Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide IAFF 2093
Popular in Africa: Problems and Promise
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Popular in International Affairs
This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Tuesday February 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 377 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/24/15
Africa Problems and Promise Smithsonian Magazine In Ethiopia Ardi female who lived 44 million years ago Alisera tribesman threatened the paleoanthropologist Only place in the world that offers fossils that span over 6 million years Alisera allow them to work quotsomeday they say the researchers must teach them how to get history from the groundquot First ancient hominid found in Java Homo erectus around 18 million years old Modern Humans began 200000 years ago Some began migrating out of Africa 100000 years ago Went through the Sinai 1 2 million years ago was also the Australopithecus Africans Taung child quotLucyquot of 32 million years walked up right found in Hadar Ethiopia Walking before tools Walking before brain expansion Ardi proved that the earliest hominids did not look like chimpanzees Was able to walk but not right also spent a lot of time in trees opposable toes quotShockingquot combination of traits Some de ne hominid based on teeth others on whether they could walk upright and Ardi is debatable on whether she could walk because her pelvis had been crushed Toumai at almost 7 million years found in the hills of Kenya Human Language Arose in Southern Africa Balter Language may have prompted the great human migration African languages particularly those in the south have the greatest phonemes distinct units of sound that distinguish one word from another ex pad vs pat Bad vs bat Language can39t be traced too much earlier than 6500 years ago Greatest ration of phenomes in Africa least in American and Oceania What Genes Tell Us National Geographic European DNA resembles that of people in India migration may not have happened from Africa through the Levant but through Asia 40000 30000 years ago Sailors got to Australia 50000 years ago thus aborigines The population that migrated out of Africa grew more quickly than those in Africa Around 1500 Africa mingled with expansionist West Multiparty systems became on party or military dictatorship Move towards democracy again in 19905 remember that most African countries have only been independent for 60 years Western countries are now encouraging democracy and stable economic growth News 1202015 In Uganda senior commander of the LRA handed over to a Muslim group and that group handed him over the US Egyptian appeals to court there out all conviction on Mubarak Floods in Malawi African Geography Physical Geography Dana Kill Depression in Ethiopia 100 million years ago Gondwana existed Africa was the center piece Himalayas result of India slamming into rest of Asia Features of mountains in South Africa in parts of Argentina The Great Rift Valley begins north of the Red Sea continues into east and southern Africa may eventually pull away from Africa To create a new land mass Dana Kill Depression stops the Red Sea from owing in today InterTropical Conversion Zone Rising air cools off rapidly causing atmospheric water vapor parts of the contents come back down as rain People animals and plants have adapted to the ITCZ Sahel area is immediately south of the Sahara Desert High Africa includes mountains in Ethiopia South Africa39s Drecanburg39s mountains Mt Kilimanjaro Water Congo Basin is the largest LibyaEgyptian Basin includes Nile delta Lake Chad is the core of the old Chad Basin The Djouf basin is in the west African rift valley system is part of the world system of trenches Floor of the rift is fairly narrow some parts below sea level and some parts several thousand feet above sea level Lake Victoria looks like it is part of the rift system but it not it lies in a broad depression not in the rift Water access is restricted harder to get into interior of the continent Movement on interior rivers in Africa is easier than movement on the ocean The Sudd is the world39s largest freshwater swamp The White Nile meanders through the Sudd Blue Nile rises in the highlands of Ethiopia and reaches the Aswan Dam in Egypt While Nile produces 14 of the water that reaches the dam Blue Nile produces 86 of water that reaches the Dam Africa has a lot of mineral wealth and has 10 of the world39s known oil reserves Africa has 25 of the world39s gold 50 of the world39s diamonds cobalt and copper SubSaharan Africa has the highest potential for hydroelectric power out of all continents Vast amounts of good and fertile soil in Africa The Physiography of Africa Chapter 1 Only continent to lack a Paci c coast line Second largest landmass Dimensions and compact shape two most important distinct features No continental shelf extended underneath the water The Great Escarpment the mountainous wall existing in Sierra Leone Namibia Lesotho and Ethiopia Relatively lowlying territory in Africa Traps in the people and isolates them would also make technological and informational diffusion dif cult Two major basins in the North Equatorial Divide the Congo Basin and the Kalahari Basin by South Africa and Zimbabwe Congo crystalline rock Kalahari sandy and dry Beyond that three basins Sudan Basin Chad Basin Djouf Basin Sudan plateau of Darfur and ennedi plateau Marra Mountains and Sudd marshlands Chad Ahaggar Mountains to the north Djouf in the west forms the drainage are for the upper and middle Niger river Troughs Break up the at landscape in central Africa Extends form the Dead Sea through the Read Sea to Ethiopia and ultimately to South Africa Lakes of the Western Rift are larger than those in the east East African Rift lakes are salty from local source areas and not the ocean Lake Victoria the largest east African lake 63000 km2 Volcanoes In East Africa Ethiopia to Tanzania Outside of that Mount Cameroon is the largest active volcano Erupted in 1959 Point of contact between western and equatorial Africa Sao Tome Principe and Bioko volcanic islands Ahaggar Tibest and Marra mountains are caused by hot molten material that rise from below the crust in the mantle l doming Africa plates has 17 of these plumes highly unusual High concentration of hot spots Rivers Nile Joined by the Benue West Africa Congo Ubangi tributary Zambezi River Niger River Actually made up of two rivers Djouf basin Mountains No mountain chains like found in the rest of the world But it has mountainous topography Due to uplift and differential erosion Gondwana Africa South America Began to drift apart Two phases of accumulation period of glaciations and deep sedimentary accumulation with the outpouring of basaltic lava Madagascar has similar paleontological evidence to South America Mineral resources are distributed between Africa and South America Mid Atlantic Ridge caused the division between South America and Africa 180 million years ago Violent Seismic Activity Tearing Africa in Two Erta Ale volcano in northeastern Ethiopia was erupting Nov 2010 First fracture resulted in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden Second fracture stretching from Ethiopia to Mozambique Rising sea levels quotThe hills could sink in a matter of daysquot Lava gushed out of these ssures Gulf of Tadjoura has had a lot of such activity Activity can be seen in a shallow depth whereas one would normally only nd such activity out in oceanic ridges Magma emerging in Africa is the kind seen in deep sea volcanoes Sometimes emerging at 30 meters per minute Magma has also caused ground temperature spikes in eastern Egypt May 2009 subterranean volcano erupted in Saudi Arabia Took everyone by surprise Further from the fault line than anyone would have expected such activity Notes 1222015 China deploying troops to South Sudan Kenyan antiriot force tear gassed children at protest Malawi oods forcing people out of their homes serious issue for people living among the rivers and Mozambique Boko Haram killed people in Baga about 2000 people 80 Cameroonians abducted 30 managed to run away Serious protests in Niger because of French comics and about 10 people killed churches turned Ebola centers empty because of no patients Morocco used US interrogation sight on Moroccan national soil Zambian presidential election because recent president died Mozambique had contested elections History of Africa Hominids are earliest ancestors of human being 6 million years ago Neanderthals aren39t found in Africa Homo sapiens lived in parts of Africa 200000 years ago They occupied all of Africa 100000 years ago 7000 years ago hunting societies began to develop Climate in Africa has changed in the last 7 thousand years Lake Chad dried up African crops are restricted by variable rain poor soil and desert African moved to crop production led to socialization Made life easier Bantuspeaking people were knowledgeable about crop reduction and iron making Until about 2500 years ago most Africans lived in kinship No central power Many Africans resist incarnation and rely on kinships Help maintain peace and societies African central powers control trade over large population Major Kingdoms First Organized political entity Egypt along the Nile 5500 years ago Kush developed 2300 years ago south of Egypt Ghana Kingdom West African kingdom Songhai and Mali 13001400 years ago Ghana D Mali D Songhai Kanem modern day Chad Bronu southwest Chad Mosi highly centralized present day Burkina Faso Hausa city states most complex western states Present day Rwanda Burundi Buganda and present day Uganda Kongo Central Africa at the mouth of the Congo River Zimbabwe 800 years ago Control an empire from Zambizi to Limpopo River intensive trade By year 1000 town in Somali towns engaged in oversea commerce Swahili culture emerged spoken in eastern Congo South Africa 300 years ago with the Zulu nation Slavery Predates European arrival When Europe and America was industrializing Africa was exploited for trade 10 million the Atlantic Slave Trade Slaves from east and central Africa went to Asia as concubines cultivators Arab slave trade was smaller UK established Atlantic slave trade then abolished it Ivory gum Arabic slavery was replaced Brazil nonAfrican country with the highest number of people with African heritage Around 45 Berlin Conference Divided up Africa Many exslaves return to Africa Sierra Leone AfricanAmerican missionaries active in west and South Africa Ghana was the rst subSaharan African nation to become independent Independent movement came as more of struggle in southern Africa Britain Algeria France Kenya maomao Angola Mozambique Portuguese Zimbabwe Namibia European settlers did not want independence because they were involved in agriculture 1994 Black majority rule in South Africa News 1272015 Zambia appointed the rst female vice president President come from the incumbent party Mogadishu hotel attack Turkish prime minister bomb was near the Turkish delegation Burkina Faso currently has an interim president military got rid of the last one and are holding elections in Feb Democratic Republic of the Congo Kabila Issues with national elections Tunisia39s government is working on an election process The campaign against Boko Haram is being proliferated by quotcowardsquot in the army yet military men are not paid South Africa is moving against poachers of rhino horn Libyan extremist groups acknowledged the death of one its leaders that attacked on Benghazi in 2012 The death has been known but the only South Sudan rebel leader after signing peace agreement has called for President Mayardit to resign Egyptian court has freed of 2 of former President Mubarak39s sons Ebola vaccine is to be tried in Liberia African Politics amp Democratization Prime Minister of Guinea ran in 2010 and lost is running again IF elections are held currently in doubt Lost in 2010 when he had 44 of the rst vote then at the run off he lost to the candidate who had only 18 in the rst ballot Democracy in Africa Variety of democratic systems in Africa Ex in Guinea you have to have 50 1 vote Elections require a multiparty system Survey of National Elections 19902002 It39s not very often that you have close election in Africa Even when the election is free and fair Winning party achieves an average of 60 of all the seats Main opposition party won on 16 percent of all seats A change of party occurs in about 13 of all free and fair elections Which is probably around 12 of the elections In fraud election the opposition never managed to gain power And even in fair elections where there was a change of power half of those were contested by the losing party this is 12 of 13 of elections that are 12 of all elections in Africa Free and Fair Elections vs Fraud There was not difference in the amount of regime breakdown postelections Whether the country falls apart or not didn t depend on whether the people were able to really truly vote or not Why would a flawed election not have more breakdown Because the authoritarian regime in the flawed election would be able to suppress revolt and uprising thus no break down Democracy Elections and Political Parties Elections as prerequisites of democracy Democracy a political system designed to widen the participation of ordinary citizens in government the power of which are clearly de ned Elections are the primary instruments that compel or encourage the policy makers to pay attention to citizens Require multiparty systems Power sharing formed when the ruling party39s con dence and legitimacy are severely weekend even though it remains strong enough to exercise control over the most important institutions Gives the ruling party legitimacy without discrediting the opposition But it might assuage the opposition39s anxiety that the ruling party may have rigged the elections Ex Kenya in 2007 Postelection turmoil killed 1000 citizens Elections in Africa Some say that multiparty systems are not appropriate for countries with deep ethnic divisions lt legitimizes the rule of one group or a coalition over others African states have been continuously suffering from in ation and food shortages inadequate reserves external imbalances and the burden of debt servicing America and European countries have a low threshold of democratic practice in order to ignore all the political fallacies in African government and to provide further assistance to Africa African elections are seen as windowdressing rituals A sign of good conduct from African governments to western states quotA flawed election may be better than no election at allquot With al lathe ethnic groups elections seem to provide the opportunity to legitimize the political ND economic preeminence of one group Electoral Systems In developing countries the type of electoral system is rarely debated among political leaders electoral administrators and civil society elements While the electoral formula impacts the form of representation of parties in the legislatures so does the presidential rule and the regional distribution of voters D contribute to the observed dominance of one party firstpastthepost Winner take all Based on territorially demarcated single member constituents with the candidate or party getting the greater number of votes winning in only one round even if the votes do not constitute the majority Could be that if you have 10 candidates and you win 30 of the vote you win Votes casted for the loser are considered wasted Most common form of elections in Africa candidate only wins if heshe wins an absolute majority 50 of the vote both the plurality system and majority system tend to exaggerate the parliamentary representation of the largest political party If there is no majority the top two candidates engage in a runoff election Ex Guinea in 2010 treats the entire state as one constituency All political parties are guaranteed a place in legislature The legislature may then chose the new head of government Prime minister normally But it may also entrench political engagement along ethnic lines Most people in class think this is probably the best option But I want to point out that the moment someone gets a majority they can steam roll in their favor Ex Ethiopia it seems effective elections every 5 years Problem last election 2010 the prominent party won 99 of the seats So it doesn39t always work In the 2005 the opposition party got at least 13 of the seats The Institutional Framework The most important institution is the Ought to be independent and competent Not always the case Underfunded and may are generally not able to feasibly be effective not enough people not enough breadth not enough technology quotMacho Menquot in Ghana that would put pressure on voters to change their minds and vote one way or another Ex Kenya where quotthe electoral commission was long ago captured by the leadership of Kenya39s ethnically driven political partyquot The aggrieved party after the elections should be able to turn to the judiciary if they believe the elections were rigged They are appointed transferred or removed at will South Africa has the most independent judiciary in its constitution The judiciary should also be nancially independent Military Important in elections although not noticed in the US Military backs a candidate for positions Used for intimidation not as common today for the electoral process Civilian supremacy over the military is an essential requirement to the functioning of any democracy Allows the military to develop professionally and is obliged to strictly remain politically neutral However in Africa the ruling party attempts to guarantee a loyal and pliable military through a biased system of recruitment reward and deprivation Tools for ensuring an election is free and fair International and Domestic Observers However it is constrained by the fact that it is dif cult for overseers to answer effectively whether elections were actually free and fair Ex Malawi39s 1994 elections were seen as free and fair its 1999 elections as substantially free and fair and its 2004 general elections were free but not fair They need sufficient factual data They want to declare it free and fair because to say otherwise would be predictably destabilizing Groups which originate in the state and include independently operated non generation organizations churches human rights bodies etc But independence and credibility of domestic groups are often questionable De nition Characteristics and Functions of Political Parties Political party established my likeminded individuals with a common set of beliefs and agreeing on important matters of public policy They are determined to gain and hold power on their own or in coaH on Has a recognized degree of permanence and continuity Political parties recruit young leaders train and give them experience and gradually move them to positions of greater responsibility Political parties disseminate political ideas ideologies and programs Anatomy of African Political Parties Historically they emerged as nationalist movements Ultimate objective to achieve independence from the European colonial powers Tendency of one party to rule the party Parties Weak roots in society And a low level of institutionalization Not a lot of money Not a lot of structure Tend to come and go With annoying frequency in Africa Sometime a new one comes along run by the same people These nationalist movements were generally representing one ethnic group Became a one party system Considered the best option for the moment by the international community All African political parties correspondingly display weak roots in society and a very low level of institutionalism Real democracy requires free and fair election regular elections fair allocation of votes and the broadest representation of all political parties Plea for the ending of ethnic politics author is Ethiopian and speaks from that perspective Opposition Weakness in Africa Ranker and de Wale 1989 The date of Namibia s Independence and the beginning of the SubSaharan African democratic wave More than half the region39s multiparty systems are not democratic No little access to media Often government controlled Legitimacy is a problem too Opposition Parties and Electoral Performance Margin of victory for the party in power has remained stagnant The disproportionality between votes and seats has not increased over time With the problems of the economy and resources it is remarkable that incumbents stay in power a testament to how much sway they hold Although the opposition parties appear to have gained strength over time even if not by much Except Niger and Sao Tome and Principe have contested all four legislative elections since then Independent candidates are common in Africa states Sometimes 10 of candidates or something like that In 1998 Madagascar39s elections independent candidates won a higher percentage of the vote 268 than the largest party In Uganda 200639s elections indent candidates gained the same number of seats as the country s largest opposition party Or the independents were not picked by the party so they run on their own In Malawi the MP5 couldn39t change party af liation during the electoral term but they could become independent so if they lost their party39s nomination they ran on their own The Repercussions of Presidentialism Untamed presidential power Three main factors weekend opposition parties The third wave of democratization appeared to have only limited increase in actual political competition The legislature is where opposition has the best hope of sprouting and across the board it is predominantly weak only Ethiopia Lesotho and South Africa opted for a parliamentary system in the 19905 Although many emerged from colonialism with some form of parliamentary system But were weak Ex president was Mtharika of Malawi 2005 left his UDM party and formed the DPP He now faced a legislature with no DPP member so he changed the rules of parliament cut their power and their session and used cabinet appointment for survival This was paralyzing and costly but he remained in power Ex Uganda39s 2006 president and parliamentary elections The NRM the ruling party and that of the president was funded as a government entity So the opposition parties couldn39t challenge the NRM for even a fraction of the 945351 seats at the various levels of government Less ideology now than before Ethnic loyalty takes precedence over policy Term limits So that opposition groups can have an opportunity for speaking out Also gives the party as opposed to just the president some power say The Rules of the Game 25 countries use 2 round majority rule 13 countries use simple majority rule Ex electoral outcomes in Benin and Senegal prove that TRM system increases the chances of an In both of these countries the weakness of the incumbent in the rst round created the sense that an opposition could win which encourage a movement of defecting form the presidential camp to the opposing TRM are associated with Francophone states Though a smaller number of Anglophone states ex Zimbabwe Although some less democratic Frenchspeaking countries moved to sum ex Cameroon Congo Brazzaville and Gabon Opposition Strategies Using local elections as platforms from which to compete at the national level Ex john Ssebaana Kizito head of the Democratic Party served as mayor of Kampala and ran for president in 2001 and 2006 Ex former president Nicephorus Solo of Benin is mayor and using that position to get his son into of ce Controlling a mayoral of ce grants one greater access to resources African populism emphasizes class differences and economic nationalism is being used to mobilize voters Ex Patriotic Front in Zambia Also a group of doctrinaire Islamic Parties that are mobilizing Muslim voters with an Islamictinged social critique of traditional politics Particularly in Western and northeastern Africa African diaspora is begin used to fund elections Help with opposition parties Ex with Ethiopian elections the diaspora funded the opposition party Ex Nigerian diaspora is also fairly active Ex Guinean diaspora Diaspora espouse their view and then want to control things from a distance Doesn t always set will with those that are living under those policies Formal and Informal Institutions Informal political institutions like political clienteles can undermine the formal rules of the game At times the working of formal political institutions is facilitated by a set of informal rules or conventions In Africa informality has been equated with no democracy As democracy matures more weight will be given to rule based behaviors But informal norms and standards must be set the uphold legitimize and strengthen the formal rules Are these emerging through party competition or does competing informality undermined democratic development Some of the most stable countries are those with a single party Tanzania Elections of 2 terms abided by this But it has been the same party since 1963 its independence Has been fairly well run and stable News 1292015 Boko Harm clashes with armies from Chad crossed border into Nigeria and chases book haram out of town Falling oil prices dramatically impacts Nigeria Two countries bene ting from oil price fall South Africa Morocco Ebola virus has mutated possibly less deadly but more contagious 3 UN protestors killed outside the UN base in Mali Release of child soldiers in south Sudan Egyptian police were citizen for shooting quotbird shotquot at protestors Attack on hotel in Tripoli Libya resulted in the killing of at least 9 people Including an American security contractor former marine Languages and Ethnicity 2000 languages in Africa No one really knows how many Depends on how you de ne a language What about a dialect Slang How varied must it be to be a new language Want a sense of belonging in these disparage language groups Made dif cult through colonial rulers emphasizing divines Political leaders solicits tribal loyalty Emphasized tribalism quotFeel more comfortablequot Not seen as nepotism seen as securing authority and safety Cities Should be quotethnic mixing bowlsquot But you often nd ethnic enclaves Language culture traditions networking extended families etc Distribution of government patronage and competition for jobs also create enclaves Cameroon Anglophones the minority have to learn French to get around But the French do not have to learn English Anglophones in Cameroon feel like second class citizens At one point there was a movement to succeed from the country Professor doesn39t feel this is likely Africans identi ed rst by their ethnic group Creole Tempe or Mende D then as Sierra Leonean Thus civil war for ve years many Africans deal with coups in their government and therefrom do not feel like a citizens because they are being denied their rights Language and Ethnicity remain impediments to nationhood and democracy in Africa Ex Kenya uses English to promote democracy How successful is the Use of English in Building a Nation in Kenya Has played a positive role in creating a nationality Or at least a lingua franca Among the educated But how many get to a secondary education level Tanzania Swahili Every Tanzanian speak this Taught in the school system At a very early age Of cial language of the country Along with English Swahili is used more frequently Although university is in English What helps break down ethnicity and language barrier lntermarriage They would learn each other s language Or you pick one Somalia They are all Somali All speak Somali Mutually intelligible among all of them All Muslim But there exists clanssubgroups ex Hawaii Lots of clan politicscon ict since the breakdown of gov in 1991 Not all Africans identify with a single ethnic group but most do Harder with intermarriage The ethnic group is an easy way to mobilize people For access to resources Intermediaries who link the politicians and the powerful to their ethnic base for advancing their mutual interest Most Africans are farmers subsistent farmers or sometimes marginally productive farmer known as quotpeasantquot although not a derogatory term Just means small farmers Politically unorganized Depend on spokespersons to plead their interests those with ethnic intermediaries who live in urban areas Use a variety of formalinformal channels for accomplish goals either their own usually or those belonging to the voters Ethnic intermediaries guide the campaign for seeking state controlled resources that will bene t their constituencies clients Aka lobbyists So ethnic intermediaries will try to build unity within an ethnic group in order to achieve common interests Usually not looked at in terms of class only Marxist classify it as such Foreigners became the basis for uneven wealth and strati cation professor thinks he is overstating the importance of class African Trade Union Movement Weaker today than it was before Strength of trade unions varies across Africa They are extensions of the government Peasants have a low level of group consciousness despite their large numbers Peasants are predominantly women 70 of the subsistence agricultural workforce Libya Tribal con ict West vs east Sudan Agriculture vs pastoral Ethnicity in Darfur Religions issue in the independence of Sudan not the con ict in Darfur because they were all Muslim ProCon of lingua franca Second class citizenship Diminution of heritage Ef ciency Uni cation TribalismEthnicity will play a less important or more important role Language Ethnicity and Citizenship in Africa Citizenship civil rights the right to vote and social rights Owe allegiance to the state and is quotentitled to full civil rightsquot and p vHeges Each African government is preoccupied with how to forge a bond of belonging together as nationals of one state among the polytechnic group Tree are countries that have adopted a series of measures aiming at developing national integration and citizenship Aimed at instilling values of social responsibility in young people and developing concerned an active participants in localnationalinternational life In the tribe national like the tribalismnationalism dichotomy there is the shared premise of attachment to one s groups which is preferred to an outside group quotKenya39s President Daniel Aru Moi calls it tribalism the cancer that threatens to eat out the very fabric of our nation Yet almost every African politician practices it most African presidents are more tribal chiefs than national statesmen and it remains perhaps the most potent force in daytoday African lifequot Language refers to the dissemination no information Nan may include systematic instruction that is undertaken in formal education institutions Language is the foundation of education Programs targeting the masses are best delivered in indigenous languages rather than second or foreign tongues The characters of selfprescription and ascription by others become so the curial feature when an ethnic group is perceived as a social organization Based on a social de nition Interplay of own selfde nition other group members categorization and stereotyping Uganda Example of a leader acting off of tribalism President Idi Amin of Uganda this is who Somoza was compared to after the death of Bobby Stuart from ABC in Nicaragua Language has been identi ed as the factor the determines ethnicity Language can be used as the medium of assimiating members in a nation state inhabited by heterogeneous groups But it can also cause backlash Ex 1976 Soweto riots in which 1000 kids were massacred because the state tried to increase Afrikaans at the language of instruction Nat the primary level in South Africa to the detriment of English 1961 Cameroon adopted French and English has their official languages making this 5 central African stat ether only bilingual country in black Africa English is predominant but spoken by 15 of the population Feel second class to French speakers The struggle for independence in Africa was association with panAfricanism However they do not identify as one quotAfricaquot Ex Sierra Leone coups Constantly in turmoil Coup in 1997 Ahmad Kasbah the rst democratically elected president was ousted by an army major Ex House Fulani Yoruba and lbo of Nigeria lbo were favored by the British So lbo took over at Independence in 1960 Alliance with northern Hausa against Yoruba Break down of government Ethnicity Class and the State Ethnicity and Ethnic Group Ethnicity subjective perception of common origins historical memories ties and aspirations Ethnic group pertains to organized actives y persons linked by a consciousness of a special identity who jointly seek to maximize their corporate political economic and social interests Ethnic groups may engage in social interactions with other organized units of society An awareness of the group as a distinct entity in relationship to other cultural groups remains a relatively recent phenomenon Colonial government encouraged the integration of autonomous sections living side by side in order to consolidate territory and identity groups News 252015 Mugabe selected to be president of the African Union Boko Haram attack in northern Nigeria Good luckJonathan supporters 135000 Nigerians ee to Cameroon because of Boko Haram African Finance Provision to build power plant in South Sudan Egyptian court sentenced 183 people to death for ransacking a police station and killing police of cers Armed wing of Hamas is declared a terrorist group bit the Egyptian government Egyptian freed 2 Al jazeera journalists from Australia lslamist militants have killed 26 people in Egypt39s Sinai Peninsula Chinesemade armed drone probably being used to track Boko Haram but it crashed Formal Economy Colonial Period Industrialization in Europe demanded copper coffee tea cacao etc Bene ted European countries more than Africa Belief was economic structure would improve once Europeans left Didn t happen Colonial powers built manila infrastructure all directed to help Europe 9 African independence stared with low literacy rates and a poor education system 0 Ignored agriculture and rushed into industrialization 0 Migration from rural to urban Africa One Crop Economies Mali cotton Ethiopia coffee Malawi tobacco 9 Whole economy deponent on one crop 9 And therefore dependent on one colonial power as before Population growth rate exceeded economic growth rate detrimentally GDP growth rate divided amongst more people Africa39s GDP growth rate was slower than other region 5 of the world a few decades ago But in the last 10 years it is growing at a rate of 5 Dramatic increases in oil adversely affect African oilimporting countries Declining world prices in worldwide export crops Last decade was not as much of a problem Africa has made little progress in reaching development targets Poverty Infrastructure Disease AIDS most economically productive people are affected Debt owed to other countries and international organization Oil exporting countries have been able to level off some debt Heavily lndebted Poor Countries Initiative Help with debt relief Effective Borrowing binge started in 2007 Major Bush Millennium Challenge account initiative to give 5 billion dollars to Africa Must have low income level to be eligible Must counter corruption 5 billion dollar goal has not been achieved Weak food production rates Lower than growth rate Starvation and hunger News 232015 Nigerian election taking place week of Feb 9th Chad Nigerian Cameroonian troop bombing against Boko Haram US drone strike that might have killed Director of El Shabab Fighting over biggest oil port in Libya Informal Economy Percentage of people in informal economy is larger than any other continent More than half of Africa39s economy is outside of formal economy It39s the largest and most vibrant component of economic activity The informal economy is also left out of the standard statistics and measures Ex GDP Barter A historical component of the African economy Still a large part of the African economy Formal Economy Structures are irrelevant for much of the population No history of participating in it No incentive to participate in it Not lucrative enough The informal economy is based on its own rules Backed by peer group pressure No formal taxation Performs a useful service contains much of the most vibrant economic activity in Africa Bureaucratic government doesn39t know how to handle informal economy or stop it so it thrives Taxingregulating it would push it further underground SubSaharan account for 80 of the nonagricultural labor force and 50 of Africa39s GNP In many countries the informal economy is larger than the formal economy Hard to tell how much because it is dif cult to document Colonialism reinforced informal economy in West Africa suppressed it in the rest of Africa Four key drivers 1 Slow employment growth in the formal economy 2 Restructuring of labor markets under globalization and liberalization 3 Inappropriate formal sector regulations 4 Competitive pressures to reduce costs Instability of formal institutions in context of economic reforms encourage informal economy Informal economy attracts women Poor Domestic labor part of informal economy Employment dominated by people with low skills and not many connections with formal sector The Coming African Debt Crisis Africa has the fastestgrowing continental economy on the planet And what has been growing fastest of all is debt Personal corporate and government Kenya had recordbreaking sale of 2 billion in debt Oversubscribed 4 times over Ghana has the worst currency Debt isn39t a great part of GDP because of debt forgiveness as well as booming commodity prices And the GDP has been growing very fast Although in some areas the debt is back up to 70 of GDP Today most of Africa39s borrowing is from private investors Not the IMF Private investors are less forgiving Also operate in dollars not the country39s own currency A problem in Ghana and Tanzania The Three Types of Economy in Africa Vignette In South Africa the taxi business is expanding However not documented All taxi drives technically work in the informal economy And so contribute to what we see as high unemployment levels The three elds The informal included all activity left out of standard statistics and measures The formal The global History Colonization left an environment of exploitation African wealth from minerals and agricultural produce to captures slaves was mined from the continent and sent north The highest level of education granted to Africans was training as clerks for commercial offices Then with independence many new leaders both rejected and mimicked their former quotmastersquot aspiring to the wealth of their continent long denies to them Capitalism represented colonialism and was rmly rejected by many Even Kenya and Cote d lvoire both capitalist resembled more socialist Socialism or state capitalism is now recognized as a fertile breeding ground for corrupting People rely on the informal economy Don t feel that they can trust the formal economy Most of the time the formal economy was grafted onto the rest of the economic system Any connection social contract of the citizens to it is lacking The informal system allows for bartering The DRC and Sierra Leone are full of illegal or paralegal mining operations that if authorized are done by the warlord of the moment Like the American gold rush Operates in its own credit system You can form a coalition Most women do this they pull their resources to have access to an accumulated sum of money Ex tin roof It is also the place for corruption Because not recorded or taxed Relationships with the Formal Economy Based on contracts rule of law and accountancy and regulations Western aid only comes in through the formal market It also nances social programs which are not as credible if not relying on a stable formal institution for payment Many countries have lifted exchange controls and allowed their currencies to oat either frilly or within a pegged system Money can move more freely across border Privatizations and civil service reform have been more difficult Those that encouraged privatization had very little experience or knowledge of it Foreign capital is going to a portfolio or direct investment As opposed to productive enterprises This has been painfully slow Continuing dependency mentality for some Debate between those who believe the debt should be forgiven and those that think they should pay because it is morally right HIPC the test to see if you are morally in your right to have the debt forgiven Some sort of IMFWorld Bank algorithm Global economy 39A of total African capital is held offshore The global economy consists more of others in uencing Africa rather than Africa in uencing the global economy The three economies tend to con ict rather than cooperate The informal economy is now larger than the formal economy in both nancial and labor terms Why History Matters Precolonial period relate stop the presence of centralized states or large scale religious systems Commercial institutions capable of operating across communal and ethnic boundaries Colonialism reinforced the greater scale and complexity of informal economic networks in West Africa But suppressed these in central east and southern Africa Because of cash crops in the west And labor reserves in the east ln 19905 informal activity was 58 in West Africa 49 in Central Africa and 19 in Southern Africa Reasons for an increasing informal economy 1 Slow employment growth in the formal economy 2 The restructuring of labor markets under liberalization and globalization 3 Inappropriate formal sector regulations not very relevant 4 Competitive pressure to reduce costs The major push factors have more to do with compulsion than with voluntary exit triggered by the restarting of labor markets by liberalization and globalization even in the informal economy taxes may still be collected vigilante groups extralegal levies etc Multiple modes of livelihood hanging onto formal jobs were possible while starting up an activity in the informal sector Or the entry of previously nonemployee household members such as wives and dependents into the informal labor market All because of low real wages And the intensi cation of import competition D middle class demands shifts down to the informal economy as imports and formal sector goods become too expensive This works for public services too trots water sellers and private security agencies are all informal now Banking sector reforms and attendant bank failures frighten people away from the formal sector More women work in the informal sector Because of female poverty The informal sector has potential to boost not drag the formal sector With cheap and exible labor Lack of technical upgrading inadequate access to credit quality inputs and marketing service and poor infrastructure are the true drags on the formal sector The growing informal sector showcases a broken social contract In Congo s Capital Informal Economy is Often the best Opportunity quotHe took his savings all 8 of it and bought 10 bamboo calendars guring that he would sell the bunch on the street for 16 and that today he would eatquot ln Congo hundreds of thousands eeing civil war 2006 to come to Kinshasa The dictator Mobutu Sese Seko ruled for 32 years embezzled billion froth government for his lifestyle and patronage Left a state near total collapse Two civil wars that followed only worsened the situation While cheap goods from china have bene ted a handful of Congolese importers they have mostly lled the city with frying pans and fake underwear hat vendors are rarely able to sell The Congo has a government agency to connect people with jobs But the employees there didn39t even show up Nairobi Kenya Africa39s largest slum is here Kibera Every service is an economic opportunity Like paying for the rest room Government is absent for Kibera Kibera39s origins are western The British colonial rulers gave small plots of land on the edge of Nairobi Nubian soldiers serving in the King s African Ri es One woman started her own school There are no public schools so she created one Parents pay 87 a year If they can39t afford that the children are not expelled but roost eggs from the chickens and sell those Economy is booming wages are rising and quotpeople have moneyquot Market of million potential customers HOWEVER getting startup funds is difficult Banks do not lend Anywhere else you get fund could have interest rates of 25 And you have to join a savers club Cross between a support group and a control organ They check each other s balances Kibera only looks like a slum from the outside homes are nice Kibera is rough place but safe guns are rare no toll Aare charged no protection fees paid People don39t even go to public toilets at night quotFlying toiletsquot Overall a bustling and growing cities News 2102015 Two Boko Haram attacks in Niger Cease re has been violated in south Sudan Ben o Cameroon bus passengers kidnapped d Nigerian elections have been postponed Bank in California Merchants Bank handles about 80 of money transfers in Somalia Are stopping that operation Concerned about that money is being funneled to extremists However all of the economy will collapse if this is to be conUnued Considered a life blood for Somalis 12 18 billion And Somali government is about 14 of the funds that are sent to the diaspora as remittances They don39t have any banks this is their revenueloans system Guinea has announced that it is expanding experimental Ebola treatment Ebola is proving especially hard to eliminate in guinea Boko Haram has done committed two deadly attacks in Cameroon And two in Niger Gabon has lifted a ban on political opposition parties Egypt is retrying two Al jazeera journalists 25 people killed as people rioted outside of a soccer match US should link future aid to Ethiopia for journalists and bloggers Ethiopia has more journalists and bloggers arrested except for Iran Somali Member of Parliament was shot dead in Mogadishu by alShabaab Al Shabaab coordinated the Nairobi mall attack in Kenya in 2012 Corruption in Politics Clienteles an effective instrument of mass politics Because it uses face to face or house to house contact in order to accrue support Works especially well with those that are poor Petty corruption rampant in African countries Ex a policeman stops you when you quotran a stop signquot but you never ran a stop sign So you have to bribe him to drop the fake charge High level corruption Not much more of it in Africa than the rest of the world But it is seen as more detrimental in African societies Why It39s steepening funds that could have been used for other uses Funds that are very scarce Discourages foreign investment Less checks Some countries can adapt to corruption Possibly Corruption in Africa is not unique Dependence on state power and public resources in postcolonial penod Little private sector Use of clienteles Although this is seen throughout the developing world Clienteles and corruption Characterized by the widespread corruption Competing patronclient networks Wanting public resources Obtain the support of localregional power brokers It39s all about access to state resources But there aren39t many public resources So clienteles was usually not able to meet the needs of regime supporters Could not give favors back to everyone Could not satisfy the demands of the masses Why Nigeria has survived major corruption 0 Because of oil enough of it to go around Togo doesn39t have enough resources to go around African states became obsessed with clienteles always falling behind Led to one party states Exports and Corruption Allows governments to entrench themselves in power Big advantage for an incumbent government ALTHOUGH Zambia has wealth but haven39t had the regime Could go wrong very quickly Ex oil price bottoms out Ex Sudan lost 75 of its oil South Sudan And then south Sudan wasn t able to use it Spend all of their effort on oilminerals and re ning it No diversi cation of the economy 9 MAJOR PROBLEM Clienteles and Identity Religious ethnic regional or in some cases racial South Africa Corruption undermined the integrity of state institution And is associated with ethnicity identify groups So they need to move away from politics of personal acquisition And they need to move away from brutal violence 9 Otherwise it leads to genocide Shadow State Shadow State Clandestine economies The most corrupt regimes in Africa Liberia Sierra Leone Congo Especial Sese Seko Brutal corrupt leader Wanted to purge all colonial cultural in uence while enjoying support by the US due to his anticommunist stance Deposed Patrice Lumumba in a coup d39 tat Rulers can undermine the formal institutions of government Technically still exist But they don39t accomplish anything or do anything Because the ruler of the country has designed a totally corrupt system Organizationally incompatible with public resources All the resources go to the leader And his supporters The regime is based on the concept of personalized power Very little safety quotOn their ownquot If a shadow state permitted the state the means to achieve its own goals they might oppose the power holders so they are suppressed Shadow state may have an element of physical control 9 Low crime rates 9 Any attempt at opposition is squashed But they still have to create some stability for their own operations So they recruit and arm young men Ex AlShabaab in Somalia Opens the door for foreign aid Shadow states nd foreign aid and respectability during the cold war Rather than after the cold war We would rather support an autocrat than a communist Like we did with Somoza in Nicaragua quotHe is an SOB but he is our SOBquot Reagan Millennium Challenge George W Bush Grant aid Noloans Rewarded good performers Good economic and political performs Somewhat ethnocentric Wanted them to be quotwesternquot Shadow state would never have quali ed That was the point Poor candidates to attract foreign investment be Minerals and Shadow State Sierra Leone demands Angola oil Sudan oil South Sudan oil One of the most corrupt states Chad DRC mineral wealth Vigorous anticorruption protests may infect destabilize the shadow state to the point of anarchy and not ef ciency Corruption Index The Least Corrupt States 1 Denmark 2 New Zealand 3 Finland US is 17 in order of least corrupt to shadow state We are tied for it The best African country is 31 Botswana Second best African country is 42 Cape Verde Number 174 North Korea and Somalia somewhat unfair because Somalia doesn39t have a government Six of the 10 lowest scoring African countries Signi cant oil or mineral producing Clandestine Economies Violence and States in Africa 1150 Africans is a refugee Two major wars on the continent 1 DRC involves ten countries 2 Axis from southern Senegal to Liberia s borders involves ve other countries Clandestine economic contribute to the strengthening of political authority in seemingly chaotic parts of Africa Shadow State Form of personal rule Authority based upon the decisions and interests of an individual not a set of written laws and procedures even though these formal aspects of government may exist Founded on ruers39 abilities to manipulate external actors39 access to markets both formal and clandestine To enhance their power Rulers recruit and arm youths to intimidate opponents Origins of Clandestine Economies Some say came from internal groups Like pirates that raided churches Others say it formed as a result of radical changes in the global economy The proliferation of small arms Differences in opinion come from differences in de ning clandestine economies Personal Rule Relative lack of poplar acceptance of speci c regimes in certain counters tends to tender rule through bureaucracies unattractive to high offices Some rulers jettison the pretense of legitimacy Instead you manipulate markets and laws regulating markets to enhance your own power 0 Creates an informal commercially oriented network Shadow State Ruler rely upon the willingness of outsiders to recognize the facade of formal sovereignty Results from colonial rule Heavily emphasized local rulers Local elite would use colonial administrative positions for personal enrichment and to exercise power over local people The fear of enterprise among officials help explain why many African rulers have placed a very low priority on bolstering the formal bureaucracies of their states Government assets in many countries often nd their way into the private pockets of interests groups Meeting the needs of a population as a whole requires a longterm strategy that most governments don39t have Because it diverts resources from critical political allies There are exceptions Ex in Uganda ldi Amin destroyed bureaucracies but Yoweri Museveni president since 1986 places a higher premium on basic public services Although even within this shift Yoweri still uses government policies and privatization to expand his family39s wealth Rulers tolerate corrupt of cials Violence Ex ruler in Kenya see the incumbent president has cultivated violence between oppositions groups to create a role for himself as a negotiator of peace Shadow states seek out any opposing interest group that may rival them And use violence to disrupt it Nigeria Military government from 19841999 encouraged politicians and military of cers to open backs under a program of quotliberalizationquot New banks gave property access to below market rates for foreign exchange Clearly fraudulent activity Yet the bedrock feature of Nigerian regimes Citizens cannot be given any means to organize themselves as an opposition group Shadow States Congo Liberia Central African Republic Chad Nigeria Local strategies of Shadow State ruler and their associates are geared toward carving out some predictability and stability for their own operations Recruit young men Complicates Shadow State rulers39 efforts to hold together no bureaucratic policing net words come to threaten their own regimes So they have external recognition no de jure sovereignty by foreigners irrespective 0 internal develops within that Territory 0 Gives he shadow State rulers access to external resources and commercial net worth that they would not otherwise enjoy The recruited youth are protected from prosecution for clandestine economic activities Economic motivations are the driving forces for Shadow States rulers Unemployed people face a dearth of entrepreneurial activates and often conclude that they must side with a politician to gain wealth Sari Wawa Environmentalist Of the Ogibo thrive in Nigeria Drew attention to the oil damage caused by Nigeria s oil delta Was assassinated in 1995 But some think he may have been pursuing a political aim Not an environmental one Think he wanted access to politics to gain wealth Peaceful protests are dif cult to create e Those with arms are in the best position to act on their interests And usually against rival groups to the detriment of the community as a whole Competition puts premium on particular y violent behavior among these groups Way to extract more loot Gang leaders use violence to decrease the number of ambitious follows who may want to replace the leader Helps intimidate rival groups in places where several groups are competition for the same resources In Lagos state a civilian government retired the army of boys But then they became bandits to ll their time Shadow State ruler face the dilemma of gathering resources and asserting control without resorting to building expensive and politically risky bureaucracies External sources of income Found prominent during the cold war Natural resources that39s what gets foreign aid Ex diamond cobalt and gold mining Ex despite prolonged ghting in Angola US rms have been major investors in the country s hydrocarbon industry Nigeria ranks 81 on Transparency out of 83 countries Equatorial Guinea and Angola are not even ranked Sovereignty provides other saleable resources Ex Sierra Leone as overtaken by soldiers in 1997 So the UN embargoed trade with the regime Regime responded by issuing passports to generate income Made 1 million dollars for 3 people Violent youth politics in Africa is center around areas with available natural resources News 2122015 Less people Bombing rebel positions in CAR Nigeria is to investigate human rights violations of internally displaced persons by local of cials Russia is helping Egypt build its own nuclear power plant UN peace keeping operation in the DRC has been providing support for local Congolese troops but as they have been engaged in human rights violations they suspended Pospotment of the Nigerian election May make things works US is going to use its tracking services to help track down illegal animal parts Ex rhino tusks Globalization Economy The bene ts to Africa of globalization 1 Access to global capital Huge potential for further entry into emerging markets It makes money available 2 Positive spillover effects on capital markets Risk sharing becomes international So international actors may take the losses with the local people 3 Forces world class services Increase ability of nancial information More transparent Trying to make the best business Problems 1 Adequate data Professional information 2 Possibility of adverse changes of government Or government policies le nationalization rare today 3 High degree of volatility Affects the market 4 Human rights abuses and other bad news cycles Hurts investment And particular hurts American investment because we don39t know the area well enough to delved more deeply and to nd out what s truly going on Can39t understand what the difference is between what we perceive and what is reality So smallmedium companies won39t invest in Africa The theories of AfroPessimist have prevailed We are hearing more now from the afrooptimistic Because of the strong GDP growth rate on average in Africa But even they fear that the economy of 54 countries will be driven by the economies of a few strong companies South Africa Nigeria Egypt All the other countries won t receive equal growth Africa has the highest level of consumption inequality in the world Africa39s principle role is as a supplier of materials Rise of China India and other developing countries This has become more Global scarcity has also promoted globalization in Africa China China is now Africa39s largest trading partner Passed the United States in 2009 Africa has minerals that are found in signi cant percentages in Africa Ex 10 of the known 0 reserves and will be a future source of OH United States Importing a lot less oil form Africa Because of fracking from shell 0 US imports from everywhere is way down Africa is the fastest growing market in the world for mobile phones From Asia Requires the mineral Colten From Africa 2008 Global economic crisis The fall in commodity prices did not have a devastating impact on Africa Odd when considering how they are exporters of raw materials only to industrialized nations that were severely affected Commodity prices with the exception of oil have largely recover Africa growth rates are rising again But leads to political con ict RESOURCE CURSE Globalization 1 million Chinese living in Africa Sma traders South Africa Nigeria Egypt Top economies in Africa Oil and Todd Moss Trade One of the least integrated regions in the World Has actuay dropped in percentage share in world trade Aggregate number has increased But other countries have moved faster In the past 5 years private capital has been moving into Africa Considerable growth potential Some areas are bene ting more than others due to globalization n Ghana Tanzania Kenya Botswana bene t Globalization Brings bene ts to the country Puts demand on the government While South Africa should be a leader It is reluctant to play that role It is a young democracy Nigeria Reforms have stalled A disappointment trade has not yet become a signi cant component Problems Landlocked countries Infrastructure is weak Too many African countries impose high duties for trading with neighbors So regional trade has not developed as it should The entire economic activity of subSaharan Africa is equal to that of the greater Chicago area re ection of formal economy only Important External Actors China France Britain US Which foreign entity is building most of the infrastructure China Usually goes to the DRC Oil 9 So China gets cheap oil Zimbabwe Only revolution group that China supported that was a winning faction Angola has gotten almost 20 billion dollars in loans But repays it in oil Ethiopia has 3 billion in loans Exports goat skins and sesame seed back to China 9 Would war be possible here If they never pay back Chinese loans are for the most part going to countries that have the resources to pay them back Economic Model India and China treat Africa differently Why India is the largest democracy Uses a different rhetoric Demographically young Private sector is larger in India 9 It could surpass China not yet not for a while China More successful in the economy than lndia Demographically Aging No News for 1192015 due to Snow Storm Climate Change in Africa Deforestation in Africa Cut down of trees brush and scrub And do not replant Why cut down Energy by burning wood Ex cooking res Building houses Logging Rainforest on the continent are expected to disappear in 25 years Unless government intercede Each year Africa loses woodlands about the size of the Netherlands High rates of urbanization only increase pressure to cut trees Most commonly seen in urban areas Example of deforestation Ethiopia Trying to reforest now Very expensive And lengthy wait time Deforestation also comes from con ict and refugee movement think back to Rwandan and Sudanese refugees as they made their way to refugee camps had to travel through forest for protection but cut down what was in their path Rwandan refugees would make camp and stay there for monthsyears and cut down everything near them for energy Consequences Land degradation Loss of food production Loss of wildlife habitat Loss of tourism Loss of trees and watersheds means an excess of sediments and containments Clogs the rivers Pollutes the lake Puts stress on the lake Deserti cation Deserti cation The conversion of productive land into waste land by human mismanagement Also climate change Deforestation can lead to deserti cation 23 of Africa is desert or dry land Mostly dry land Includes part of Senegal Niger northern Nigeria Uganda Chad Gambia quotZonequot Many people claim that Africa is under populated Because of low population density BUT 80 of the content is not suitable for producing crops arable Which means that it may be overpopulated for the resources Africa can provide Vast unsettled parts of Africa Cannot sustain settlement SOMETIMES increased irrigation can be a solution Irrigation Expensive Pumps and fuels Excessive irrigation in hot dry climates leads to alkelinizations of crops Too much salt Too much alkaline In the irrigation canals Eventually overwhelms the crops Sometimes you have to sues the scarce water to us away the slats and alkaline If you use irrigation you have to use more fertilizer and pesticides Toxic waste to the environment Also another expense Drought Natural Ex El nine Human Ex deforestation Africa is the most vulnerable and the last able to adapt to climate change Some areas where they get rain will get more rain And areas with too little rain will get les strain Areas in Africa are expected to get much hotter More drought Consequences of Climate change More droughts More oods All of greater intensity More epidemics Fever Soil Erosion Closely linked to the problem of deforestation Africa39s old age and location in net tropics makes it more vulnerable to deforestation Deforestation expedites the process of deforestation Constantly eroded by rain Cultivation becomes dif cult HOWEVER Soil erosion aides the Nile Delta As it rushes from the mountains hills nearby Soil lls up Lake Nasser now Used to ow straight through the lake Nasser to the Nile Delta and provide great agricultural condition Now the Nile Delta is shrinking Population continues to grow Puts strain on all this Cash Crops Primary source of exchange Production has led to misguided government policies Lead to environment deterioration Ex Government of Sudan ignored dryand farming after investing in cotton and sugar plantation along the Nile The Blue Nile ows into Sudan and meets thaw white noel at Khartoum Used to have lots of agriculture there But the irrigation system was left South Sudan has 75 of the oil So now Sudan has to go back to doing good agriculture Animal poaching also an issue Biggest problem is the people invading the animal39s space Ex Ugandan soldiers were allowed to go shooting in the forest and clear space for camps Africa is only responsible for 3 of the world39s largest C02 emissions 16 for China 13 for US Glaciers On mount Kilimanjaro are disappearing 85 of the icecap there in 1912 is gone Disappearing at 2 a year Citizens with grievances against the government can use disasters caused by climate change as ways to rally against the government 1 Geographic location to climate related hazards 2 Population density 3 Household and community resilience 4 Political violence Chart 150 Map on 152 Western Ethiopia southern Sudan Angola South Sudan DRC and Somalia Drought Floods Wild res High winds Coastal inundation Lake Taganeka 2nCI largest by volume of water Lake Chad ls half the size it was when Nigeria became independent Nigeria Chad and Cameroon used to all bene t from this lake 30 million people depend on Lake Chad for water But will disappear in 20 years 12 of the loss of Lake Chad is due to climate change 12 of the loss is due to human interference Women in Africa Precolonial Africa Male dominance Bride wealth The male39s family would pay for the wife For the variety of tasks she performs She can createsell goods She raises children She tends the home Polygamy for the male was common Colonials Forced males into the commercial economy Mines Plantations Townes Women remained the rural areas And assumed the responsibilities that men used to have Men gained access to resources Land Money Educa on Not available to women Men also gained political advantages All male native authorities Made by colonizers Colonial ruler interpreted African tradition in ways that favored men over women Women39s responsibilities grew But their rights to land were undermined The best land was given to the land For the growing of cash crops Legal dif culties lf divorced the woman had no right to the wealth PostColonial Period Independent African states and social institutions tend to be Africanized replicas of their colonial predecessors Advantages that men had gained access to education job and property allowed them to gain control of the most of the wealth job and leadership positions in newly independent countries Men kept formal political power Continued doing as they had done under the chieftain system Today Women do not have guaranteed rights to their husband39s income or property Changes in this applies to urban more than rural areas May be linked to education Urban women have more education Women do 90 of the agricultural work for the food you eat everyday But men do the farm work that requires the most physical strength You will nd me and women working together in the elds but you will nd more women there then men Women are increasingly seeking employment in towns But they have had less training Poses an issue Illiteracy is much higher in women than men Boys are sent to school more often than girls More dif cult for women to nd wage paying jobs Midwives Clerks Secretaries Teachers like the US in the 1940s and 19505 However women have been successful in running small private businesses In the informal economy Large role of African women in development Political Of ces Mostly excluded form political of ce Until president in Liberia And VP in Malawi that assumed presidency And previously women only held 68 of parliament seats Even today it is above 15 in only 13 African countries Half of African states 2005 there were no women in cabinet positions Although they did better in local governments Political leadership is male preserved Cultural Educa on Female Genital Mutilation Long history Ethiopia has had a signi cant program to eliminate this issue Trying to educate the populous on the dangers of FGM FGM is legally outlawed Because it is deeply culturally embedded Law Reliance on local law Or sharia law On areas of divorce custody and education Gives men power over women Some places have constituency that prohibit traditional practices harmful to women However legal reforms are poorly enforced and customary law takes precedence over formal law Women39s representation in parliament in South Africa is near 45 Women are contributing increasingly to the formal sector but still most activity yin the informal sector because they live in the rural areas Governments must play a more active role Market forces will not solve the gender parity
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