most commonly prescribed  today?  ­ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Tricyclics, SSRI's (selective serotonin reuptake  inhibitors) ­ most common today  ­ How long does it generally take for antidepressants to become effective? Are people on  antidepressants happy all of the time? ­ Take 4­6 weeks to reach full effectiveness; don't prevent sadness; don't make people  happy all the time ­ Mood stabilizers: (ex. lithium) used to treat bipolar disorder ­ Anxiolytics: used to treat anxiety  ­ Benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax): GABA agonists


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