Midterm Study Guide!
Midterm Study Guide! HIST 2340W
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History of US Diplomacy Herring Chapter 1 A declaration of independence from America would guarantee them support from England39s enemies France and Spain Mercantilism colonies supplied timber tobacco and agricultural products And imported manufactured goods But they engaged in illicit trade with French Canada or the Dutch despite supposed to be trading with England Formed at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 End years of religious strife by enlarging the stature and the role of the nation state Based on HugGratisis Focus was now to sustain the balance of power rather than destroy the enemy Great Britain France Austria Prussia and Russia on the rise at this time Committee of Secret Correspondence trying for foreign aid lulienAlexandre Orchard de Bonvouloir The ambassador the revolutionary states from France It mentions that the French help because they had just been humiliated by the English and they need to keep status quo so if the 7 years war had ended differently would there be no revolution Freedom of trade kept relations with Europe commercial Independence would allow them to quotshake hands with the worldquot Paine Used city of a hill to be the forerunners of democracy A unique experiment in selfgovernment Written by John Adams Must avoid future entanglement in European wars No political connection with France Trade should not be encumbered by tariffs Europeans loved this Charles Graver comet de Vergennes the architect of French policy to the emerging US Thought about not helping Because the US could rejoin Britain Because it makes him vulnerable Because it gave Britain a reason to bomb France When Franklin was in Paris he lived a lavish lifestyle but presented himself as the face of the revolution as a simple man The battle of Saratoga helped him solidify support Offered France the British West Indies France got Spain to enter the topic of Gibraltar was promised with assistance Sweden Denmark Austria Prussia Portugal the Kingdom of Naples British success in the South in 1779 forced the Congress to abandon it39s scrupled against foreign troops evoking urgent peas that France send military forces This is after GW had to retreat from New York And then while they waited for troops the US forces in New Jersey and Pennsylvania revolted Chronic money problems also required French funds Also keep in mind that on the Western Front the Native Americans allied with the British Iroquois Confederation in New York split between Britain and US GW wanted to quotdestroyquot them Pretty much did they were crippled and depended much more on Britain than before When the Cherokees decided to ght the Americans the British weren39t able to give support so it was actually better for the Americans who could take out a major potential threat in one movement Issues of rising in ation in 1777 made them want to consider union more strongly Conversation of union began in summer of 1776 Confederation government could not levy taxes States could not make individual agreements with foreign nations Turn Around in the War 1781 Battle of York town America won probably spared them from loss The defeat of Cornwallis was extremely helpful and as he was the general for the South the British lost their entire southern strategy at that point It also motivated the Americans The book mentions that Britain was also dealing with other foreign pressures that made it want to negotiate now such as negotiations involving from the Gulf of Mexico to South Asia British setbacks in the Caribbean combined with Yorktown to encourage peace talks but what was happening exactly in the Caribbean Spain never sought a formal alliance with America France had promised to ght until Spain recovered Gibraltar America s aim could be held hostage by events in the Mediterranean Then it began Britain aim the 17805 to separate America from France even if it meant cooperating with the US Some proposed an Irish solution Shelburne of England had Oswald British admired Franklin lived in VA for 6 years coordinate a peace deal with the Americans in 1782 Although there was risk of a ShelburneVergennes deal at the US39s expense But Britain was generous seen so by Vergennes and France was freed by the US from ghting until Spain reclaimed its territory Europeans didn39t normally coordinate their postwar approaches but they were generally in tandem Administration of foreion affairs was in prooress Livingston had often complained about it resigned before the peace treaty was rati ed John Jay assumed the of ce in 1784 1789 A secret act allowed him to open and examine any letters going through the post of ce in the name of homeland security Divide over experience and ideologies le John Adams hated the ceremonies of court Economy Britain Shelburne39s fall from power brought a dramatic shift in British commercial policy Toward a hard line Navigation Acts remained central to British economic policy Despite Adam Smith39s fervent belief in the free economy 1785 John Adams is minister to England Spain Did open some ports to the US Spanish products entered American ports on a de facto mostfactored nation basis But Spain refused a commercial treaty without other US concessions France Was the most open to trade But failed to meet expectations Jefferson succeeded Franklin in 1784 Believed that if the US was to shift trade to the French West Indies and open its ports to french products it would not need the British their dominance could be broken But barriers were too hard to overcome with concessions Barbary pirates North African states of Morocco Algiers Tunis and Tripoli Annual fees for safe passage Europeans generally found it cheaper to pay than to engage them with force Jay was unsuccessful in gaining a treaty with them In 1783 three ships were captured congress put up 80000 to free the captivates but that wasn t enough Jefferson became obsessed with the pirates Sweden and Prussia Treaties were made Based on the 1775 Model Treaty The Empress of China First American ship to reach canton china US eased out of depression under the confederation around 1785 Second Maior PostWar Problem Windfall the nation acquired from England in the 1783 treaty Millions of acres of sparsely settled land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River Made the US an instant great power Many of the states held con icting titles to western land Native Americans also claimed land Got support from the British Wanted to hang on to foot holds First addressed the quotIndian Problemquot with a massive land grab Since they had been on the wrong side of the war they had lost their claim to western lands the American thinking But they never told the Native Americans this Ex Iroquois came to negotiations in Fort Stanwix in October 1784 believed that the six nations belonged to them ended up conceding claims to Ohio The Confederation created a federal authority over these lands North West ordinance of 1787 Put settlement and economic development before statehood Did not permit immediate admission to the Union Placed new settlements under Colonial principles Became the means by which a territory beyond the Mississippi would be incorporated into the Union Other Issues British refused to leave the northwest Areas like Detroit Negotiations accomplished nothing US sought French support France refused Spain felt threatened by the new nation Was very hostile Worried about the restless energy and expansionist thrust Refused to recognize the Mississippi as the western front Rejected Americans claims to navigation Spanish worked with Native Americans to resist settlement John Jay was told they had to have access to the Mississippi The Spanish were told to push the US as far east as the Ohio River The agreement Jay offered was to let Spain have Mississippi in exchange for a trade treaty on commercial goods He defended it on full reciprocity Primary Sources John Winthrop39s City upon a Hill 1630 Now the onely way to avoyde this shipwracke and to provide for our posterity is to followe the Counsell of Micah to doe Justly to love mercy to walke humbly with our God for this end wee must be knitt together in this worke as one man wee must entertaine each other in brotherly Affeccion wee must be willing to abridge our selves of our super uities for the supply of others necessities gentlenes patience and liberallity wee must delight in eache other make others Condicions our owne rejoyce together labour and suffer together allwayes haveing before our eyes our Commission and Community in the worke our Community as members of the same body soe shall wee keepe the unitie of the spirit in the bond of peace the Lord will be our God and delight to dwell among us as his owne people and will commaund a blessing upon us in all our wayes soe that wee shall see much more of his wisdome power goodnes and truthe then formerly wee have beene acquainted with wee shall finde that the God of Israell is among us when term of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies when hee shall make us a prayse and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations the lord make it like that of New England for wee must Consider wee shall be made a story and a byword through the world wee shall open the mouthes of enemies to speake evill of the wayes of god and all professours for Gods sake wee shall shame the faces of many of gods worthy servants and cause theire prayers to be turned into Cursses upon us till wee be consumed out of the good land whether wee are going And to shutt upp this discourse with that exhortacion of Moses that faithfull servant of the Lord in his last farewell to Israell Deut 30 Beloved there is now sett before us life and good deathe and evill in that wee are Commaunded this day to love the Lord our God and to love one another to walke in his wayes and to keepe his Commaundements and his Ordinance and his lawes and the Articles of our Covenant with him that wee may live and be multiplied and that the Lord our God may blesse us in the land whether wee goe to possesse it But if our heartes shall turne away soe that wee will not obey but shall be seduced and worshipp other Gods our pleasures and proffitts and serve them it is propounded unto us this day wee shall surely perishe out of the good Land whether wee passe over this vast Sea to possesse it John Winthrop Puritan We are an example for the rest of the world Do not fall to sin Temptation specifically that of money We need to be the best and set a high standard for others to follow Ezra Stiles39 quotThe United States Elevated to Glory and Honorquot 1783 quotIt has already risen to an acknowledged sovereignty among the republic and kingdoms of the worldquot Could be argued that this didn39t really happen until after the war of 1812 quotThis will be a great a very great nation nearly equal to half Europequot Borders de ned as the Mississippi Little did people think they could nd the most perfect polity among the poor outcasts the contemptible people of New England Claims that ecclesiastical pride will deprive the European hierarchies of seeing how wonderful the US really is right now Says Christianity in the church became corrupted with the adoration of numerous deities and images May be of the divine destiny that all other attempts for gospelizing the nations of the earth shall prove fruitless until the present Christendom itself be recovered Foreign Policy before 1865 The Great Dilemma Americans believed it was their mission and destiny to transform the globe But they lacked the power to do so Weak economy Weak military Nation Building at Home 0 Isolationism prevent European in uences from corrupting America s democratic experiment 0 Territorial expansion The more territory the US the less the Europeans had 0 Keep the European power out of the Americas 0 Right to a natural commerce War of 1812 Successful with territory Unsuccessful with maintaining neutral commerce 1803 war broke out in Europe French and British Neither wanted the US to trade with the other So they both blocked the US trade But US relied more on Britain so this was problematic in remaining neutral Britain continued to block them US continued to insist on its right to neutral trade 1806 Embargo Act Reduce American trade with all combatants 1812 America declares war with Britain on all these issues Triumph of Andrew Jackson in New Orleans But the US did not have the resources to ght a major European power Burning of the capitol and new sense of vulnerability Nation must be more vigilant about its defense Need for national unity Chapter 4 Notes 1821 John Quincy Adams and British Minister Stratford Canning met to discuss the British claims on Oregon country JQ Adams was Secretary of State at the time Americans after the War of 1812 became even more assertive Challenged the European commercial system and sought to break down trade barriers Manifest Destiny also seems to be a prevailing theme 1800 1878 the land Europe claimed almost doubled in size Ex Canada and its vulnerability Just to put this into European context Napoleonic wars were right before the 1821 discussion Napoleon took control of Spain and Portugal in 1808 By 1840 much of the territory extending to the Mississippi River had been settles 13 states became 26 Doubling population growth 18201840 the US economy began to mature Building of infrastructure such as highways While the we prided itself on its political isolation from Europe it was dependent upon them economically Ex US agriculture had high production but not enough demand in the States alone War of 1812 boosted nationalism Statecraft was high the Virginia Dynasty ending with Monroe all had a wealth of practical experience John Quincy Adams is seen as the most successful diplomat of his time Had six languages under his belt Created a ling system in the State Dept that would be used until 1915 Strong believer in free trade Disliked Jefferson39s quotpell mell protocolquot and reverted back to formal practice with envoys and dress Almost doubled the number of consultants between 1820 1830 Also maintained a sizeable navy eet Whereas Jefferson was fearful of the navy JQ Adams was president from 1825 1829 Monroe and Adams also pushed to secure payment of claims from the spoliation of American commerce So that it would lead to endorsement of the US position on free trade and neutral rights Most claims were arising from privateering and other alleged violations of neutral rights by governments or rebels or in disputes between governments during the wars of independence there was a Brazilian blockade of US ships of the Rio de la Plata Reciprocity was designed to strengthen the hands of US diplomats in negotiations The MonroeAdams trade offensive produced little results Issue with the French didn39t want to pay claims on the basis that they had paid enough in the American Revolution plus they didn39t want anyone else paying American claims lasted until the Jackson presidency Some successes secure reciprocity with Brain and a favored nation treaty with Russia in 1824 UnderJohn Adams southern voters blocked trade with Haiti It was even more dif cult to trade with Latin American nations US was unable to open trade to the British West Indies Louisiana Purchase Madison was secretary of state at the time Expand American territory Pressure put on France France had Haitian slaves producing sugar and Louisiana was producing the Haitian foods So Madison sent secret aid to Haiti lf France lost Haiti he hoped they wouldn39t want Louisiana Which is true Removed Europeans from western frontier Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase were hotly debated with Spain since its inceonn Florida Britain invaded West Florida in the War of 1812 They could have incited a slave revolt Florida quotlike a pistol pointed at the nation39s heartquot Spain was weakened by the Napoleonic wars it seemed like now was the time to conquer that territory And it wanted to get rid of Spain since it couldn39t control it but it didn39t want to lose Texas or California 1819 Adams Ones Treaty Concern that European powers would take advantage of Spain39s decline Problem in Florida 18171819 they are worried about Florida Andrew Jackson campaign against Seminole Indians Spanish negotiator Don Luis de Ones Proposed settling the western boundary of the US at the Mississippi Also asked the US not to recognize the new Latin American republics Monroe and Adams insisted on a line following the Colorado River And they were willing to delay Latin American recognition But they could not publically be against eh new republics as they hoped to trade with them 9 So the US puts pressure on Madrid 0 Florida39s become volatile noman39sland Pirates and renegades in the area Also the Creek people ed there after the 1814 Treaty at Fort Jackson 9 Monroe administration mounted military expeditions to quell the violence 0 To be used as leverage later with Spain 0 Jackson was sent to quotpacify the Seminolesquot Jackson just wanted to seize the state in 60 days Tried two British subectsbefore an American military court on Spanish territory example of frontierjustice in action 9 Monroe and Adams explode the Jackson situation and they took aims that they would peacefully retreat in exchange theta Spain struck a deal quickly 9 Settlement reached in Feb 1819 0 Let go of Texas asked for Spanish settlement in the Paci c Northwest 0 They also got Florida The lands in the Paci c Northwest that Monroe and Adams asked for from the Spanish were also claimed by the British and Russians Started to make peace with the British to do this Rush Bug agreement of 1817 rearmament on the Great Lakes Established a Canadian border Adams also established the alternate the diplomatic policy that the nation39s names would be alternated in order in treaties and such In 1818 the AngloAmerican convention decided to leave the Oregon territory open for 10 years Secretary of War John C Calhoun in 1817 drew up plans to put forth in that area It was Russia39s challenge in the Northwest and the threat of European intervention to restore monarchial governments in Latin America and the revolution in Greece that brought forth the Monroe Doctrine in December of 1823 Sent in a trade company to establish settlement Faced American competition that was conveniently arming the local residents and giving them whiskey because who wouldn39t want whiskey am I right Technically this didn39t poste a great threat because the US had not claimed land over the 42nCI parallel Russia was at 55 Greek Revolution Spring of 1821 They were revolting against Turkish rule They inside on an quotAmericanstyle declaration of independence and appealed to the world for assistancequot Speci cally called upon the Founding Fathers lssue divided the US government wow a divided government Didn t that could happen Who would have expected that Adams dismissed the Greek infatuation as quotall sentiment Didn39t want to hamper negotiations with Turkey remember that trade and expansion were his focus didn39t want to hurt trade relations even with TUrkey Meanwhile the minister to France Gallatin urged employment of the Navy against the Turks Joined by former president Madison Clay and Daniel Webster too The Greek Revolution was under discussion when threat of European intervention of the Latin American nations came into play Latin American Republics After the Napoleonic Wars Tsar Alexander had taken the lead in mobilizing the Continental powers in checking revolutions At the Congress of Vienna in 1822 November he secured an allied commitment to restore the fallen monarchy in Spain French rebuilt the throne on the continent but now Europeans were discussing restoring the Latin American counterparts Triggered ashbacks in the US of foreign intervention in their own affairs early on in the revolution and a little while after George Canning brought the issue of European lnvasion to the oor He was British Talking to Richard Rush minister to Britain in the summer of 182 Wanted a joint statement against European intervention Known as quotCanning39s irtationquot Jefferson and Madison said to take the offer Adams said no They would lose all hope of getting Cuba or Texas European invasion was inevitable Wanted to quotavow the democratic principlesquot might have only said this because he was a presidential hopeful Monroe Doctrine in December 1823 Did it apply equally to North and South America How was the US to protect Latin American independence Europe went from hostility to shock at the precocious statement by a relatively weak country Offended Metternich for Austria Canning had been out maneuvered and issued a statement encouraged by the French saying it was all actually Britain s idea Many Latin Americans believed that it was Britain who headed off the intervention The Monroe Doctrine really re ected the idea of Manifest Destiny held by Adams Monroe and Clay and was a more accurate representation of the US39s ambitions in the Paci c Northwest Russia did end up opening some of its ports and being less competitive with their company because they would respect the AmericanRussian split Adams wins the White House in 1824 very tough election he was chosen by the House of Representatives Adams sent Gallatin to London To extend the Canadian boundary to the 49th parae 1827 No outcome so both Britain and America decide the leave the territory open Second Great Awakening in the 18205 The need to spread American ideology was pushed by religion more than anything Although the cross country journey of Marquis de Lafayette incited patriotic fervor and reminded people of the revolution as the 50th anniversary approached Miennias at this time too thought the rapture was to happen in 1866 Lots of mission trips Not sponsored by the government but individually coordinated with the British Major thrust in the Middle East avor of a crusade Maelstrom of politics and religion Missions became a part of the foreign policy Adams quotthe US should be the wellwisher to the freedom and indepdence of all the champion and vindicator only of her ownquot 1821 l but as president this didn39t always hold true Clay was Adams39 Secretary of State Together they decided it would be best to reshape Latin American countries in a North American image Often crossed the line between encouraging change and interfering in domestic politics of another country I am so glad we solved that issue so much sarcasm Ex Raquel publicly was against the Brazilian government Ex US got involved in a Chilean debate over policies Ex Simon Bolivar Seen as a hero to the North American people But the government didn39t like his stance on quotpresidency for lifequot Also feared British involvement or at the least a potential shift 0 monarchy for the Columbia and Bolivia region The US delegation to Columbia led by William Henry Harrison called Bolivar a madman and actively worked with his enemies l Harrison was asked to leave Clay wanted to recognize Haiti but once again southerners blocked it like Calhoun who believed it to be a risk with quotsocial relationsquot didn39t want a black diplomat essentially Panama conference Adams and Clay wanted to promote closer relations with hemispheric neighbors Bolivar wanted an interAmerican congress to fend off European intervention And perhaps support his own ambitions for hemispheric leadership Clay wanted to build upon his vision of the American System Drew in bitter attacks from Presidential Hopefuls such as Crawford Calhoun and especially Andrew Jackson Southerners protested association with nations whose economies were competitive And were worried that the congress was going to abolish slavery And once again didn39t want to be associated with Haitian diplomats So US participation never materialized 0 Also because the hostile Senate would not con rm the delegates of Adams to the conference 0 And then those that were con rmed were latecouldn t go one died and the senate didn39t reconvene to go over new representation 1828 Election of Andrew Jackson Cabinet met sparingly and rarely discussed foreign policy Although he instituted the rst major reform of the State Department Created 8 bureau39s and elevated the chief clear to a status roughly equivalent to an undersecretary Introduced the idea of rotation in of ce A spoils system quotJackson39s Kitchen Cabinetquot McLane Marin Van Buren William Cabell Rivers and James Buchanan were the only good diplomats everyone else was weak and only in because of spoils system Got rid of formal dress for diplomats Domestic struggles such as the nulli cation controversy Jackson39s changes were more of style and method than substance Extracted 2 million from Naples But almost undid his success by pressing too hard for payment From places like France Tried to seize French property they withdrew their minister from Washington Issued a nonapology that France accepted 1827 Canning died Jackson got access to the British West Indies US also managed to get a treaty with Turkey that had eluded them from 30 years in 1827 quotSeparate and secret promisequot for the us to assist Turkey in rebuilding its Navy Jackson eagerly sought trade with Asia 1832 He appointed Edmund Roberts to Muscat Siam Thailand and Cochin China Vietnam They did not get along The Vietnamese considered the president inferior to the king because he was elected Because of lack of diving mandate And restrictions on power Month of unproductive discussions But was able to get treaties with Muscat and Siam Then died of cholera Jackson also wanted to explore the South Pole Falkland Islands Americans had shed there for years In the early 18205 Buenos Aires laid claim to the islands Established a colony of exconvicts In 1831 sailors violated orders not to be there Ships were seed The USS Lexington The General neutralized Argentine defense declared the islands with government placed the settlers under arrest and took several hostages 0 Jackson ended up endorsing this despite it not being what he ordered Pepper Coast 1831 Along the coast of present day Indonesia Malayan pirates attacked an American merchantman on the ship Friendship actual name of the ship I couldn39t make this up if I tried Killed several sailors quotWho is greater now Malay or Americaquot Jackson deployed the fty gun USS Potomac to the East Indies under Capt John Downs To demand indemnity and restitution of stolen property Foreign policy of the 18305 Nation s contempt for quotlesserquot peoples Its determination to demand respect Conviction that military force could be used to alter the behavior of others Further attacks along the Pepper Coast proved that Downs wasn39t truly successful Jackson and Native Americans Calhoun quotIndians are in fact nor ought to be considered as intendant nationsquot 1818 Ironically the main targets of removal the quotFive Civilized Tribesquot had done the most to assimilate Jackson concluded that it was impossible for separate peoples to exist in the same place This was his way to quotsave the Indians from annihilationquot 1830 Congress passed a thin margin bill for removal and it was in theory voluntary Jackson said that the would not remove lndians that conformed to state law State officials ignored this When the Cherokee and Creeks sued the US his response was to keep the tribes quotto their fate and annihilationquot 46000 Native Americans were forced across the Mississippi Cherokees resisted the longest so they were put in camps Jackson also tried to push back the frontiers of Mexico Butler diplomatic mission was a low point ofJackson39s diplomacy Butler was to get Texas quotby means fair or foulquot Butler misread negotiations Urged Jackson to occupy parts of Texas which Jackson rejected lnstead Butler wanted an encoded communication of bribery Jackson was even taken aback at this Revolution among Americans in Texas April 1836 Battle of San Jacinto Asked for recognition and annexation Jackson demurred Afraid about the conversation over extra slave territory which was splitting the democratic base at that time Mach 1837 Jackson in one of his nal acts recognized the Republic of Texas Left annexation for another day Primary Sources Federalist Papers 10 To the People of the State of New York Madison A Republic government is superior to a democratic government More factions is good With more representation and more people A union can break and control the violence of faction The instability injustice and confusion introduced into the public councils have in truth been the mortal diseases under which popular government everywhere have pe shed Complaints of the confederation system include That our government are too unstable That the public good is disregarded in the con icts of rival parties That measures are often decided not by rules and justice but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority Problem faction Liberty encourages factions But we need liberty Liberty is to faction as air is to ame too much ame is bad but we cannot get rid of air 9 Unwise Problem man s reasoning is fallible His opinions and his passions will have a reciprocal in uence on each other But we need to have a government that protects all these faculties It39s his private property the latent cause of faction are thus sown in the nature of man And man is very likely to fall into mutual animosities with one another But the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property Everyone looks out for their own interest 9 So a body of man cannot be their own judges It is vain to say that enlightened statement will be able to adjust these clashing interest and render them all subservient to the public good 9 The causes of factions cannot be removed and that relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects The majority having such cohesitant passion or interest must be rendered by third number and local situation unable to concert and carry into effect schemes of oppression A republic promises the care for which we are seeking quotUnder such a regulation it may well happen that the public voice pronounced by the representatives of the people will be more consonant to the public good than if pronounced by the people themselves convened for the purposequot Because men are voted in only men who possess the most attractive merit will be given power The federal constitution forms a happy combination in this respect the great and aggregate interest being referred to the national the local and particular to the state legislatures The larger the republic the more opinions and factions which is good quotA religious sect may degenerate into a political faction in a part of the Confederacy but the variety of sects dispersed over the entire face of it must secure the national Councils against any danger from that sourcequot George Washington s Farewell Address The more you have foreign in uence The more that voice will in uence the people and incite opposing opinions and create new factions Also if you are trying to expand an alliance will not allow you to do so it will distract you from the task plus they won t want you to expand We are already weak at this time easily abused by an alliance our political system could be threatened 9 Neutrality as a means of power and of strength Neutral commerce Engage in markets with democracies monarchies totalitarian dictatorships doesn39t matter The US needs to become a commercial power The greatest threat at the time was foreign in uence This is a paper about nation building Wants to separate economic policy and foreign policy Strong commerce was essential for the US to become stronger Friends and Citizens and am persuaded whatever partiality may be retained for my services that in the present circumstances of our country you will not disapprove my determination to retire the support of your tranquility at home your peace abroad of your safety of your prosperity of that very liberty which you so highly prize But as it is easy to foresee that from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively though often covertly and insidiously directed it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness that you should cherish a cordial habitual and immovable attachment to it accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest With slight shades of difference you have the same religion manners habits and political principles You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels and joint efforts of common dangers sufferings and successes The government should be a concentrated policy He wants to expand economically but not so much in space These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions will afford a happy issue to the experiment It is well worth a fair and full experiment With such powerful and obvious motives to union affecting all parts of our country while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations They serve to organize faction to give it an artificial and extraordinary force to put in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community and according to the alternate triumphs of different parties to make the public administration the mirror of the ill concerted and incongruous projects of faction rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests they are likely in the course of time and things to become potent engines by which cunning ambitious destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion Let me now take a more comprehensive view and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally From their natural tendency it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose And there being constant danger of excess the effort ought to be by force of public opinion to mitigate and assuage it A fire not to be quenched it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame lest instead of warming it should consume ln proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion it is essential that Manifest Destiny The American people having derived their origin from many other nations and the Declaration of National Independence being entirely based on the great principle of human equality these facts demonstrate at once our disconnected position as regards any other nation that we have in reality but little connection with the past history of any of them and still less with all antiquity its glories or its crimes On the contrary our national birth was the beginning of a new history the formation and progress of an untried political system and so far as regards the entire development of the natural rights of man in moral political and national life we may con dently assume that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity What philanthropist can contemplate the oppressions the cruelties and injustice in icted by them on the masses of mankind and not turn with moral horror from the retrospect Ideas of race religion and the republic Themes of US having an abundance of liberty that aids in its expansion ldeaHs c To the edge of the continent that is our destiny Compare this to Ezra stiles and Josia strong pulls upon this later America is destined for better deeds It is our unparalleled glory that we have no reminiscences of battle elds but in defense of humanity of the oppressed of all nations of the rights of conscience the rights of personal enfranchisement where men were led on by hundreds of thousands to slay one another dupes and victims to emperors kings nobles demons in the human form called heroes We have had patriots to defend our homes our liberties but no aspirants to crowns or thrones nor have the American people ever suffered themselves to be led on by wicked ambition to depopulate the land to spread desolation far and wide that a human being might be placed on a seat of supremacy Equality of rights is the cynosure of our union of States the grand exemplar of the correlative equality of individuals and while truth sheds its effulgence we cannot retrograde without dissolving the one and subverting the other We must onward to the ful lment of our mission to the entire development of the principle of our organization freedom of conscience freedom of person freedom of trade and business pursuits universality of freedom and equality This is our high destiny and in nature39s eternal inevitable decree of cause and effect we must accomplish it All this will be our future history to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man the immutable truth and bene cence of God For this blessed mission to the nations of the world which are shut out from the lifegiving light of truth has America been chosen and her high example shall smite unto death the tyranny of kings hierarchs and oligarchs and carry the glad tidings of peace and good will where myriads now endure an existence scarcely more enviable than that of beasts of the eld Who then can doubt that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity The Monroe Doctrine refer to the Great Dilemma It was stated at the commencement of the last session that a great effort was then making in Spain and Portugal to improve the condition of the people of those countries and that it appeared to be conducted with extraordinary moderation I E 393 E 7 F3 7 E D 0 D lt D 3 PP U 5 FF 7 0 FF 0 c 0 f I39 D 0 FF 7 D 9 o 039 D I have so much intercourse and from which we derive our origin we have always been anxious and interested spectators The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellow men on that side of the Atlantic It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense We are a separate sphere from Europe Do not come into our sphere and we will not come into yours Expansionist policy we want to exert our in uence throughout a hemisphere Foreign Policy 1865 1888 Material basis for new American approach Before 1865 it was reactive now it is proactive Also ideological basis for new American foreign policy Fared Thayer Mahan Naval of cer and professor at the Naval War College quotMost important strategist of the 19th cquot Argues that sea power was the driving force behind history About who was in power and who was subjected to it quotThe In uence of Sea Power upon Historyquot Neutral commerce like George Washington Wells quotThe Problem of overproductionquot In response to the boom and bust of the second industrial revolution ldea that the economic dynamo is producing too much for domestic consumption Put new pressures on the government 0 To intervene abroad to protect American commerce 0 Ex National Association of Manufacturers Feared that European countries would block American companies from entering their markets Alfred Mahon the In uence of Sea Power upon History Such colonies the United States has not and is not likely to have As regards purely military naval stations the feeling of her people was probably accurately expressed by an historian of the English navy a hundred years ago speaking then of Gibraltar and Port Mahon quotMilitary governmentsquot said he quotagree so little With the industry of a trading people and are in themselves so repugnant to the genius of the British people that I do not wonder that men of good sense and of all parties have inclined to give up these as Tangiers was given upquot Having To provide resting places for them where they can coal and repair would be one of the first duties of a government proposing to itself the development of the power of the nation at sea to build up for the nation a navy which if not capable of reaching distant countries shall at least be able to keep clear the chief approaches to its own The eyes of the country have for a quarter of a century been turned from the sea the results of such a policy and of its opposite will be shown in the instance of France and of England Without asserting a narrow parallelism between the case of the United States and either of these it may safely be said that it is essential to the welfare of the In order to do this the enemy must be kept not only out of our ports but far away from our coasts Favors neutral commerce Written during the second industrial revolution Newly developed steel rails electric light steam engine al made transport cheaper and more ef cient Modernization of agriculture American farming made more productive through harvesting machines Boom and bust period Panic of 1873 Panic of 1893 The Long Depression 1112 unemployment Serious de ation Constant anxiety about how sustainable growth would be Frederick Jackson Turner Frontier was critical to the preservation of American exceptionalism Relates to Mahon Mahon pulled from his work Frontier allowed the US to cut themselves lose from old European customs The quotfreequot land contributed to American character American optimism Created a single nationality for Americans EXPANSIONIST ENERGEIES WOULD CONTINUE ONCE THE FRONTIER CLOSED 0 Foreign policy would be based on expansionism Josiah Strong Anglo Saxon Says Rawlinson quotIt is a general rule now almost universally admitted by ethnologists that the mixed races of mankind are superior to the pure onesquot and adds quotEven the Jews who are so often cited as an example of a race at once pure and strong may with more reason be adduced on the opposite side of the argumentquot The ancient Egyptians the Greeks and the Romans were all mixed races Among modem races the most conspicuous example is afforded by the AngloSaxons There is here a new comminging of races and while the largest injections of foreign blood are substantially the same elements that constituted the original AngloSaxon admixture so that we may infer the general type will be preserved there are strains of other bloods being added which if Mr Emerson39s remark is true that quotthe best nations are those most widely relatedquot may be expected to improve the stock and aid it to a higher destiny American protestant clergyman Lobbied for American predominance AngloSaxons represent civil liberty and a pure Christian identity AngloSaxon race is already dominant in the land mass it controls and the population it has AngloSaxon in US vs Anglo Saxon in GB The separation of the church and state preserves spiritual life in the US In the US there is an evolution occurring of a superior AngloSaxon race The time is coming when population will pressure the boundaries of land so we need to expand Brooks Adams Critic of capitalism Law of civil sati and decay Start with a barbaric society dominated by clerics and warrior Leads to an economic society Expends more energy than it consumes You have to conquer new sources of energy he believed these to be in Asia Richard Onley American Jurisdiction Sir I am directed by the President to communicate to you his views upon a subject to which he has given much anxious thought and respecting which he has not reached a conclusion without a lively sense of its great importance as well as of the serious responsibility involved in any action now to be taken through an agreement with her adversary either upon the subject itself or upon an arbitration with varying claims on the part of Great Britain during which period many earnest and persistent efforts of Venezuela to establish a boundary by agreement have proved unsuccessful Onley says we have to intervene British and Venezuela are disputing over islands Interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine The SpanishAmericanCubanPhilippines War 1898 The US has the 4th largest army in the world Perhaps they were following Mahan and Wells advice Annexation of Hawaii Expanding its reach Overthrew of Queen Liliuokalani In 1893 McKinley Decision to annex 1898 Prelude to War Cuban War of Independence 1 Growing American economic investment leads to closer ties with United States Cuba starts to become more dependent on US to become independent from Spain economically Cubans started to see fewer reasons for Spanish rule 2 Rise of Cuban nationalism due to developing middle class and anti Spanish sentiment People who used to be plantation owners moved to cities D growing urban middle class McKinley Strained relationship with Spain Valeriano Weyler Sent from Spain quotButcher Weylerquot Worsens the situation Dupuy De Lome Letter A letter written by Spanish foreign minister in Washington Calls McKinley weak and says that he won t go to war no matter what Letter is captured Press argues that quotAmerica39s national honor is being violatedquot Sinking of the Maine Maine had been sent to Cuba to protect American property Feb 15 1898 it sinks In 1976 an investigation said it failed due to an internal combustion But in 1898 they blamed the Spanish De Lome Letter Sinking of the Maine Popular Uproar by the American People Arouments for War Spain seen as barbaric Cisneros is imprisoned she is a Cuban revolutionary An American correspondent travels to Cuba to get her released Reinforces the image of Cuba as a damsel in distress The US as a moral obligation to rescue Cuba And people that oppose the war as seen as damaging American honor McKinley is portrayed as being too weak People think it39s because of business interest there which is damaging to McKinley McKinley at War Becomes a war for expansion Dewey Fights at Manila bay Spanish are dealt a signi cant defeat October December Cuba was declared independent Achieved because of Teer amendment US could not get Cuba this was legislation designed by the antiimperialists in the legislative branch in the US Puerto Rico and Philippines were ceded to the US This is new we had never acquired territories in such a way Now that these territories have been ceded what do you do with them How do you rule them Does this make America an Empire And if so how does it claim to be different from the empires you escaped from Patt Amendment Cuba would be independent But US has some rights US has the right to intervene in Cuban affair 5 Cuba cannot acquire foreign debt Because during the late 19th century many Latin American countries were falling into debt and falling under in uence of the European power Trade with Cuba increases Emiio Aguinaldo First president of the Philippines Right before the annexation he was elected Which would be invalidated by the annexation Violent war 0 Revolution was suppressed o Aguinaldo was imprisoned 120000 Americans fought 4000 killed 200000 Philippines died Nation Building in the Philippines Supervision of municipal government Educational reforms Educate 10 of students Economic development programs Nation Building Easier to protect American commerce with china Idea that America can transform other countries And can transform the peoples of Asia Albert Beverage The March of the Flag Therefore in this campaign the question is larger than a party question It is an American question It is a world question The Opposition tells us that we ought not to govern a people without their consent I answer the rule of liberty we govern the Indians without their consent we govern our territories without their consent we govern our children without their consent Would not the people of the Philippines prefer the just humane civilizing government of this Republic to the They ask us how we shall govern these new possessions I answer Out of local conditions and the necessities of the case methods of government will grow If they can supervise protectorates so can America Why is it more dif cult to administer Hawaii than Nevis Mexico or California Both had a savage and an alien population both were more remote from the seat of government when they came under our dominion than the Philippines are today Argued for imperialism Wanted to spread civilization and democracy Wants to make imperialism look like a continuation American traditions Selfgovernment for the capable Cuba is not considered capable Distance and oceans are no arguments The fact that all the territory our fathers bought and seized is contiguous is no argument In 1819 Florida was farther from New York than Porto Rico is from Chicago today Texas farther from Washington in 1845 than Hawaii is from Boston in 1898 California more inaccessible in 1847 than the Philippines are now The ocean does not separate us from lands of our duty and desire the oceans join us rivers never to be dredged and canals never to be re paired Steam joins us electricity joins usthe very elements are in league with our destiny Cuba not contiguous Porto Rico not contiguous Hawaii and the Philippines no contiguous The oceans make them contiguous And our navy will make them contiguous Refers to God Believes it is a God given right and mission There are so many real things to be donecanals to be dug railways to be laid forests to be felled cities to be built elds to be tilled markets to be won ships to be launched peoples to be saved civilization to be proclaimed and the Rag of liberty Hung to the eager air of every sea Is this an hour to waste upon tri ers with nature39s laws It is a moment to realize the opportunities fate has opened to us And so is all hour for us to stand by the Government Henry Cabot Lodge For Intervention in Cuba l UNITED WITH THE REST of the Committee on Foreign Relations with a single exception in reporting the concurrent resolution which is now before the Senate I will say however with perfect frankness that l for one should be very glad if the Senate should see t to go further in this direction for I believe that the time has come when the United States should use their good of ces to bring to an end the deplorable condition of affairs which now exists in the island of Cuba in order to restore peace and give independence to the island which Spain can no longer hold I think there are very few matters which are of more immediate importance to the people of the United States than this not merely because their sympathies are engaged but also because in the condition of that island and in its future are involved large and most serious interests of the United States We know as a matter of fact that the whole of that isand today except where the Spanish eets ride at anchor and where the Spanish armies are encamped is in the hands of the insurgents We know that they have formed a government that they have held two elections that every of cer in the Army holds his commission from the civil government which they have established Spain closed a Protestant chapel in the city of Matanzas The Cubans by their constitution guarantee a free church in a free state They guarantee liberty of conscience They have shown that they could ght well They are now ghting the battle of despair That is the condition today in that island And here we stand motionless a great and powerful country not six hours away from these scenes of useless bloodshed and destruction Therefore Mr President here is a war with terrible characteristics agrant at our very doors We have the power to bring it to an end I believe that the whole American people would welcome steps in that direction We cannot shrug our shoulders and pass by on the other side If that war goes on in Cuba with the added horrors which this new general brings with him the responsibility is on us we cannot escape it William Jennings Bryan Two Speeches on Cuba quotWhen men are excited they talk about what they can do when they are calm they talk about what they ought to doquot Some say that if America is as great as Germany and England shouldn39t it too govern colonies The real question WjB says is whether we can in one hemisphere develop the theory that governments derive their just power from the consent of the governed and at the same time inaugurate support and defend in the other hemisphere a government which derives its authority entirely form superior force quotTo defend forcible annexation on the ground that we are carrying out a religious duty is worse than absurdquot l the meek will inherit the earth the imperialists are certainly not week he doesn39t buy the religious argument but does disprove it with religion quotWe entered the Spanish war as peacemakersquot quotTo buy land is one thing to buy people is anotherquot quotIf we enter upon a colonial policy we must expect to hear the command quotsilencequot If a member of congress attempts to criticize any injustice perpetrated by a government official against a helpless people he will be warned to keep silent lest his critics encourage resistance to American authority in the orientquot quotWe cannot afford to destroy the constitutionquot quotThe desire to be free will be stronger than the desire to enjoy a mere physical existencequot quotThose that call themselves expansionist are really imperialistsquot quotThe democratic party stands for the government of the constitution nowquot Open Door Policy America and Spam leads into Open Door Policy The US wanted access to China and japan Use South and Central America as a footholdstepping stone to that t Open door policy a new concerted effort on the part of the United States to secure Chinese markets and to prevent European powers from overtaking the market 1895 Sino japanese war China lost Spheres of in uence by European powers Russia had Manchuria Germany had harbor Charles Danby jr Emphasis on American overproduction Talks about our goods rails typewriters cotton goods etc are around the world We need to still sell to eastern markets not just to Europe China39s lost in the Sinojapanese war has changed the way that China views the world Made them much more open to dealing with the world US Trade with China Decline in 1870s 1880s Rebounded in 18905 American cotton constituted 5070 of Chinas imports And America was also sending oil to the China Rockefeller Standard Oil Foreign Direct Investment Ie railroad American Asiatic association Lobbies the government to open up train Speci cally in china Danby is playing a more powerful role Growing In uence of Christian Missionaries Create nationalism Via instiIIing American progressive ideaIs To make the state stronger Missionaries in china have a great and benign impact Believes in the future of china like deny Boxer Rebellion Situation American interest had grown in Chain during the 18905 Little interest in China during the gilded age After the SinoJapanese war it became pertinent to protect American interests in Chinese ports In ux of Christian missionaries to the area Flouted Chinese tradition Provoked more anger At odds with Confucianism and threated the elites They along with the Chinese hands a diplomatic group that wanted to westernize China called for American help against violent attacks 0 Secretary of State OIney in 1895 was nally in a position to demand that China took responsibility for the American people within And he sent in more navy forces to support his words 1899 Open Door Note Under McKinley s presidency Secretary Hay quotIt would convince expansionists that the United States was prepared to live up to its responsibilities as an Asian power and in addition it could be a 39trump card for the administration and crush all the life out of the antiimperialist agitation39quot Urged the spheres of in uence to lessen their spheres to allow a free market Not to discriminate against het commerce of other nations within the spheres of in uence Sphere of In uence in China Worsened the economy for the locals greater poverty Combined with drought Many became sympathetic to the antiforeigners cause Bad harvests food plague The Event 1900 Chinese attempt to drive all foreigners from China Were upset about the spheres of in uence quotBoxersquot name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the quotRighteous and Harmonious Fistsquot Their mission was to destroy the Qing Dynasty and the Westerners who held a privileged position in it Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 declared war on the foreign powers Siege for 55 days D Countered by an 8 nation alliance that brought their armies to China and won The Great Powers were those involved UK Russia Japan France US Germany Italy and AustriaHungary Met at Tianjin as an 8 nation force of 50000 troops on July 7 1900 McKinley dispatched a China Relief Expedition of 6300 troops from the Philippines to assist in relieving the siege Important because he did this without congressional approval setting the precedent for intervening far from home without the support of the US Pretty bloody battle the Germans particularly aggressive US sent troops to protect China from more foreign intervention In July 1900 Hay issued another Open Door Note Made it clear that the US intention to protect the lives and property of its citizens in China its commitment to lifting the siege of Beijing and its determination not protect quotall legitimate interestsquot quotPermanent safety and peace to China to preserve Chinese territorial and administrative entity And safeguard for the world the principle of equal and impartial tradequot 10000 deaths 250 foreigner nationals mostly missionaries 3000 military personnel killed Most being Chinese Boxer Protocol September 7 1901 Execution of government officials Provisions for foreign troops to be station in Beijing China had to pay indemnity More hand its annual tax revenue so they put it in debt Why does America want to be benign Make other government like us more so we can trade with them Makes us more competitive in china People won t trade with Europe Won39t our costs be lower Why want a sphere of in uence when with an open market we can have all of china Also begins to pressure the Chinese government to modernize its foreign relations John Hay Comes up with the de nite statement of what American policy was The Open Door Notes Set of notes asking the European countries that are involved in china for the following 1 Shipping and railway privileges charge foreigners no more than they charge their own citizens 2 General Chinese tariff collected by Chinese government in all spheres 3 Respect Chinese sovereignty Open Door Policy tried to expand American in uence without creating a formal empire No new territory A vital and important component of American foreign policy in the 20th century The Race for Commercial Supremacy in Asia Hinton History shoes that whatever commercial power posed the east the easier it is to control the world Great Britain has had for 150 years the lion39s share Mr Disraeli advances the idea that the true reason why the in uence of GB had appear to decline in Europe was that in reality it was no longer a European but an Asiatic Empire Britain wants to be truly imperial Britain has to maintain its hold on India For the purpose of improving and increasing their relations with China And to make permanent their control over populations now under their sway Geographically North America has an advantage of GB In regards to proximity to the eastern market And now England clearly perceives this threat So England built railroads from India to China To get from India to Britain is a travel that takes no less than 40 days Asiatic form of thought religions and sociologist are effete worn out and passing into their dotage China is about to fall to pieces and become prey of Russia Great Britain and France Randomly mentions religion that there have been more Christian missionaries there but that Islam is truly the stronger faith in the region don39t know why that was brought up Even Russia is starting to create Railroads It39s in its infancy but it is there America must represent friendship While Europe represents conquest Create a treaty Promise equality to Chinese The United States will play a different benign role in china America is an open market Lowest cost No quotsphere of in uencequot Danby quotIn china the business is waiting for the railroads to come to themquot Commercial activity that good communication will create is inconceivable The opportunity for investment is much greater than anywhere else It is ready Not like South America resources are there but they have to be harvested To this market China we are its nearest neighbors The people will become more familiar with foreign produced and ingestion and will use them more freely The spark of American enterprise will be moved into china China will be Americanized I Why is that always so great Trade ofJapan is worthy of consideration But not to the same magnitude Also should take a moment to look at Vlad stock Russia Europe has already been working Considering their spheres of in uence Calling their markets in china as tributaries to their own markets Europeans don39t believe in open competition Exclusive spheres of in uence Before American commerce can get there Worries Danby We should have direct lines of ships Open ports to America quotArrangement can easily be made through American agents in China by which vesicles sailing regularly with cargo for Philadelphia Baltimore ore New York can be assured of cargo of their homeward journeyquot The interests of every American citizen are watched by the government china should know this We cannot ignore the Chinese themselves They are born traders The Awakening of China Rev Smith The crusades are the quotheroic age of Europequot Reformation of the sixteenth century was the awakening of Europe During the last 30 years japan has emerged from mist seclusion And renewed its life And now we are looking at the awakening of china quotObviously the great powers of Europe are more bent on making their own fortunate than on aiding China in her needquot Liberalizing in uence missionary work mainly on youth and poor quotTraining in knowledge and virtuequot Training a generation of future leaders And instilling in them American values China moves slowly but that is still progress Makes china selfre ect And think about joining with the Europeans Or at least adopt some of their practices 1901 1913 1901 assassination of McKinley brings Roosevelt into of ce More than any other president before him Teddy argued for a prevalent American role in the world Wealthy background but started as a lowly war politician Formed a volunteer cavalry Rough Riders during Spanish American War famous ride up San Juan Hill Wrote a bio of himself and glori ed his exploits Vice presidency in 1900 election The White House as a Bully Pulpit Believed that the president needed to decide what foreign policies were most in the interests of the nation and should then use white house as bully pulpit to build domestic consensus Centralization of decision making power Teddy was critical in this development assuming greater executive control of foreign affairs Believed that sometimes you needed to get around the 23 senate vote and just have agreements between heads of state Executive agreements agreements between the US president and a foreign head of state Strenuous Life Speech quotThe army and the navy are the sword and the shield the nation must carry if she is to do her dutyquot Idea of duty the duty to protect other nations and their democracies a moral obligation to become active in international affairs and become active in shaping world affairs and history We can39t be isolationists British colonialism is bene cial to the world as a whole because it advances western civilization and ideas How is Roosevelt39s view of imperialism different Many predecessors believed that imperialism was bad and that the US was better than the Europeans for not being imperialistic Teddy s focus is much less on the commercial effects Origins of AngloAmerican community start with Theodore Roosevelt Country he praises the most is Great Britain Idea of civilization Panama Canal HayHarran treaty January 23 1903 November 1903 Panamanian separatists declare independence USS Nashville sent to assist Separatists Americans really wanted the canal because they shipped a lot of shit and wanted an easier way to do so Got the rights to build the canal for like 40 million from France had to then negotiate with Colombia hence the Treaty HayBunauVarilla Treaty November 18 1903 US receives exclusive possession of Canal Zone 5 miles on each side of canal in perpetuity Canal completed in 1914 TR39s case for supporting the Panamanian revolution Canal is not only about spreading commerce or US interests but about spreading civilization throughout the globe The US has an obligation to get involved Justifying American diplomacy that uses economic might and military power to shape events The Roosevelt Corollary TR39s greatest foreign policy accomplishment 1902 Venezuelan crisis Intervention 3 euro countries blockade until Venezuela agrees to pay off its debts to the European Powers The US was bothered by the way that the European powers decided to act in the western hemisphere Crisis in Santo DomingoDR similar to Venezuelan crisis couldn39t pay off debts TR decided that US should act rst Troops seized customs houses and used the money to pay the debts to Europe Satis ed TR and Europe US has right of international police power in Western Hemisphere The US doesn39t interfere for their own bene t but for everyone else39s The US will intervene when countries in the western hemisphere are acting in a way that we consider uncivilized when they aren39t ful lling their moral obligation RussoJapanese War 19041905 Japan attacks Russian positions in Port Arthur and Manchuria after Tsar Nicholas refuses to recognize Japanese special interest in Manchuria Moscow really wanted warm water ports A whiteEuropean power is humbled for the rst time ever basically Roosevelt39s Letter to Cecil Arthur Rice Treaty of Portsmouth Japan special rights in Korea recognized Japan gains control over southern half of Sakhalin Islands Russia does not have to pay indemnity All sides af rm support for Open Door Roosevelt realizes that there needs to be some sort of formal understanding with Japan TaftKatsura Agreement Not really an quotagreementquot but a series of notes Taft recognized thatJapanese protectorate over Korea would be bene cial Japan claimed no aggressive designs on Philippines Negotiations conducted in secrecy not discovered until 1924 by historian Tyler Dennett Roosevelt recognized that it wasn t undesirable forJapan to have an empire because japan was a civilized country This treaty however was recognized as betrayal by the Koreans Why Gentlemen39s Agreement Japanese immigration to US had been increasing since the 18605 A lot of hostility at the time Japanese and Korean exclusion league Efforts to ban Japanese and Korean children from San Francisco Schools Japan denounced segregation TR negotiates with San Francisco School Board Japanese immigration will stop if Japanese children are allowed to attend public schools Negotiates with Japan and Japan agrees to not allow emigration to US ifJapanese people in America are treated equally Text Notes Chapter 9 Roosevelt promoted what he called quotcivilizationquot through such diverse ventures as building the Panama Can managing the nation39s imperial holdings in the Philippines and the Caribbean and even mediating greatpower disputes and wars 19005 represented a high water mark of imperialism 1901 The great powers held 140 colonies protectorates and dependencies covering 23 of the earth s surface Russo Japanese war 19041905 further jostles an already wobbly international system Russia39s lost gave Germany and edge Remember this is what inspired movements in the Middle East as well constitutional revolution power ofJapan was also inspiring Russia revolution in 1905 Manchu regime in china was overthrown in 1911 Revolutions in Mexico and Iran Almost 8 million immigrants entered the US during the Roosevelt presidency alone By 1910 America s twelve largest cities had populations 13 foreign born At the turn of the century the spirit of America was unbound optimism and unalloyed exuberance People were traveling more Led to the professional Foreign Service and improved foreign language skills Many citizens agreed that their national39s status as a world power entailed global responsibilities Ex San Franciscans contributed 10000 to victims of an earthquake in Chile Ex in 1902 Roosevelt set aside 500000 for victims of an earthquake on the islands of Martinique and St Vincent Teddy Roosevelt And egoist Knew how to work the press Youngest president at this time Flair for diplomacy Seen as an imperialist except in the cold war he was seen as a realist Loved Alfred Thayer Mahan naval of cer who wrote that bases were like colonies and are vital to survival Root father of the modern US arm y Crated the Army war College in 1903 Became secretary of State Roosevelt expanded consul offices Diplomats as well as consuls could serve the demands of an expanding commerce Consuls and diplomats were selected y examination carefully evaluate dandy promote don the basis of performance Strong emphasis on languages Jews Russia persecution ofJews became an especially volatile issue in the early 20th century y Lire numbers ofJews emigrated other US from Russia and Eastern Europe Russian gov viewed Jews as a source of revolution So it wouldn39t allow them to visit Then in 1903 47 Jews were killed in Kishinev Major protests in the US and now they were a signi cant voting bloc Roosevelt didn39t know quite what to do so he sent a petition over to the Kremlin rst time that happened Jewish bankers blocked US and European loans to Russia for the art with Japan and helped the Japanese secure funds American Jews wanted appropriation Got it under Taft Didn t do much Chinese were angry too Boycotted in 1904 Fizzled out but it was a good indicator of rising nationalism that would result in revolution soon Exclusionist continued to control the Congress so not much changed in the US Americans continued to treat Chinese badly US sought to appease the Chinese then by remitting the indemnity imposed after the Boxer Rebellion Provided a substitute for congress39s refusal to modify the exclusion laws For merchants and missionaries who sought to extend US in uence and trade in China it offers a means to palliate the indignation of the chines e quotUsed to make china do some of the things we wantquot Like reinvesting in American schools in china so the Chinese don39t go tojapan Japan 1907 Sustained war scare In ux ofJapanese workers mostly from Hawaii quotHordes of immigrants form a nation that had just hashed a European powerquot In 1906 the San Francisco School Board has segregated schools for Chinese Koreans and Japanese students Japanese protested this thought Washington could really do something but it can39t interfere in such state issuesquot 0 Roosevelt mishandled the issue He shared the prejudices of the Californians Although he respected the Japanese Saw a threat ofJapanese to the Philippines and Hawaii Then he tried to charm the Japanese into accepting a treaty providing for the mutual exclusion of laborers they took offense at this obviously one sided treaty 0 He secured from Congress legislation banning immigration from Hawaii Canada and Mexico To stop the in ux ofJapanese without singling them out by name With this leverage the prevent the Californian legislature form passing further discriminatory legislature Then set the Great White Fleet to Japan as a show of force Warmly received byJapan Japan stopped the flow of laborers Then Roosevelt leaves of ce Carnegie believed that the wealth must assume responsibility for making the world a better place Thus his endowment for peace Although while focused on international relations the peace seekers were rmly ethnocentric Wanted to spread American ideals Roosevelt between 19041905 signed arbitrations with major European countries and japan Meeting at The Hague Outlawed some weapons People wanted a regular meeting of the Met again in the summer of 1907 44 nations came together Japanese Russo war 19041905 First Roosevelt wanted japan to win Wanted Russia held back thought they were getting to far into asia0 But then Japan was winning And it looked like another plundering of China opportunity So he called them to the rabble After Russian defeat at Tsushima in May 1905 the Tsar nally agreed to come to the table Japan wanted to be rid of its dependency on US bankers So it wanted a large indemnity and the retention of Manchuria Russia didn39t want to compromise Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905 Japan got Port Arthur southern Sakhalin Russia and recognition of the sphere of in uence in Korea Manchuria was left open Russian American relations already strained over the Jewish issue were further poisoned France and Germany France wanted Morocco Germany already had interests there GB had to step in for France Germany had a rallying call for war but was simultaneously asking the US to intercede Roosevelt didn39t want to isolate France and GB But saw that there was a threat of world con agration So he altered the Monroe Doctrine to mean that the US could intervene in European matters that affected its security Conference open in 1906 in Algeciras Spain Puerto Rico Came to assume exaggerated importance in American eyes Aces to guard the canal Transit point for the growth of the US and trade in LA Expansion of sugar production would reduce dependence on Europe for a vital consumer product Racism made integration of Puerto Rico impossible 1901 the Supreme Court ruled in the Insular Case that the US could govern the island without the consent of the people The US then tariffed its imports Only allowed landed males to vote disenfranchised 75 of the population Puerto Ricans were taught vocation skills so they would be good laborers Tax collection became more ef cient Island was integrated into the US economy So it became a reasonably divers agricultural economy into one based one largescale sugar production Road and health care improved Education improved But they were force fed English Many refused clung to Spanish and were illiterate instead Panama Canal Panamanians wanted independence Colombians wanted territory America wanted a canal panama also wanted American backing BunauVarilla encouraged revolting Panamanians He feared going home empty handed And was outraged at Columbia s obstruction Roosevelt and Hay dealt with Burnau discreetly they knew they wouldn39t have to incite a revolution he already wanted to So they made it clear that they would not obstruct a revolt Panama revolted and the US sped up the process of its legitimacy Recognized the new state very quickly Help with the constitution Blocked Columbians from accessing the port for a little US got panama territory for the canal Paid as they would have paid Columbia And Panama got US promise of protection for its newly own independence Essentially the public felt that the noble ends justi ed the dubious means Latin American nations had contracted sizeable foreign debts And private citizens of the Western nations mounted growing claims against Latin government Some claims were legitimate some spurious most in ated But gunboat diplomacy government were not disposed to discarnate and often backed their citizens with force Roosevelt Corollary Announced on the anniversary of Cuba39s independence quotAny country whose people conduct themselves well can count on our hearty friendlinessquot quotBut brutal wrongdoing or an impotence which resulted in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society May nally require intervention by some civilized society and in the Western Hemisphere the United States cannot ignore this dutyquot 1904 the Dominican Republic Verge of anarchy Could not repay debts to any foreign loan sharks Dictator Carlos Morales irted with saving himself by inning a longterm US protectorate US provided a quotneocolonial substitutequot Roosevelt had no interest in annexation The Dominican experiment brought together diplomats nancial express and bankers as a scienti c method to promote stability The US government was midwife bringing in economist Hollander who had already revamped Puerto Rico39s nances to scale back the Dominican debt to improve tax collection and limit expenditures US got control over custom houses Which would ensure regular payment to foreign creditors and the availability of funds for domestic needs Stabilization of the economy would encourage US investment which in turn would promote economic development Dollar Diplomacy The Dominican experiment was formalized under Taft They were to climate European in uence and promote US political stability scal responsibility and economic development US bankers would oat loans to pay off European creditors The loans in turn would provide leverage for US experts to modernize the backward economies left over from Spanish rule by imposing the gold standard based on the dollar updating the tax structure and improving tax collection Nicaragua Meanwhile dictator Belaya is upset that Nicaragua wasn t chose as the location for the canal So he threatens to work with European powers He also wanted to dominate central amerce threating in to invade El Salvador in 1909 He then had to ee US said they would hunt him and in the meanwhile worked with Diaz China Theodore wasn39t very interested in China Was constantly worried about Philippines Taft differed he saw Manchuria and Asia as great economic opportunities for the US Especially to thwart Japanese expansion US supported a transManchurian rail road to counter Russian and Japanese aggression Accidentally drove Japan and Russia together Problem Economic nationalism Thinly valid imperialism Getting loaned approved was dif cult Teddy Roosevelt for the Panama Canal Revolution in 1903 Columbia cannot secure its own stability Under such circumstances the Government of the United States would have even guilty of folly and weaknesses amounting in their sum to crime against the Nann The greet enterprise of building the interoceanic canal cannot be held up to gratify the whims or out of respect to the governmental impotence The possession of a territory fraught with such peculiar capacities as the Isthmus in question carries with it obligation no mankind The canal cannot be built by private enterprise it must be built by the United States Panamian right to selfdetermination Columbia could not control its own people The Canal was a path to expanding civilization Colombia39s Grievances 1904 The US threatened to attack any Columbian forces that went to Panama to suppress the rebellion The revolution would not have taken place if the American sailors and the agents of the Panama Canal had not prevented the Colombian commander in chief from proceeding onward to panama America accused Colombia of not building the canal as to obtain a greater amount of money form the American government Colombia thinks this is unfair and groundless Teddy Roosevelt Speech at Charleston Mn President Mn Mayor and you the men and women of the Palmetto State men and women of the South my fellowcitizens of the Union A few months ago owing to the enforced absence of the Governor of the Philippines it became necessary to nominate a ViceGovernor to take his place one of the most important places in our Government at this time I nominated as ViceGovernor an exConfederate General Luke Wright of Tennessee It is therefore an exConfederate who now stands as the exponent of this Government and this people in that great group of islands in the eastern seas over which the American flag oats General Wright has taken a leading part in the work of steadily bringing order and peace out of the bloody chaos in which we found the islands Our critics abroad and at home have insisted that we never intended to leave the island But on the 20th of next month Cuba becomes a free republic and we turn over to the islanders the control of their own government It would be very dif cult to nd a parallel in the conduct of any other great state that has occupied such a position as ours We have kept our word and done our duty just as an honest individual in private life keeps his word and does his duty Keep in Mind Platt Amendment 1901 Forbade Cuba from entering treaties with anyone else besides the US The US is patronizing Cuba and the Philippines Little or no independence left in Cuba in the plat agreement Roosevelt to George Trevelyan Japanese always do what they say they will very reliable In the negotiations the Japanese made but one mistake their whole demand for an indemnity was a bluff Hopes that Russia will now take some steps no matter how short along the road of selfgovernment and orderly liberty Witte is the best man that Russia could have at the head of her affairs at present Struck teddy as a sel sh man However he interested him These reformers preeminently Tolstoy lack sanity and it is very dif cult to do decent reform work Taft Dollar Diplomacy Late 19th early 20th century investment banks became industrialized Using money for railroads Increased cooperation between public and private sector 19061907 TR asked Morgan for nancial advice Taft Federal judge Governor of the Philippines Interested in development TR secretary of war Handpicked successor There would later be a foreign policy split between TR and Taft Taft believed that it was the us duty to help developing nations using economic incentive not force wanted to spread civilization Honduras Had seen indebted to GB But the US had mining and fruit interest Taft saw that the repetitive debt to GB as damaging to Honduras because they did not have the productive means to pay back loans US needs to take control of custom houses and teach the people how to manage their economy Wanted to remove dependency on euro creditors Knox pardon Loan Convention 1911 US loans Honduran money US gets lot of control over Honduran economy Honduran has to employ US advisors Nicaragua Zelaya imposed a tax on business and acted against us business interest Betrayed us power in region too stress Honduras to allow European powers to build a canal in Nicaragua US supports revolution against Eloy o Replaces him with Diaz uses loan to turn Niangua protocentraic than technocrats to manage economy Asked for US loan and assistance Technocrats were to manage the economy Should be US policy to help neighbors remove condition of instability to keep Europeans out Protect investment in panama canals Result in stable western hemisphere Liberia Funded by former slave colonies Perceived as America s word In debt to GB Con ict with Britain and France because it was were surrounded by their colonies US special interest in Liberian power China Collapse of Qin dynasty Xinhua revolution 1911 Yassin forced to cede power to Yuan Shakti 1912 to create military government They had to request a loan to pay the debts inherited from the Qing dynast Asked for this form multination banks US and European Rein economic advisors Revenue from Chinese soft monopoly to pay off loans no loans from anyone else Ken Yousef Socialist Argued china s economy was being handed over to foreigners Second revolution in 1913 the government collapses in 1916 Problems economic nationalism congressional opposition of progressive reform Today World bankIMF 905 nancial crisis USAID EU and Greece Marshall Plan Dollar Diplomacy quotsubstituting dollars for bulletsquot To help developing nations Use economic incentive not force Spread civilization Loan Convention for Honduras ln repetitive debt to Great Britain but did not have productive means to pay backloans US needs to take control of Honduran custom houses and teach the people how to manage their economy Remove dependency on European creditors So long as Latin American countries were indebted to Europe the longer that Europe had in uence in the Western Hemisphere One could argue this convention is another interpretation of the Roosevelt CorollaryMonroe Doctrine Loan Convention for Nicaragua Asking US for loan assistance Should be US policy to help neighbors To remove the condition of instability To keep Europe out Protect the investment in the Panama Canal Result in a stable western hemisphere Wilson Era Woodrow Wilson Pioneer in eld of political science President of Princeton University Governor of New Jersey Elected on a domestic reform platform repeated what TR and Taft had said that the US has to intervene Latin America Different from Roosevelt and Taft They saw the LAC as uncivilized HOWEVER what he said and what he did were not exactly the same Mexican Revolution Goes through a variety of different stages Beginning in 1910 Diaz is replace by Madero Madero is overthrown by Huerta Wilson doesn39t like Huerta Because Huerta didn39t like the harsh military dictatorship Refused to recognize Huerta39s government Tampico Affair Crew master of the USS Dolphin were arrested by mistake Huerta refused 21 gun salute So we went and occupied the port of Veracruz Killed 300 Mexicans 15 Americans You know this is what we do when you accidentally make a mistake Carranza Favored by Wilson But neither liked each other Carranza didn39t want to accept American support and the fact that they were occupying Mexican land Carranza wanted them to leave Veracruz Argentina Brazil and Chile step in to negotiate Huerta agrees to step down US agrees to end occupation of Veracruz Pancho Villa Also wanted to become president Became very deeply alienated Turned against the US and felt that Carranza was illegitimate Villa launches a series of border raids across border of New Mexico US responds by sending Pershing to the border against Villa in 1916 Villa escapes capture Japan Wilson and China Japan wants to capture as many of the former German spheres of in uence as possible 1915 Japanese present quot21 Demandsquot to the Chinese government Japan gains control over Manchuria and the Shandong Provinces German sphere of in uence China requires to accethapanese advisors China wasn t supposed to tell anyone Government tells minister to China Paul Reinsch about the demands This de nitely is a threat to American interests in China Violates open door policy Lansing US could not allow question of territorial integrity to lead US into quotinternational entanglementsquot He is a strong realist Wilson wants US to be quotas active as the circumstances permit in showing ourselves to be the champion of the sovereign rights of chinaquot Ironic how we won t sit back at something like this but give us a genocide and we suddenly look away Not against Lansing but wants some show of force Wilson mobilizes Chinese government to checkJapanese imperialism and weaken Japan39s in uence Wilson didn t like Taft39s Loan Consortium Pulls the loan Consortium Encourages investment banks again US acknowledges that Japan has special interests in China Agree to respect quotopen doorquot Agree not to take advantage of World War I to seize more territory WWl Arch Duke Ferdinand Serbian irredentist movement called the Black Hand Wanted Bosnia Herzegovina to be part of Serbia not Austria Hungary Russian support for Slavic independence movements June 28 1914 Zimmerman Telegram Renewed Uboat warfare To Mexico Promised to help Mexico if they would enter the war Declaration of War 1917 April 2 quotWe are not against the German people it is against the German government to free the German peoplequot Woodrow Wilson Peace without Victory The Central Powers united in a reply which stated merely that they were ready to meet their antagonists in conference to discuss terms of peace The Entente Powers have replied much more de nitely and have stated in general terms indeed but with suf cient de niteness to imply details the arrangements guarantees and acts of reparation which they deem to be indispensable conditions of a satisfactory settlement It is inconceivable that the people of the United States should play no part in that great enterprise I am proposing as it were that the nations should with one accord adopt the doctrine of President Monroe as the doctrine of the world that no nation should seek to extend its polity over any other nation or people but that every people should be left free to determine its own polity its own way of development unhindered unthreatened unafraid the little along with the great and powerful There is no entangling alliance in a concert of power When all unite to act in the same sense and with the same purpose all act in the common interest and are free to live their own lives under a common protection You would jeopardize American exceptionalism You would jeopardize internal peace and solidarity They would be divided Between ideological and ethnic ties That39s why Wilson wants to remain neutral Woodrow Wilson War Messages 65th Cong lst Sess Senate Doc No 5 Serial No 7264 Washington DC 1917 pp 38 passim On 3 February 1917 President Wilson addressed Congress to announce that diplomatic Relations with Germany were severed In a Special Session of Congress held on 2 April 1917 President Wilson delivered this 39War Message Four days later Congress overwhelmingly passed the War Resolution which brought the United states into the Great War Gentlemen of the Congress I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because there are serious very serious choices of policy to be made and made immediately which it was neither right nor constitutionally permissible that I should assume the responsibility of making I in ways which it has stirred us very deeply to learn of but the ships and people of other neutral and friendly nations have been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters in the same way The challenge is to all mankind Each nation must decide for itself how it will meet it The choice we make for ourselves must be made with a moderation of counsel and a temperateness of judgment be tting our character and our motives as a nation We must put excited feeling away Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation but only the vindication of right of human right of which we are only a single champion With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragically character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the a partnership of opinion Intrigue would eat its vitals away the plotting39s of inner circles who could plan what they would and render account to no one would be a corruption seated at its very heart Only free peoples can hold their purpose and their honor steady to a common end and prefer the interests of mankind to any narrow interest of their own Wilson 5 First Lusitania Address To Ambassador Gerard Recalling the humane and enlightened attitude hitherto assumed by the Imperial German Government in matters of international right and particularly having learned to recognize the German views and the German in uence in the eld of international obligation as always engaged upon the side ofjustice and humanity and having understood the instructions of the Imperial German Government to its naval commanders to be upon the same plane of human action prescribed by the naval codes of other nations the Government of the United States was loath to believe it It feels it to be its duty therefore to address the Imperial German Government concerning them with the utmost frankness and in the earnest hope that it is not unfortunate impressions which have been created and vindicate once more the position of that Government with regard to the sacred freedom of the seas The Government of the United States therefore desires to call the attention of the Imperial German Government with the utmost earnestness to the fact that the objection to their present method of attack against the trade of their enemies The Government and the people of the United States look to the Imperial German Government forjust prompt and enlightened action in this vital matter with the greater con dence because the United States and Germany are bound together not only for special ties of friendship but also by the explicit stipulations of the treaty of 1828 between the United States and the Kingdom of Prussia Wilson wants people to abide by international law Appeals to the Germans on that premise that they understand the new spirit of war Woodrow Wilson on Latin American Policy 1913 The quotstates lying south of us will now be drawn closer The selfrespect of the Latin American states their achievements deserve nothing but the admiration and applause of the world Interest was extracted from them that would not be extracted from anyone else The department of State in recent months has tried observe them wise In the future they will draw closer It is a very perilous thing to determine the foreign policy of a nation in the terms of material interests Comprehension must be the soil in which shall grow al lathe fruits of friendship Behind all this which is dirham than anything is the thoughtful men of America Taft and TR would say that they are uncivilized and not ful lling their duties to the international community Robert Lansing on American Foreign policy The St Louis platform declares against it Second Mexicans show pride and sense of national honor would not resent severe terms of peace in case of being defeated in a war Third American intervention in Mexico is extremely distasteful to all Latin Americans Fourth would impose conditions which might be found to be serious retrains upon us It implies that it would fall upon the US to clean up the country Fifth also implies that the war would be made primarily in the interest of the Mexican people while the fact is it would be a war forced on us by the Mexican government If we term it quotinterventionquot we will have considerate dif cult in in explain why we did not intervene before but waited until attacked HE JUST DOESN39T WANT TO CALL IT AN INTERVENTION BECAUSE THEY NEVER CAPUTRED PONCHO VILLA Also he sounds like TR and Taft when he says Mexico can t take care of itself Wilson Versailles League of Nations Revolution in Russia Wartime scarcity led to massive strikes and abdication by Czar Nicholas II in March 1917 March to October 1917 rule by weak provisional government Reorganized 4 times but cannot maintain order 7 November 1917 Triumph of Bolsheviks Russia pulls out of war Leninist challenge to Wilsonianism Why do capitalists always seek to divide the world among themselves Why can there be no peace under capitalism There isn39t a broader rule by the proletariat of the world which Lenin believes will bring about a more peaceful international order Capitalism and imperialism are linked according to Lenin There needs to be a response that can capture the attention of the world in the same way that Lenin captured the attention of radicals Wilson needs an appropriate response to Lenin and the Bolsheviks 14 Points speech Wants to make the world safe for the US and for the spread of democracy Selfdetermination will prevail Promising the world that this was not a war fought for the United States39 bene t but to vindicate just principles The object of the war is to remove the things that are damaging peace and freedoms Lenin had said that as long as there was capitalism there couldn39t be world peace Wilson thinks that it39s actually autocracy Wilson is worried that Lenin39s arguments could inspire similar sentiments among America39s allies Debate of liberal capitalism and imperialism transformative impact on the history of humankind long after Wilson and Lenin are dead American leaders have always articulated the idea that it is possible to have a liberal capitalist international system that is peaceful orderly and fair to all of the countries of the world World War I Major Events July 1917 First American troops land in France October 1917 American troops rst engage in combat March 1918 German launch ve offensives to win war before US troops arrive in large numbers halted in lateJune July 1918 US forces stop German advance at ChateauThierry August 1918 Battle of Amiens major allied counteroffensive 100 Day Offensive November 9 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates November 11 Armistice of Compeigne December 13 Wilson arrives in Europe for peace negotiations British objectives Lloyd George Wanted to maintain naval supremacy and remove German maritime threat Maintain British Empire and expand British trade Punish Germany militarily but not economically so that Germany wouldn39t threaten Europe again but so that all of Europe wouldn39t suffer ltalian objectives Vittorio Orlando Had joined the war on the side of the allies in 1915 Had been promised territory in Europe and German colonial possessions French objectives Georges Clemenceau one of Wilson39s most signi cant adversaries Weaken Germany economically AND militarily Receive heavy war reparations France had suffered the most and wanted to be repaid AlsaceLorraine should be returned to France had been ceded to Germany The end of imperialism Wellington Koo Chinese delegation calls for return of Shandong and end of extraterritoriality Korean delegation led by Syngman Rhee calls for end ofjapanese colonialism March 1 Movement and May 4 Movement Treaty of Versailles Germany assumes responsibility for war Strict punitive measures Germany loses 10 of its territory Germany39s colonies distributes among Britain and France as mandates Germany recognizes independence of Czechoslovakia and Poland Covenant of the League of Nations Henry Cabot Lodge and the irreconcilables Lodge was a master of congressional procedures and he did everything he could to slow down the passage of the treaty basically by libustering Fear that the US forces could get pulled into the war German American belief that fatherland was treated too harshly There was a sympathy for China and South Korea and Egypt by members of the senate areas still under colonialism Lodge nally agrees to pass the treaty with reservation Monroe doctrine be respected and Japanese don39t get what they want Wilson refuses Enormous in uence over American foreign policy since Wilson every American president has been all about the liberal capitalism Woodrow Wilson The League of Nations It gives me pleasure to add to this formal reading of the result of our labors that the character of the discussion which occurred at the sittings of the commission was not only of the most constructive but of the most encouraging sort It was obvious throughout our discussions that although there were subjects upon which there were individual differences ofjudgment with regard to the method by which our Inasmuch as I am stating it in the presence of the of cial representatives of the various governments here present including myself I may say that there is a universal feeling that the world cannot rest satis ed with merely of cial guidance and that it is especially agreed that war or international misunderstandings or anything that may lead to friction or trouble is everybody39s business because it may affect the peace of the world 14 Points l Open covenants of peace openly arrived at after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view ll Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas outside territorial waters alike in peace and in war except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants Ill The removal so far as possible of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance IV Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety V A free openminded and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined VI The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing and more than a welcome assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests and of their intelligent and unsel sh sympathy Vll Belgium the whole world will agree must be evacuated and restored without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore con dence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired VIII All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of AlsaceLorraine which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fty years should be righted in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all IX A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality X The peoples of AustriaHungary whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development XI Rumania Serbia and Montenegro should be evacuated occupied territories restored Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into XII The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmoIested opportunity of autonomous development and the DardaneIIes should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees XIII An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant XIV A general association of nations must be formed under speci c covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike n 0 U c n 3 0 0 3 o D 3 D 3 f I39 U o 3 Q n o lt D 3 o 3 f I39 U E D are willing to ght and to continue to ght until they are achieved but only because we wish the right to prevail and desire a just and stable peace such as can be secured only by removing the chief provocations to war which this program does remove We have no jealousy of German greatness and there is nothing in this program that impairs it We grudge her no achievement or distinction of learning or of paci c enterprise such as have made her record very bright and very enviable We do not wish to injure her or to block in any way her legitimate in uence or 39o o E Wants everyone to ght with the same principal Self determination Wanted freedom of the seas LON create a group that could prevent future wars First international organization US couldn39t join congress held back Unless this principle be made its foundation no part of the structure of international justice can stand The people of the United States could act upon no other principle and to the vindication of this principle they are ready to devote their lives their honor and everything they possess The moral climax of this the culminating and nal war for human liberty has come and they are ready to put their own strength their own highest purpose their own integrity and devotion to the test Herbert Hoover on Foreign Trade Vital part of modern economic system exports and imports determine our wellbeing The value of our imports is essentially showing the value and prosperity of our people We can afford expensive things therefore we import expensive things We have shifted drastically from a debtor to a creditor nation Most nations increased tariffs to help with postwar unemployment We can help the world elevate its standard of living THE DIVISION OF THE WORLD AMONG CAPITALIST COMBINES Lenin seize more or less complete possession of the industry of a country But under capitalism the home market is inevitably bound up with the foreign market Capitalism long ago created a world market and towards the formation of international cartels This is a new stage of world concentration of capital and production incomparany higher than the preceding stages Let us see how this super monopoly develops quot as in fact it is called in economic literature On one side the Rockefeller quotoil trustquot wishing to capture everything formed a quotdaughter companyquot right in Holland and bought up oil elds in the Dutch Indies in order to strike at its principal enemy the AngloDutch Shell trust Lenin Capitalists are always seeking to divide the world So each can get more pro t Only through communism can you get peace Targets Wilsonianism Because Wilson believed in liberal capitalism bringing about peace But Lenin felt that would bring disaster Lenin felt that capitalism and imperialism were linked History of the human race Capitalism and peace cannot coexist Modern reference to this would be terrorism Mao etc Foreign Policies of the 19205 19605 onward the idea of isolationism was infect a myth for Americans after WWI The US was very engaged with the rest of the world economically strategically and culturally Mutually reinforcing relationship between the expansion of commerce on one hand and the expansion of peace on the other Web of interdependence More determined to protect the peace Peace would facilitate commerce Herbert Hoover Presidency is remembered as a failure However during the 19205 he was secretary of commerce Promoted American trade abroad Lots of in uence Wanted the government to help companies in seeking in uence abroad quotGovernment can assist American rms in advancing their goods39 Hoover believed that the government should play a direct role But we can also see that Hoover intended this policy to ensure peace and stability quotBy contributing to peace and stability wean contribute to the elevation of standards of living in foreign country and the demand for all goodsquot Trade world peace His policies in 19205 were quite successful Iron and Steel exports doubled Rubber goods quot 600 American lm industry also made spectacular inroads abroad Global Economy Debt was a huge problems Brittan and France had huge war payments to the US And could only do so with payments from Germany This arrangement was threatening to break down by 1922 Germany had defaulted on the US US had pleaded to be lenient France ordered the occupation of the Ruhr coal eld Worried the US Germans found ways to resist Didn39t want the French to bene t So the French currency suddenly collapsed 1924 Germany and France turned this problem over to the US Cooperation between public and private sector became common Passed this on to France and Germany Dawes Plan Coolidge calls to patriotism of the American business man Loans owed from the US to Germany 25 billion Germany played the allies 20 billion Allies paid Americans Coolidge the Dawes plan would foster a secure and enduring peace Locarno pact everyone restated their supported of the Versailles treaty Led to Germany being accepted in the League of Nations Jane Addams and Chatman Cat 1920 election had bee net rst in which women could vote Politicians were eager to please women voters Women stressed the relationship between peace and commerce Peace activists Women religious groups Saw military buildups as the most signi cant threat to international commerce The task of fostering peace proved dif cult Peace disputes in Japan Japan wanted sphere of in uence in China quotWar Plan Orangequot In case of war against Japan Washington Naval Conference 9 powers 5 power treat US Japan France UK Italy Less naval ships Because of peace lobbyists One goal Charles Evan Hughes Secretary of State If there is going to be economic rehabilitation Then we must stop competition in armament Bringing an end to military competition would ensure peace and greater economic prosperity 1928 KelloggBriand Pact Made war illegal as a means of dissolving dispute Impossible to enforce Demonstrative of Americans eagerness to embrace peace American Relief to Russia 1921 Famine struck Russia Hoover sent food as secretary of commerce To gain support from Bolshevik Russia Cold war didn39t start yet so the disagreement in policies was a problem but not explosive yet It was the Great Depression that brought about an end to American peace and promoting American exports Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover Extols US Foreign Trade 1926 39The major strategy of the war was to crush the enemy by depriving him of modern economic systemquot quotOur standard of living and much of the joy of living is absolutely deponent upon certain import commoditiesquot quotThe government can chart the channels of foreign trade and keep them openquot Supports protective tariff There came to all nations a deep resolution to produce as far as possible their essential commodities the struggle is to overcome postwar unemploymentquot quotShift from debtor to a creditor nation upon a gigantic scalequot America39s repayment of war debts will not affect their merchandise movement KelloggBriand Pact Outlaws War 1928 quotCondemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversiesquot quotNever be sought except by paci c meansquot President Coolidge quotGermany has expressed a willingness to cooperate in the execution of the dates planquot quotNothing of more importance has occurred to Europe since the Armisticequot A loan should be made at once to Germany for immediate pressing needs le nancing a bank quotBeginning of a secure and enduring peacequot quotCertainly it would remove any of the present sources of disagreementquot quotProposals have also been undertaken of the con scation of international lawquot quotIt would appear impractical to attempt action under present condition but with a certain and de nite settlement of German reparations rmly established I should favor the calling of a similar conference to achieve such limitation of armaments and initiate plans for a codi cation of international lawquot Charles Even Hughes Secretary of State 1921 If there is to be economic rehabilitation if longing of rejoin progress are not to be denied if war are e spared the uprising of people made desperate in the desire to shake off burdens no longer endurable competing in armament must stopquot Powers should examine the question of limitation on of armament quotIf the present construction of capital ships goes forward other ships will inevitably be built to rival them and this will lead to still othersquot US is to scrap all capital ships being completed now US would have invested 330 million Japan should abandon all ships not yet laid down And scrap some others Great Britain would also scrap ships lt targets the 3 largest navies But the right is more precious than peace and we shall ght for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts for democracy for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments for the rights and liberties of small nations for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free Nations have the right to decide their own government Selfdetermination Mostly means it in Europe Could be and was interpreted much more broadly whoops No more alliances Responsible for all of the wars Wants them gone US Entry into WWII FDR 1933 1945 Took a path from paci sm to war When he took office 1933 he wasn39t very different in foreign policy from Coolidge and hoover World Economics Conference e June 1933 Called to confer on great depression Nan stabilize currency FDR eventually pulled out because he didn39t want to abandon the gold standard Disarmament Conference in 1992 After FDR was elected president but before he stepped into of ce Japan and Manchuria 553316 treaty under Hoover Japan disagreed with the open door policy And as time went one they began to voice this Japan set of an explosion Moved towards Manchuria Stimson Secretary of State Released notes Saying that the US did not recognize and reproach Japans actions in China 1934 Amah Doctrine Claims thatJapan has the right to keep the peace in Asia 1937 War begins China vs Japan at Marco Polo Bridge Japan is trying to extend its empire to all of Asia US doesn39t want to be involved or go to war againstJapan War Plan Orange American plan for how the US would respond if it had to go to war againstJapan Excludes the defense of the Philippines Began under Hoover in 1930s At 1937 the US made this plan less offensive more defensive REALLY didn39t want to go to war Especially not for the sake of the Philippines Japan is making a mockery of the open door policy Italy October 1935 Uses bored con ict between ltalian Somaliland and Ethiopia And marches into Ethiopia 1933 Hitler gains power 1935 Hitler builds up armies against Versailles 1936 Francisco Franco receives tanks from Hitler March 1938 Austrian Anschluss All German speaking nations in Europe should unite under German rule Good Neighbor Policy Promote democracy Stability And commerce All in Western hemisphere Growing isolationist movement in the US Quarantine Speech Made after Neutrality Acts of 1935 1936 and 1937 preventing trade with belligerents Shaming Europe for not having learned anything from WWI Very careful to carefully signal out behavior he doesn39t like Doesn t point nger directly Because GREAT ANTI WAR SENTIMENT Can39t be seen as quotAmerican belligerencequot or as a call to war quotIt is true that the moral consciousness of the world must recognize the importance of removing injustice but it must be aroused to the cardinal necessity of respecting treaties and putting an end to acts of international aggressionquot calling out Germany Relates this to an epidemic aggression as a disease So quarantine the patients against the spread of the disease Don39t send weapons Sanc ons These quotbelligerent countriesquot are sick and so the healthy countries must not interact with them Doesn39t give economic guidance deliberately vague Trying to get the US to accept certain realties about the world that there are countries responsible for the aggression Road to War Munich Agreement September 1938 Spring Hitler had marched into Austria Then Hitler claimed Sudetenland 3 million Germans there But in Czech The agreement of appeasement by Britain and France Hitler is given the Sudetenland In exchange that he wouldn39t seek further territory Didn39t pan out So in March of 1939 Germany invades and takes over all of Czechoslovakia Britain and France sign agreement with Poland that if Poland gets invaded Britain and France will take action in war no matter how horri c Hitler responds with 1 Nazi Soviet NonAggression pact didn39t want a two front war a Guarantees that Germany and the soviet union will not attack each other 2 Invades plan in 1939 September a Beginning of WWII And FDR becomes pessimistic 0 With good reason Public Relations Campaign To convince the American public to ght Convince them that Germany is an aggressor That they need to ght cannot sit by Acts of aggression must be answered Theodore Sues Geiger Dr Sues FDR convinces him to begin cartoons in favor of war To show the folly of isolationism To show the threat of Hitler Charles Lindbergh advocated for isolationism Subject of Seuss39s piece quotAmerica Firstquot an isolationism group Another subject of Seuss39s piece Arsenal of Democracy Tries to get the US out of neutrality acts Cash and Carry sale to belligerents using their own ships Destroyers for Bases Lend Lease Act 1941 FDR really wants the US to get in the war Supplies France Britain and China with food oil and material Had been negotiations between US and Japan But Japan consistently refused to denounce its war effort In June 1941 Hitler attacks Russia Breaks the nonaggression pact And at the same time Japan attacks the European colonies in South East Asia In response to this the US freezes Japanese assets and embargoes petroleum sales to Japan 0 Now in a dif cult situation because it is a resource country Needs the war to end Leads to the attack ofJapan on Pearl Harbor Which then has the US declare War on Japan One Question What would the US ght for in WWII I Hate War Speech Modern weapons of offense are vastly stronger than modern weapons Of defense xed forti cations are no longer impregnable to The attack of war planes heavy mobile artillery land battleships Called tanks Message to the Nations of the World appealing for Peace by Disarmament And the end of Economic Chaos by cable from Washington D C May 16 1933 To these ends the Nations have called two great World Conferences The Happiness the prosperity and the very lives of the men women and Children who inhabit the whole world are bound up in the decisions which Their Governments will make in the near future The improvement of Social conditions the preservation of individual human rights and the Furtherance of social justice are dependent upon these decisions The World Economic Conference will meet soon and The Conference in place of the present chaos By a to raise price levels It must in short Supplement individual domestic programs for economic recovery by wise And considered international action We believe in democracy we believe in freedom we believe in peace We Offer to every Nation of the world the handclasp of the good neighbor Let those who wish our friendship look us in the eye and take our hand Calls for stabilizing currency Calls on the wilsonian concept of free trade Believes this has been undermined by imperialism Keep in mind that Roosevelt is speaking during the Great Depression Roosevelt is worried that establishing a stable currency would deny him his gold standard So while he wanted this later disillusioned he disagreed with the Europeans on sacri cing gold standard Also wants disarmament Pursued policies that were in many ways quite similar to Hoover and Coolidge D obligation to peace Fireside chat on national security and the common cause Washington D C December 29 1940 My friends This is not a reside chat on war It is a talk on national security Because the nub of the whole purpose of your President is to keep you Now and your children later and your grandchildren much later out of A lastditch war for the preservation of American independence and all The things that American independence means to you and to me and to Ours We should enter upon a new and terrible era in which the whole world Our hemisphere included would be run by threats of brute of force To Survive in such a world Need GB to win because they are the naval power And because they are the only barrier between them and Europe And Europe would be the dominate power over the seas lf Britain falls the capacity of the Nazi s to project their power will increase Will force the US to be constantly preparing for war No longer a free market economy Constantly preparing for war Bad for the economy This is the rst time he is admitting danger and present threat by European The United States will be isolated by force America s uniqueness is at stake Let us no longer blind ourselves to the undeniable fact that the evil Forces which have crushed and undermined and corrupted so many others Are already within our own gates Your Government knows much about them And every day is ferreting them out We must be the great arsenal of democracy For us this is an emergency As serious as war itself We must apply ourselves to our task with the Same resolution the same sense of urgency the same spirit of Patriotism and sacri ce as we would show were we at war Disarmament What is an offensive weapon What is a defensive weapon Does it exist Lots of debate on this matter with the Europeans Issue of gold standard is still an issue InterAmerican Conference for the Maintenance of Peace Buenos Aires Argentina December 1 1936 Can we the Republics of the New World Yes I am con dent that we can The US isn39t going to use dollar diplomacy The US isn39t going to use bigstick diplomacy The US is going to try to promote democracy in the western hemisphere Wants to promote stable government NOTHING about economic mechanisms Solely through persuasion To Latin America if you took this approach things would change for the better for our present civilization rests on the basis of an Every Nation of the world has Felt the It is no accident that attempts to be selfsuf cient Have led to falling standards for their people and to everincreasing It is no accident that because of these suicidal policies and The suffering attending them many of their people have come to believe With despair that the price of war seems less than the price of peace Not to organize the economies on the basis of war Western hemisphere needs to pursue an encomia model that is liberal and based on free trade LOWER TARIFF BARRIERS Even if the European powers don39t do it they will be the ones that suffer FDR believes that free trade will promote prosperity Wilson Ian ideals may be collapsing in Europe but that doesn39t have to be true for the Western Hemisphere If then by making war in our midst impossible If we in our generation can Continue its Democratization theory The Good Neighbor policy aims for preserving democracy Freedom of the seas and commerce So eventually in 14 in the world these ideals and institutions will be preserved Then the rest of the world after it had its horri c blood wars it will see the western world and emulate them Relates back to city on a hill But relates it to the entire western hemisphere World War II FDR needs to establish a goal for the war To establish a moral to ght for More than just the observation that what happens in Europe will come to the United States At the end of which we have a 50 nation alliance against Hitler Calling for one peace Not several FDR39s Goals System of collective security System of collective trade Liberalizing nondiscriminatory system of trade and investment Us dominance in western hemisphere Gain in uence in Asia and Middle East European colonial powers will collapse Thus opening new markets to the US Churchill39s Objective Protect British system of imperial preference Even if it isn39t the of cial colonizer It wants to maintain great access To have an advantage in all those markets Ex Japan US should play important role in powerwar era Does this mean that they want responsibility on the US This is a reaction to how Wilson responded with isolationism to the end of WWI Stalin39s Objective remember USSR had been invaded by Napoleon in WWI and by Hitler Stalin is reacting to this Border Security is vital considering its past Hold on to territories in Poland and Baltics From the NaziSoviet Pact Make Russia a dominant power on Eurasian landmass Just as FDR imagined becoming more powerful August 1941 FDR boards the USS Augusta To meet with Churchill Convinces everyone in the media he is going out on vacation four months before we entered the war Would have been dif cult at the time for FDR to announce such a meeting Together they develop the Atlantic Charter It describes what they want the world to look like Public Opinion Atlantic Treaty Yet people still wondered if we are ghting for principals why do we ght with Stalin Incredibly negative impression of Stalin Just at the same time as having a favorable impression of the war was important The Atlantic Charter is written to strengthen American support for the war Both Churchill and FDR were worried about public opinion FDR much more so than Churchill He needed a rallying cry Frication among allies Russia felt it was bearing the brunt of the war in Europe The US felt it was bearing gate brunt of the war in the paci c Russia want the US to open a second front in Europe FDR promises this in 1942 delayed until 1944 So much friction that Russia withdraws ambassadors 0 People fear the Russians siding with Nazis 1944 Normandy invasion But at this point the German forces were substantially beaten at Stalingrad War in the Paci c US was attacked rst by Japan And the US believed that the Soviets should also declare war on the Japanese But they don39t Strange Neutrality Japanese and Soviets do not ght one another Want to avoid ghting a war against Japan and Germany at the same time Russia doesn39t take a side on the issue until the US had already bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki Soviets do not participate in 1943 quotCairn Conferencequot where fate of Asia is decided Cairo Tehran Gable Ron Potsdam Bretton Woods IMF Oversees system of xed exchange rates centered around the dollar Efforts by to reduce Britain s Power He didn39t just increase America s power but he does so at the expense of Britain IBRD reconstruct war torn enemies The World Bank and IMF put the US on top of the economic food chain Strategized plan to empower the American economy Countries that funded the bank had control over the bank America was really the only country that didn39t need nancial aid at this point all European countries were ravaged by the war developing nations didn39t have the GDP It echoed what Taft had tried to do through dollar diplomacy took the ideas of dollar diplomacy and brought them to a global scale Everyone else agreed to Bretton Woods and the World Bank proposal because they were desperate Dumbarton Oaks Conference Focuses on political stability and peace Creation of the United Nations System of collective security As FDR had wanted quotSovereign equalityquot Sovereign yes equal no Ex Votes in the Security Council This system privileged the United States and some others The Security Council re ected FDR39s and Washington s desires to have supremacy and morals US China Britain Soviet Union China desire of FDR to have a power other than Japan to create order in Asia Before China was communist France insisted upon by Churchill he wanted an ally Stalin insisted on the veto power Couldn t trust anyone Wanted a one vote veto power Con ict over Poland Recognize communist quotprovisional government of Polandquot Installed by Stalin What was Poland s territory Polish government was in exile Polish land ceded to soviet but Poland compensated with part of Germany Essentially Poles in Germany government in London and poles in USSR owned Poland Poland was an issue on which the British and the US had to back down It was too close to the USSR And it was too dear to the USSR WE and Britain didn39t have the power to back him off But Stalin said it would be quotdemocraticquot not really though Agreed upon a territorial distribution Russia east of Curzon line Poland gets back the property stolen by Germany Not an ideal situation for the allies Germany Disagreement in the US Morgenthau secretary of treasury the Morgenthau Plan completely dismember Germany39s industry and war making capacity FDR agrees with this partially Others this is exactly what happened to Germany after WWI you are going to lay the framework for another Hitler Demilitarization Denazi cation Democratization Destruction of German war potential through dismantling of induction and factories Division of Germany into four zones Reparations to be made to the Soviet Union With a reparations council As US policy moved away from Morgenthau And towards thinking that a stronger German economy would be better for all They decided that the Russians could take whatever reparations they wanted from their zone and the US and allies would keep to their zone 0 Seen as a fair compromise THE ATLANTIC CHARTER l their countries seek no aggrandizement territorial or other ll They desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned lll They respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of Government under which they will live and they wish to see sovereign rights and selfgovernment restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them Sounds like 14 points A list of what the United States wants to see in the international order V They desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic eld with the object of securing for all improved labor standards economic adjustment and social security VI After the nal destruction of the Nazi tyranny they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want Vll Such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance Vlll They believe that all of the nations of the world for realistic as well as spiritual reasons must come to the abandonment of the use of force Since no further peace can be maintained if land sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten or may threaten aggression outside of their frontiers they believe pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security that the disarmament of such nations is essential They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measures which will lighten for peaceloving peoples the crushing burden of armaments 14 August 1941 This is now considered a hallmark paper But at the time it still wasn39t clear if GB would fall under the Atlantic Charter Wasn39t clear how the two would fully work together in the aftermath world PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D ROOSEVELT39S BROADCAST TO THE NATION On the European front the most important development of the past year has been the The Russians are being painted as saviors They are ghting the war Keeping the war effort alive doing more than anyone else 0 BRETTON WOODS DECISIONS US economy is taking off during W WII So we are very interested in supporting free trade again Thus why Bretton woods clarifies that all exchange rates are based on the dollar The chief purpose of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is to guarantee private loans made through the usual investment channels It would make loans only when these could not be oated through the normal channels at reasonable rates For my own part I cannot look upon the outcome with any sense of dismay Capital like any other commodity should be free from monopoly control and available upon reasonable terms to those who would put it to use for the general welfare There are some types of loans that the banks do not want to make They cannot make them during the normal financial channels 1 If bankers are skittish about investing the bank will insure those loans guarantee them 2 When the bankers can t use normal financial channels they can work through the bank a Because the bank will charge fair prices of capital DUM BARTON OAKS 1 2 All members of the Organization undertake in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership in the Organization 3 All members of the Organization She111 To put an institution in place by which to prevent future war System of accountability Like Wilson felt in the League of Nations Seeks to develop friendly nations among all nations Like Wilson with tel4 points it puts an emphasis on the sovereign equality
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