Astronomy Final Exam Study Guide
Astronomy Final Exam Study Guide ASTR 101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 101 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Sean Brittain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 254 views. For similar materials see Solar System Astronomy in Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
ASTRONOMY EXAM 1 ANSWERS 1. Which of the following is one of Kepler’s laws? All of these. 2. What do astronomers mean when they say that the universe is expanding? The average distance between galaxies is increasing with time 3. If the Sun were the size of a grapefruit, the Earth would be about the size of a grain of sand. 4. Copernicus was the first person to propose a heliocentric model of the universe (false) 5. The constellations shift about 1 degree each day (true) 6. A few days before full moon, the phase of the moon is waxing gibbous 7. How old is the universe? 14 billion years old 8. Copernicus proved that the Earth went around the Sun (false) 9. Astronomy, like Chemistry, is an experimental science (false) 10.Which of the following was not a major advantage of Copernicus’s Sun- centered model over the Ptolemaic model? It made significantly better predictions of planetary positions in our sky 11.After the fall of the Roman Empire, scientific progress came to a halt in Europe (false) 12.Which of the following sentences is not true about science? Science only progresses by following the scientific model 13.In Australia it is usually warmer around December than it is in June (true) 14.If the milky way galaxy were the size of death valley (the football stadium), the average space between stars would be about the thickness of a blade of grass. 15.Lunar eclipses occur during full Moon 16.Order the following from most local to most distant: Clemson, Earth, Solar System, Milky Way Galaxy, Local Group, Local Super Cluster, Universe 17.Only the most advanced cultures cared about studying the sky (false) 18.If a planet has a highly eccentric orbit, we mean that part of the orbit is closer to the star than other parts. 19.The height of something is equal to the angle it subtends multiplied by the length of its shadow (false) 20.Which of the following best describes the modern definition of an asterism? A pattern of bright stars in the sky 21.At arm’s length the thickness of your fingernail subtends about 1 arc minute. 22.A lunar cycle lasts roughly one month 23.Why does the phase of the moon change? We see the illuminated part facing the sun 24.Kepler introduced the ellipse to explain the orbits of the planets 25.At arm’s length your index finger substends about 1 degree 26.The tilt of the earth precesses on a 26,000 year time scale 27.If the Earth was not tilted then there would be no seasons 28.Scientific progress ceased between the time Ptolemy and Copernicus (false) 29.Solar eclipses an occur only at new moon 30.Stars are part of a constellation because they appear in the same region of the sky 31.Select the principle reasons ancient societies have universally studied the sky. Migration, navigation, agriculture. 32.Which of the following statements are scientific? MMR vaccines cause cancer, the sun is 4.6 billion years old, cigarette smoking increases one’s risk of cancer, benzene is carcinogenic 33.The season’s on Earth are caused by its elliptical orbit (false) 34.Galileo demonstrated that the sun had spots, the moon had craters, and Jupiter had moons. ASTRONOMY EXAM 2 ANSWERS 1. Which of the following is an example in which you are traveling at constant speed but not at constant velocity? a. Driving around in a circle at exactly 100mph 2. Higher energy light is bluer than lower energy light a. True 3. Radio waves travel at the speed of light a. True 4. The spectra of most galaxies shows redshifts which means that they are moving away from us a. True 5. How often should you be prepared to answer TopHat questions in class? a. Every class period 6. Why do the stars twinkle? a. Turbulence in the atmosphere 7. What is a theory? a. An explanatory framework 8. Which of the following is not a conserved quantity? a. Radiation 9. Which of the following is not a form of kinetic energy? a. A compressed spring 10. A bicycle and car are involved in a head on collision. The momentum transferred from the bike to the car is equal and opposite to the momentum transferred from the car to the bike a. True 11. Every thing looks red through a transparent red piece of glass (a red filter) because a. The red glass transmits red light 12. The total amount of mass in the universe is conserved a. False 13. Currently the largest optical telescopes have a diameter of about a. 10m 14. When buying a telescope, you should ignore the magnification advertised. a. True 15. The speed you need to travel to escape Earth’s gravitational pull is the same no matter how massive you are a. True 16. A bicycle and car are involved in a head on collision. The change in velocity of the car is the same as the change in velocity of the bike. a. False 17. If the Sun were to suddenly turn into a black hole, the Earth would a. Continue orbiting as if nothing ever happened 18. Why aren’t you glowing? a. I am glowing, but I am only bright at infrared wavelengths that are invisible 19. From shortest wavelength to longest wavelength a. Gamma, x rays, UV, visible light, infrared, radio 20. I am moving towards a source of light. Which statement is true? a. The energy of the photons striking me is higher than if I was standing still 21. The more mass an object has, the faster it accelerates towards the Earth. a. False 22. Suppose you heat up an oven to 400 F and boil a pot of water at 212 F. o Which of the following explains why you would be burned by sticking your hand briefly in the pot of boiling water but not by sticking your hand briefly in the oven? a. The energy density of the boiling water is higher than the air in the oven 23. A bicycle and car are involved in a head on collision. The force of the bike on the car is equal and opposite to the force of the car on the bike a. True 24. Which of the following is not a subset of astronomy? a. Astrosociology 25. Which of the following is not one of Kirchoff’s Laws? a. The peak brightness of an object tells you the temperature of that object. 26. Radiative energy is the a. Energy carried by light 27. The principle advantage of the Hubble Space Telescope over ground- based telescopes is that it is closer to the stars. a. False 28. I am moving away from a source of light: a. The photons striking me will have a longer wavelength than if I were standing still 29. Which of the following statements best describes the two principal advantages of telescopes over eyes? a. Telescopes can collect far more light with a far better angular resolution 30. After the fall of the Roman Empire, scientific progress came to a halt in Europe. a. False 31. Which object is the hottest? a. A blue star 32. According to Wein’s Law, the wavelength of the peak brightness of an object depends on its temperature. a. True 33. Your weight is the same on Earth as it is on the Moon. a. False 34. Mass is best defined as a. Resistance to acceleration 35. Objects moving towards us are red shifted. a. False 36. There is no such thing as a bad question. a. False 37. You have traveled to the Moon. Which is true? a. My weight is less, my mass is the same. 38. Which of the following is one of Kepler’s Laws? a. All of these 39. Which of the following is NOT one of Newton’s laws of motion? a. Mass/Energy must be conserved 40. The photons emitted by a solid object depend on a. The temperature of the material 41. Scientific progress ceased between the time Ptolemy and Copernicus. a. False 42. Which of the following is NOT true about science? a. Science only progresses by following the scientific method 43. Highest frequency to lowest frequency: a. Gamma, x rays, UV, visible light, infrared, radio waves 44. You are currently emitting electromagnetic radiation a. True 45. A mosquito and a semi-trailer collide on the interstate. a. The force of the truck on the mosquito is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of the mosquito on the windshield of the truck. 46. Why does the tiger paw look orange? a. It reflects orange light 47. Highest to lowest energy: a. Gamma, x rays, UV, visible light, infrared, radio waves 48. The dark bands in the solar spectrum are due to a. Chemical composition of cool gas against the hot continuum of the Sun’s photosphere 49. The Europeans are designing a 100m telescope. How much larger is the light gathering power of this telescope than the 10m Keck telescope? a. 100 times greater ASTRONOMY EXAM 3 ANSWERS 1. According to our theory of the solar system formation, why do all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction and in nearly the same plane? The laws of conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum ensure that any rotating, collapsing cloud will end up as a spinning disk. 2. Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits. 3. Which of the following is not evidence for disks around young stars? Eclipses of the star by disks. 4. How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the radius of the Sun? It’s about 200 times larger 5. The age of our solar system is approximately 4.6 billion years 6. What process created the elements from which the terrestrial planets were made? Nuclear fusion in stars 7. Terrestrial planets don’t have rings (true). 8. Pluto is a planet (false). 9. Which of the following is not a hallmark of science? Technical 10.Which of the following statements is not an observed pattern of motion in our solar system? Most planets orbit at the same speed 11.How would the solar system be different if the solar nebula had cooled, with a temperature half its actual value. Jovian planets would have formed closer to the Sun 12.Suppose you found a star with the same mass as the Sun moving back and forth with a period of 16 months. What could you conclude? It has a planet orbiting at greater than 1au. 13.Order the objects from nearest to furthest from the Sun (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Asteroid Belt, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Kuiper Belt). 14.If the age of the universe were scaled down to a single year, the Earth would have formed around the first day of fall. 15.Which of the following is not necessity for life: oxygen. 16.Uranus is turned on is side (true). 17.Why does the shamrock look green? It reflects/scatters green light. 18.Which of the following methods has led to the most discoveries of massive planets orbiting near their parent stars? Detecting the gravitational effect of an orbiting planet by looking for the Doppler shifts the star’s spectrum 19.Which of the following are not conditions likely to be important for life on Earth? The asteroid belt. 20.Objects moving toward us are red-shifted (false). 21.The first planets around other Sun-like stars were discovered about 20 years ago 22.A planet more massive than the Earth orbits the Sun beyond the orbit of Pluto (true). 23.Your professor for this class is named Professor Brittain. 24.The sky is blue because molecules scatter blue light more effectively than red light. 25.A forming planet has been detected in a disk (true). 26.The Doppler technique for planet detection has found Earth-like planets around nearby Sun-like stars (false). 27.Terrestrial planets are rocky (true). 28.Why do disks form around stars as they are born? Conservation of angular momentum 29.Terrestrial planets are the most massive planets in the solar system (false). 30.Life probably arose on earth about 3.85 billion years ago 31.On a cosmic calendar scale that compresses the age of the universe to one year, human civilization is only a few seconds old (true). 32.Binary stars do not have planets (false). 33.Who proposed the nebular theory of planet formation? Immanuel Kant 34.The boundary beyond which ice can form in a disk is called the frost line. 35.Which of the following shows that amino acids can be synthesized in space? The Murchinson meteorite 36.Which world is the hottest? Venus 37.The best definition of a theory is the conceptual framework scientists use to make sense of data, observed regularities, and new predictions. 38.Stellar jets carry angular momentum out of star disk system keeping the star from spinning too fast (true). 39.Which of these facts is not explained by the Nebular Theory? The number of planets of each type (four terrestrial and four jovian planets) 40.The detection of an Earth-like planet in the habitable zone of another star would prove the existence of other planets (false). 41.Fermi’s paradox: asks where all the aliens are if intelligent life in the universe is common 42.I am moving away from a source of light. Which of the following statements is true? The photons striking me will have a longer wavelength than if I were standing still. 43.The detection of hot Jupiters shows that the nebular theory was all wrong (false). 44.Evidence for the earliest life comes from the carbon isotopes of ancient fossils (true). 45.The Kepler satellite has detected transiting planets around -1% of the stars in its field of view. This tells that virtually all stars have planets 46.Planets have never been directly imaged outside of our solar system (false). 47.Why are most of the planets discovered by the radial-velocity method of searching for planets larger than Jupiter and very close to their host star? The radial velocity method can only detect very large planets close to their host star. 48.Which of the following has not been detected around other stars in the Galaxy? (Flattened spinning disks, a collapsing nebula of gas, Jovian planets, terrestrial planets) All of these have been observed 49.Which of the following is not a reason that planet formation comes to an end? Gas loses its angular momentum. 50.Moons are common around terrestrial planets (false) ASTRONOMY TEST 4 1. Jupiter is denser than the Sun (true). 2. The Earth gets hit by an object large enough to cause mass extinction about once every 100 million years. 3. Zodiacal dust is caused by dust in the inner solar system from rocky debris. 4. Which moon has a warm liquid water underneath its ice crust? Europa 5. Weather and climate are pretty much the same thing (false). 6. Aurora are caused by charged particles from the solar wind interacting with the upper atmosphere. 7. Which two properties are most important in determining the surface temperature of a planet? Distance from the Sun and atmosphere. 8. The seasons on Earth are caused by its elliptical orbit (false). 9. What’s the leading theory for the origin of the Moon? It formed from the material ejected from the Earth in a giant impact. 10.Which object has the highest average surface temperature, and why? Venus, because of is dense carbon dioxide atmosphere 11.Which moon has the most volcanic activity? Io 12.Why are there very few asteroids beyond Jupiter’s orbit? Ice could form in the outer solar system. 13.Why do we have seasons on earth? As Earth goes around the Sun and Earth’s axis remains pointed toward Polaris, the Northern and Southern hemispheres alternatively receive more and less direct sunlight. 14.On average, Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system (true). 15.Saturn is the only planet in the solar system with rings (false). 16.Why is the sky blue? Air molecules scatter blue light more than red light 17.Under what circumstances can differentiation occur in a planet? It must be a mix of materials of different density, and material inside must be able to flow. 18.Saturn’s rings are a variable feature that will only last a few hundred thousand years 19.Why do smaller planets cool faster than larger planets? Smaller size means a smaller ratio of volume to surface area 20.Jupiter and Saturn have metallic hydrogen layer (true). 21.If a planet has a highly eccentric orbit, we mean that part of the orbit is much closer to the star than other parts 22.What is Jupiter’s Great Red Spot? A long-lived, high-pressure storm twice the size of Earth 23.Why does Venus have such a great difference in temperature between its “no atmosphere temperature” and its actual temperature? It has a large amount of greenhouse gases in its atmosphere 24.Mars has lost most of its atmosphere because it lacks a strong magnetic field to protect it from the solar wind 25.The average temperature of the Earth has increased by 0.5 degrees C. 26.Jupiter does not have a large magnetic core like the Earth. How can it have a strong magnetic field? It has metallic hydrogen inside 27.Which of the following planets has the least substantial atmosphere? Mercury 28.Planet IX is the 9 planet astronomers have inferred from the orbits of the minor planets in the Kuiper belt. 29.Which moon has a thick atmosphere? Titan 30.Why don’t terrestrial planets have Hydrogen gas in their atmosphere? The escape velocity is lower than the average velocity of the hydrogen 31.Which of the following is not evidence supporting the giant impact theory for the formation of the Moon? Scientists have found several meteorites that appear to be the remains of the object that caused the giant impact. 32.Carbon is removed from Earth’s biosphere by subduction (true). 33.Which of the following does not affect the climate on earth. (solar brightening, changes in the reflectivity of the Earth, changes in the tilt of Earth’s axis, changes in greenhouse gases). All of these affect the Earth’s climate. 34.If you were in the middle of the asteroid belt, the other asteroids would be too far away to see clearly without a telescope (true). 35.Which internal energy source is the most important in continuing to heat the terrestrial planets today? Radioactivity. 36.If the Sun were the size of a grapefruit, then the next nearest star would be in Long Beach, CA. 37.If Earth didn’t have an atmosphere, what would happen to its temperature? It would go down a lot (more than 10 degrees Celsius) 38.The weather on Mars is much different today than in the distant past (true). 39.Comets are dirty snowballs (true). 40.If the sun were the size of a grapefruit, the earth would be the size of a grain of sand, and about 50 feet away. How far away would the nearest star be? In California. 41.What would happen to Earth’s temperature if Earth were more reflective? It would go down. 42.The correlation between the increase in CO2 and the increase in temperature throughout Earth’s history proves that increasing CO2 causes the increase in temperature (false). 43.Rank the five terrestrial worlds in order of size from smallest to largest. Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth.
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