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Final Exam Study Guide

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by: Tyler Walker

Final Exam Study Guide LARCH 1160

Tyler Walker

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This study guide breaks down the class notes into topical sections covering content on the exam.
History of Landscape Architcture
Dr.Hala Nassar
Study Guide
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"You can bet I'll be grabbing Tyler studyguide for finals. Couldn't have made it this week without your help!"
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tyler Walker on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LARCH 1160 at Clemson University taught by Dr.Hala Nassar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see History of Landscape Architcture in Landscape Architecture at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
Final Exam Review Sheet Things on the exam - Be able to clearly identify differences between different periods, philosophies, and movements In depth questions on… Renaissance The Renaissance in Italy Social History - The general atmosphere stabilizes and trade/commerce start to flourish - Individual thinkers start to appear - Under the Medici, the revival of classical literature and appreciation of beauty was encouraged Philosophy/Characteristics of the Renaissance - 1300 to 1400 was a transition period from the Middle ages into the modern world - Church authority was replaced by the intellectual order - Ancient Greek and Roman literature was rediscovered, translated, and enjoyed Characteristics of the Renaissance Design - use of formal designs, based on simple geometric shapes such as circles and squares for their geometrical purity and perfection of form - Artists, including Brunell, sought symmetry, balance, order, and stability -change in ideology is usually accomplished by a transitional phase Lunette of Villa Medici at Cafaggiolo - Villa Urbana - Garden extended itself out in the open air but… - villa was still a Medieval fortified house - garden was still composed of compartmentalize spaces Early Renaissance: Villa at Fiesole - built by Michelozzi (1458) in Fiesole, a suburb of Florence - built on a hillside with open view towards Florence - unlike the Middle Ages, the house is built on a ridge projecting in the air (not heavily fortified) - extrovert design - outwards views towards the countryside became part of the design (replacing the walled off gardens and artificial views of the Middle Ages Characteristics of Early Renaissance - individual terraces were geometrically designed, but terraced gardens did not have the same axis - house and gardens did not have the same axis - use of clipped hedges and geometrical box parterres High Renaissance: Villa D’Este at Tivoli - built in 1550 by Pirro Ligorio for Cardinal D’Este - site is on a hillside overlooking the countryside - villa and garden are brought together in one axial line - geometrical design, balance, order, and symmetry - site is directed towards Rome - Villa Urbana Some water features used during the era include: - Fountains (Rometta, Oval, Dianna) - Reflecting pools (Fish ponds) - Water organs - Terrace of the hundred fountains - Aqua jokes Design Characteristics - Axial and symmetrical design - Order and geometrical form - Elaborate box parterres - Axial views - Terraces - Incorporation of water features, fountains, and aqua jokes Villa Lante at Bagnaia - Designed by Vignola (1566) at Bagnaia - To maintain strong mirror symmetry, the house was divided into two parts - Gardens were on different levels (terraces) - Strong geometrical design and mirror symmetry - Water table- perfect mirror symmetry used in fountains - Water chains- use of water as a decorative element was influenced by Moorish gardens of Spain o Believed to have evolved from the original water steps of the Generalife in Alhambra Villa Rotanda at Vicenza - Built by Palladio c. 1550 - It is called Villa (Capra) Rotunda because of its square symmetrical plan with 4 loggias and a central circular half - The symmetrical architecture of the villa was placed asymmetrically in the landscape with no relation to the surroundings - Palladio was more concerned with architecture (the use of pure form) than landscape architecture -Vignola lifted landscape design in to the sublime, ignoring architecture (Villa Lante) - Palladio focused on his perfect architecture eliminating the garden (Villa Rotunda) Conclusion - The exaggeration prepared the way to new style in search of harmony of o Geometry and natural form o Architecture and landscape - The climax of renaissance perfection of proportions, form, and geometry was eventually the reason of the growth of mannerism in search for a break from this perfection The Renaissance in France Environment -French landscape (around Paris is relatively flat wooded areas (hunting)) Social History - Under Louis XIII, Cardinal Richelieu was the actual ruler (1624-1642) - Louis XIV created in his palace at Versailles a civilization of pleasure that had no equal - French revolution occurred in 1789 Transition from Medieval to Renaissance in France - The architectural style in medieval France was gothic - 16 century was a transition period from medieval to renaissance - Therefore, the landscape became a blend of indigenous medieval French Gothic style and renaissance style - Gradual influence of the renaissance on the Chateaus landscape architecture Ex. Of High Renaissance: Chateau de Richelieu - He introduced a new concept of comprehensive planning and space design - Chateau de Richelieu was a unified design, carved out of woods, with decorative canals, and inclusive of a town as a subsidiary element Ex. Of French Baroque Landscapes 1. Vaux de Vicomte- completed in 1661 - For Nicolas Fouquet - First major work of Andre le Abtre - Majestic scene of ground architecture carved out of dense woodland - Axes and radial avenues project beyond property lines towards the horizon and disappears into the woods (called a goosefoot) - Architecture is secondary to landscape architecture - Scale expands outwards to become more heroic rather than domestic - Using sunken canal as an element of surprise - Moat (medieval element) 2. Chateau de Chantilly: 1662-82 - Original site is comprised of old triangular castle surrounded by a lake - Landscape did not have any particular design or shape - Le Notre created new axis - Unlike Vaux de Vicomte, he did not feature the house at the center of the axis but at the side - Chateau is secondary to landscape - A canal is at a right angle with the axis - Water becomes the unifying element that embraces Chateau and the gardens - Scale of landscape is vast in comparison to building 3. Versailles: 1661-1687 - Landscape design by Le Notre for Louis XIV - Massive scale - Louis’ bedroom aligned at the center of a goosefoot that joined the town with the Chateau - Contained 50 groups of fountains and many many different elements found around the grounds Romanticism Romanticism - Romanticism focused on nature - Sensuality, emotion, and imagination were equally essential human traits than reason, intelligence, and deductive ability Therefore… - While enlightenment relied on and promoted early scientific query, Romanticism was inspired by expression in arts, literature, and painting Romanticism: The English School Social History - Influence of Italian Renaissance and French Baroque movements appear in England - During 1700-1840 England became a world power o Increased trade of colonies o Expanded the textile industry and manufacturing o The industrial revolution o Expansion of energy resource use (coal) o Military capabilities - Aristocracy and landed elite were influenced by Romantic movement growing out of the Italian Renaissance and French Baroque Hampton Court Palace - Gardens were rebuilt for an existing palace (1699) as an English Versailles by King William III of England - Influenced by French Baroque Andre Le Notre - Baroque characteristics, ex. Radial avenues, formal parterre gardens - Although gardens have sophisticated detailing, the design lacks mature techniques of Le Notre - Romanticism- an artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in th the late 18 century, characterized by a heightened interest in nature and departure from geometric forms of classical design English Romanticism - While French Baroque gardens were fashionable, “seeds were sown” for a design revolution from formal to informal landscape - Increasing upper class appreciation for landscape painters, including Rubens and Lorrain, helped established a visual imagery for romantic landscapes - Increasing appreciation of poetry that emphasized and praised rural landscape scenes such as rolling hills, valleys, forests, meandering streams, country bridges, etc. - The increasing appreciation for the development of aesthetic “taste” in educating young upper class and increasing middle class. “Taste” was considered a form or education in moral judgement and was tied directly to the appreciation for landscape scenes like rolling hills etc. Critical Writings Against the Formal Landscape - Joseph Addison in aesthetic journal The Spectator pointed out o The lack of a refined sense of taste in the formal garden with its hedges clipped into cones, globes, and pyramids o The role of taste in understanding naturalistic landscapes and their moral order within natural law - “Landscape in its natural state” and “Beauty occurs in nature” were topics for articles by philosopher Alexander Pope - Landscape gardener William Kent stated in 1730 “Nature abhors a straight line” - Moral essayist and artist William Hograth writes in 1752 “the wavy line is the way to beauty” - Richard Payne Knight 1790 described the importance of moral experience of beautiful and picturesque landscapes The Influence of Claude Lorrain’s Painting - The mythical Greek and Roman iconography depicted in Lorrains landscape paintings influenced the Romantic Gardens The Beautiful and the Picturesque - First half of 18 century, the Romantic landscape school was identified with William Kent - Second half was dominated by landscape gardener Capability Brown - Their work represented two primary Romantic types: o The Picturesque (garden undressed) o The Beautiful (garden dressed) The Picturesque - Aims at producing irregular outlines, abrupt and rugged surfaces, trees of wild and bold character - In landform, this was achieved by using rocky groups and broken banks - In trees, by using old irregular ones with rough barks - In walks, by having sudden and abrupt variations and change in direction The Beautiful - Aims at producing regular outlines that are flowing and gradual - In landform, this is achieved by using smooth grades and transitions - In trees, by using full rounded trees with smooth barks - In walks, by using flowing curves with no sharp angles or abrupt turns Castle Howard - Ex of early Romantic period, built (1701) by the Earl of Carlisle - The revolutionary idea of detaching the castle from the authoritative avenue - The castle stands in the center of natural scenery - Early suggestion that the castle should be cut off from the outside world - Romantic landscape features are being added, ex. Mausoleum, temple, and bridge The Garden of Stowe - Gardens of Stowe, Buckinghamshire, were begun in 1715 by Lord Cobham - The inner park encompassed by formal design, surrounded by the first ha-ha - The outer park, for hunting and riding, has a baroque immense scale - Ex of early romantic period - 1777 the gardens around the mansion were adjusted to the new English romantic style - Grouping of trees ingeniously absorbed the straight lines and avenue The Gardens of Stourhead (1740-60) - Influenced by the romantic landscape designs of Bridgeman and Kent. Commissioned by estate owner Sir Richard Hoare - Influenced by Claude Lorrains Paintings - Ex of the high romantic style - Gardens separated from the mansion - It consists of a closed walk around an artificial lake - The walk begins at the temple of Flora and passed around to a grotto, reaches the Pantheon, through the rock arch to the temple Apollo - Use of Greek and Roman iconography from Lorrains paintings - Artificial landscape modeled after nature - Influenced by landscape paintings, especially Lorrains Enlightenment Enlightenment - An international philosophical movement of the 19 century that began in England an deemphasized the use of reason and early scientific inquiry o It is considered an offshoot of the Renaissance - European enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke stressed that o People acquire knowledge directly from experience o Basis of knowledge is empirical and rational o Founded upon critical thinking o People entitled to freedom of thought o Therefore, should be entitled to freedom of speech - Enlightenment had a special influence on the US, particularly seen in the Revolutionary movement and the process of government formation Reformation/Counter reformation Villa Garzoni at Collodi - Example of Baroque villa and garden - Built in Collodi near Lucca in 1652 - Gardens are independent of the house - Counter-reformation and garden design as a political statement th Reformation- a 16 century movement in western Europe that aimed at reforming some doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Church Counter Reformation- a reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that rose in the 16 century in response to the Protestant Reformation Mannerism Mannerism- a style of the late 16 century characterized by distortion of elements such as scale, proportion, and perspective Park of the Monsters - Villa Orsini at Bomarzo - Another name is the Sacred Woods - Ex of Mannerist Style - Style of primitive giants and distorted figures - A bizarre park filled with huge weird statues spread across the hills of Bomarzo - Architecture, the traditional symbol of balance, is thrown askew in that building which is intentionally leaning - Some 400 years ago, Orsini wrote “You who enter here, consider everything you see, and tell me if so many wonders are made for deception or for art” - The Grotto shows the mannerist escape from reality into a distorted grotesque world Villa Gamberaia at Settignano - Example of mannerist style c. 1610 - This design accepts the challenges and moods of man, translated them into physical form and coordinates them into a unified whole Baroque th Baroque- a style developed early 17 century that emphasized dramatic effect and typified by bold and curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts Boboli Gardens, Florence - They are the gardens of Pitti Palace c. 1590 - The open air theater like garden was an influence of the Baroque style Philosophy of Baroque - The early 17 century witnessed a transition from Renaissance to Baroque o Transitioned from the finite renaissance to the infinite Baroque - The finite renaissance was factual but the infinite baroque was imaginative - For the Baroque, the mind, and not the eye, was in charge - Therefore the baroque created imaginative spaces and movements - It was technically based on illusion Expression of Baroque - In church interior, spaces (volumes) followed one another and culminated in a painting of heavens on dome interior - In architecture exteriors, parts were in constant and imaginative movement, transformation, and metamorphosis Villa Garzoni at Collodi - Example of Baroque villa and garden - Built in Collodi near Lucca in 1652 - Gardens are independent of the house - Counter-reformation and garden design as a political statement Baroque - Style was found throughout Europe from early 17 to middle 18 th century - It was associated with intellectual and religious upheavals precipitated by 1. Rise of the Protestant Church in Northern Europe 2. Rise of absolute monarchies and elaborate artistic rituals 3. Rise of modern science cemented by Copernicus and Keplers discoveries - The intellectual and religious upheavals resulted in… 1. In Religion, it resulted in the counter-movement and caused the Catholic church to patronize church and urban designs in a n attempt to regain confidence of worshippers 2. In design, urban spaces and plazas were set off major religious institutions such as churches 3. Gardens became social theatrical spaces devoted to pleasure activities such as firework displays, plays, dances, poetry readings, etc. Design Characteristics - Highly theatrical garden spaces - Use of curved forms in architecture - Employment of sophisticated axial organization - Use of new design elements; allee- a straight avenue of trees - Urban spaces set off churches and religious places - Baroque gardens using spatial unified compositions containing radial networks of avenues - Villas directing their lines of sight towards the Dome of St. Peter in Rome (ex. Villas of Franscati) Industrial revolution/social reform - During 1700-1840 England became a world power o Increased trade of colonies o Expanded the textile industry and manufacturing o The industrial revolution o Expansion of energy resource use (coal) o Military capabilities Transition from Private Parks to Public Parks - The rapid growth of technology; the industrial revolution fostered urban growth an immigration to cities to supply labor for industrial production and services. Inadequate working conditions, housing, water, sewer, and waste disposal for the new workers and their families resulted in increasing epidemics and chronic disease. Median life expectancy in industrial cities fell to 17 years old - A steady increase in concern for the living conditions and working conditions in cities by upper and growing middle class led to: The Social Reform Movement Industrial Revolution - Master over iron- development of sheet iron/steel - Iron structures- iron columns- iron trusses allowed for factories, stronger floors, larger buildings - Steam locomotives, railroads increased trade - Factories no longer had to be near raw materials - Growth of tightly packed industrial towns near ports - Agricultural workers attracted by industry - Steamships followed leading to expansion of England’s ports, London and Liver pool were among the most effected - Reinforced concrete was rediscovered, enabled larger and cheaper more productive manufacturing Social Reform - Growing concern over populations health and safety for moral and political reasons - 1819, Factory Act protecting women and children against mounting hazards of mechanization manufacture, unregulated hours, worker age - 1825- industrialist Robert Owen was making proposals for new industrial communities to ensure workers contentment and productivity - 1840 Social Reform Movement gained tremendous effect on public opinion of the middle class to support landscape change in Cemeteries, Parks, suburban housing, and urban infrastructure 19 century British landscape restructuring - Proposals for restructuring the landscape reflected shift in medical theory to miasma ideology o Unknown gas (didn’t exist) that appeared in moist air was the source of most disease or predisposed people to catch disease o Theory was wrong but their response to the theory killed mosquitos which solved the problem - Evidenced in proposals for new urban landscapes in the form of o – cemeteries, street improvements, infrastructure improvements, parks, suburban villas - 19 century medical theory and environmental characteristics - Identified with disease and health - Environmentally based medical theories influenced middle class opinion concerning parks through medical studies that identified specific environmental characteristics related to disease including : o The amount and extent of moving water, the depth of water bodies, swamp and marsh conditions, urban density, the density and types of vegetation, and other environmental characteristics associated with decomposition, soil, water, wind, and sunlight o Most importantly the studies found that people in rural areas were much healthier that in urban areas. Solution: include large rural landscapes in cities o The result of this- short grass, trees in clumps so it wouldn’t dam up the gas Parks movement Regent Park, North West London - Royal hunting park until 1811 - Developed finally as elite housing to surround private gated park 1822 - Like prior urban private park/estates owned by aristocrats and elite, Regents Park was opened under limited conditions for several days per month - The project was a financial success, influencing attempts at other real estate development schemes around parks - Original plan by John Nash for Prince Regents royal and aristocrat palace real estate project 1811 Victoria Park; East London - West London- affluent aristocrats, East London- poverty ridden masses - Reformers pointed out the effect of improved investment in residential areas around the royal parks (ex. Prince Regents Park) as a reason to build an East London Par - Victoria Park designed by James Penne Thorne 1841-1846 - Initially intended as a real estate development scheme like Regents Park, but tuned into a broader public park based on social reform and public heath based on the success of Birkenhead Park - Only formal part of the park is the entry, trees spread around landscape in clumps, some housing around the edges (not enough to make the concept work) Birkenhead Park - In 1833, Parliament passed and act vesting power in a broad of commissioner to create a park for the health and recreation for the people of Liverpool as a response to squalid living conditions among the working poor - Based on the right of working class to have their version of a private park - Congestion of factories were to be offset by an open space reflecting country type scenery - The birth of a phenomenon that became known as the country park - The park would have around its edges house/plots fur those who recognize the value of the park - Unprecedented was the use of public funds for securing land and developing a park to be used and owned by the people of Birkenhead - In 1834, Joseph Paxton was engaged as the park designer Paxton’s Design - Two lakes were dug - Housing on the edges - Curvilinear design theme - Nice small gates “lodges” (only 4 were built) - Several bridges and iconic buildings (fairly typical of the romantic style) Inspiration - Effect of the park on young Frederick Law Olmstead - In 1850, Olmstead (28 years old) spent several months in England - Landed in Liverpool- visited Birkenhead - Conversation with a baker - In Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England Olmstead says “begged us not to leave Birkenhead without seeing the new park… I was ready to admit that in democratic America there was nothing to be thought of as comparable with this Peoples Garden… The poorest British peasant is as free to enjoy it in all its parts as the British Queen. More than that, the baker of Birkenhead had the pride of an OWNER in it… is that not a grand good thing?” Early National Period - The early national period is a transitional time period in the history of the us that witnessed the change from colony to republic - A combined influence of both enlightenment and romanticism was reflected in the landscape designs of the early national period Landscape Design Characteristics During the Early National Period - Formal elements; design inspired by renaissance style (Romanticism) - Informal elements: design inspired by Romantic style (Romanticism) - A hybrid of formal (geometric) and informal (naturalistic) elements in one design Paca Garden - Built (1763-1765) during the early national period in Annapolis - Ex of wilderness garden style o Appears to be unique to North America Characteristics of Wilderness Gard style - House is located on a high point with terraces stepping downhill - Garden consist of two parts o Upper area- near the house is divided into formal terraces (Renaissance) o Lower area- the wilderness is the natural area planted with irregularly arranged trees o Usually contains a focal element, at Paca, an observatory - Not all gardens of Early National Period incorporated the natural and geometric as f2 separate parts as in the Wilderness Garden Style - Some gardens designs were the reflection of the ideas their owners based on European models - the best three examples were o Mount Vernon o Monticello o Woodlands Mount Vernon - “European knock off”, influenced by Palladio st - Residence of the 1 US President - Ex of gardens of the Early National Period - Washington acquired Mount Vernon in 1752 - Layout integrates a formal plan, geometric in its outline with naturalistic views - Both formal and informal gardens are integrated into one unified symmetrical and balanced plan - Based on architecture of Andre Palladio City Planning During the Early National Period - Washington DC is an example of city planning during the Early National Period st - Pierre L’Enfant’s plan for Washington DC was the 1 comprehensive design for a planned national capitol - Significance in two regards o Site selection was based on a pre-established criteria related to geography o The design of the entire capital was completed before the land development began - L’Enfant was familiar with designs of major cities in Europe and the US, but two schemes seemed most influential on his design if DC o John Evelyn’s 1666 reconstruction plan for the burned portions of London o Andre le Notre’s plan for Versailles - Both examples use a series of focal points and a combination of radial avenues and gridiron street patterns Also know - Rural Cemetery Movement - Pre-parks movement- Andrew Jackson bounty *ID Slides from the entire course will appear (~10-12 slides), check blackboard under “Content” to review slides


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