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Intro Philosophy Final Study Guide

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by: Sydney Dowd

Intro Philosophy Final Study Guide Phil 2010 016

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Phil 2010 016 > Intro Philosophy Final Study Guide
Sydney Dowd
GPA 4.0

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This Study Guide covers all the relevant readings to our Final, with notes made based on the comments from the review in-class as well as from the readings. I tried to space it so that the stud...
Introduction to Philosophy
Aaron Cochran
Study Guide
final, philosophy, Utilitarianism, dualism, Identity, Theory
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"No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!"
Kenneth Nienow

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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Dowd on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Phil 2010 016 at Georgia State University taught by Aaron Cochran in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
Philosophy 2010 / FINAL Study Guide Kant  When you are in positions of authority, or under someone else, you have to follow orders.   Although it is easier to let other people think for us, it’s our duty to think for outselves.  (Logic)  [skipped – if there will be a question, he will send email out] Mill   Utilitarian   We have duty to maximize good / happiness for the greatest number of people possible.   No intrinsic rightness / wrongness in an action, it’s all about the consequences.  Higher Pleasures: Intellectual pleasures, harder work (studying Shakespeare)  Lower Pleasures: More physical pleasures, easier obtained (watching TV)  Anyone who has experienced both pleasures would (theoretically) prefer the higher pleasures ­ Because of our monotonous lives, many of us prefer lower at the end of the day Singer  It is not moral for us to have more when others have less.   To do Utilitarian duty, we must give up things to the less fortunate.   Giving to the point of marginal utility is giving to the point that we are almost at the same condition as the ones we are giving to.   Not sacrificing anything of ‘comparable moral worth’: Giving until we feel something morally  comparable is compromised (e.g. giving children presents for Christmas, etc).  Kant – Deontology  You cannot use others as mere means.   Perfect Duties: Duties you always have to do (don’t lie, don’t kill, don’t steal)  Imperfect Duties: When you further someone else’s (or your own) end, only necessary  sometimes, (help someone study, read philosophy, learn piano, give to charity)  Le Guin  The One Who Walks Away From Omelas  One child has to suffer for the others’ happiness   Would you leave? Would you set the child free?  Aristotle    Virtue Ethics  All about hitting the mean of personal qualities (not spineless, not overly brave)  ­ Ethically right thing / being virtuous = to find the mean.   Through education, you’re going to be able to figure out where you are on the spectrum  Through life, you’re able to become virtuous – young people cannot be truly “happy” because  virtue only comes through life experience. Virtue brings happiness.   In order to be virtuous, you must enjoy the virtuous acts (you can’t just do them unwillingly) Benedict    Moral Relativism  Culture determines our moral values   How are we to judge that any other community is “wrong” for their beliefs if our beliefs are indeed  molded by our own community?  Thompson  Abortion  If you were taken and attached to violinist to sustain your life, is it wrong for you to unplug  yourself?  ­ No, thus rape / incest cases it’s okay to abort?   If the fetus has a “right to life,” then that right has to be there regardless of how the fetus Nagal  Death is bad because it deprives you of future good (deprivation account)   Before you’re born = not existence = not scary, thus death = not existence = not scary? Kagan  Immortality would be bad because we would do everything we wanted ­ We would become bored, would wish for death.  Kierkegaard  Existentialists   Religious belief cannot be simply determined by objective facts  ­ there are not enough facts to support religious beliefs   Thus at some point, you have to make a subjective (through passion / relation) decision on what  you believe regarding religion ­ Subjective truths are about how you relate to the truth, and how they impact your life ­ They must impact your life.  ­ Important truths = subjective truths (impact the way we exist in the world unlike objective) Sartre  There is no meaning in the world  We should be happy that there is no predestined purpose for us ­ We have the take responsibility for ourselves  We create our own meaning.  Mackie  Problem of Evil  If God is all good and all powerful, then evil should not exist  ­ Evil exists ­ This version of God doesn’t exist.  God could have made us in a way that we would always choose the good Swinburne  God (if he is good / all powerful) would have given us ability to impact the world ­ Choosing good all the time wouldn’t give us free will ­ Thus he had to give us tendency towards evils  Natural evils (not human caused) gives us opportunity to do morally good things / develop good  qualities   Moral evils are due to human free will. Clifford  Always wrong to believe anything upon insufficient evidence   You’re wrong because you’ll pass your wrong beliefs onto your children, wrong beliefs lead to  wrong actions   You need to test your beliefs   Avoid error James   When we go out into world, not all our beliefs can be determined.  We need options which are momentous, living, and forced to make decisions which are upon  insufficient evidence.   Finding truth.  Descartes   Looking for foundation upon which he can build his knowledge  Outward sensations are not dependable  Je pense, donc je suis.  ­ I think, thus I am  Even if your experiences are a result of deceit, you are still thinking and having them.  ­ My thought is undoubtable Russell  Public v. Private Spaces  ­ What we experience of the external objects is our private experience  ­ Thus, we can’t figure anything about them in the ‘public space’  Carruthers  Mental states = brain states   Identity theory   If two things are the same, they’ll have the same properties  Gertier  Dualism  Imagine you’re in pain. You’re not in pain, but you can still imagine it. ­ Thus, you can have mental states without brain states (physical body).  Therefore, the mind and the body are two different things.  Oakeshott  Conservative mindset   All benefits of change should be set against the possible consequences   You must show that change is positive for the system   We shouldn’t be striving towards idealistic society (gratitude) ­ We should be slow changers   Government shouldn’t legislate morality ­ Should just let people do things themselves  Wilde  Under capitalism, some can be happy but others must slave away  Socialism is better  ­ Everyone can do what they want ­ They won’t commit crimes  Private ownership of things is bad  Charity perpetuates the system ­ Keeps people from questioning capitalism  Rowles (review ppt)  Justice is the central virtue of a system  ­ Efficiency doesn’t matter when there’s no justice   It’s unfair that in our society, some individuals are born into a situation that’s not their fault ­ Deprived of opportunity   If we want a just society, we need a way to assure quality of opportunity      Original Position  ­ In order to determine what principles we should implement into society, we should ask what  an impartial person would do.      Two principles ­ Everyone would have equal basic rights and liberties ­ Any inequalities must benefit the least advantaged in society   When inequalities begin to hurt the least advantaged in society to benefit others, we must change the system because it’s become unjust.  If result seems unfair, we should change things. Nozick  As long as the system begins fairly and all transactions afterwards are fair, you will have a fair  ending.  ­ Starting: Fair acquisition ­ Transactions: Fair distribution / transactions   Inequalities which arise from the fair system, they’re not really wrong in and of themselves.   The ends are fine if they arise fairly. 


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