Midterm Study Guide ComPol Middle and Southern Africa
Midterm Study Guide ComPol Middle and Southern Africa PSC 2381
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Date Created: 02/24/15
Midterm Structure 0 Short Answer 8 or 9 Material from readings amp class are fair game These will not be Africa trivia More thematic conceptual Short Essay 2 more analytical Will ask you to synthesize conceptual material Wants us to read question amp try to answer as concise as possible 0 Case specific material Bad strategy try to memorize all of the specific details about different African countries from the readings Good strategy for each themeargumentidea that you study try to identify at least one or two specific examples that you can point to as example evidence Concepts tonics amp themes 0 Historical legacies o PreColonial States 0 Colonial Different trajectories of colonies British vs French 0 Exposure to slave trades o Settler vs No Settlers 0 Ex Essay Questions How has colonialism affected African countries 0 Ethnic politics 0 Ex Essay Questions What are some of the drivers of ethnic politics What role did colonial powers play in developing ethnic 0 Political Evolution 0 French vs British former colonies 0 Ex Essay Questions Role of international actors in the decolonization process How colonial rule lead to countries lead to Big Man Rule Which things happened at the same time colonization democratization neopatrimonialism What are the continuities over time in the mechanisms of rule Neopatrimonialism 0 Ex Esssay Questions Why was big man rule so prevalent Clientalism amp economy of affection 0 Ex Essay Questions How has the economy of affection affected economic development c DevelopmentGrowth 0 Agricultural policy 0 Ex Essay Questions What are features agricultural policy amp its impact M PreColonigl African Slave Trw Concepts of Power 0 according to Herbst how were powers different in PreColonial Africa vs EuropeAsia population density no defined borders centric circles coming out of metropolis center control of people more important than land amp territory decoupling between control of land vs people can t control landcan control people frontiers aren t important I 90 million people living in Africa at this time 0 political organizations key point lots of variation amp change over time centralized systems central political figure chief monarch bureaucracies amp state structure complex political organizations strong military feudal economic amp social organizations pattern of inequality 0 Acephalous Society aka lacking a headdecentralized systems of power diffuse political power lack central political leaders amp hierarchies villages recognize no central authority beyond the village villages usually run by councilor group leaders of elders Acephalous Groups Diola Senegal egalitarian territorial fragmented lack customary procedure chieftancy Kakuyu Kenya amp Igbo Nigeria decentralized amp fragmented in number of autonomous communities administered by councilsthe in uence of these men were not hereditary or authoritarian Positions dependent on tending good advice amp having it accepted by their peers Why centralize exposure to trade centralized dispute resolution state amp centralized political authority help solve disputes power more profitable greater SC fCG Atlantic economic returns to controlling territory are much land fertility more centralized where land is fertile amp land is expansion of technologies of coercion EX Gun reduce cost of extending power across the center longrun impact of PreColonial politics centralization amp immunization more centralized with better immunization centralization amp infant mortality African Slave Trade 4 Slave Trades TransSaharan Red Sea Indian Ocean Trans 15th18th Century 18 million slaves taken 1900 continent population 90100 million 12 million took part in TransAtlantic long run impact more slaves takenpoorer today actual slave trade was prominent in wealthy areas impact on interpersonal trust long run impact Early African Empires Mali united 1235 during the fall of the ancient Ghana empire goods gold salt crops for trade camels horses Kingdom of Kongo united 1400 with the union of many wealthy areas tradegteXpansion provinces amp vassal kingdoms goods slaves Ashanti present day GhanaGold Coast united 1670 with the union of confederacy of clans amp groups goods slaves ivory strong agriculture supplied slaves to Dutch amp British Zulu Present day South Africa Shaka Zulumost famous leader most sophisticated military monarch dominated S Africa beat the British in several important battles strong belief in religion Summary political centralization matters for contemporary outcomes access to public goods amp wealth Colonial Rule Scramble for Africa 0 Political Map of Africa 0 18845 Berlin Conference called by Otto von Bismarck Germany was late to colonizing game Bismarck thought this was the best way to get his share The lines of colonial rule drawn at the conference remain relatively unchanged to this date except for South Sudan 0 1876 colonization on outskirts no interest on center 0 1897 French control Algeria Morocco British control S Africa Rhodesia Kenya Portuguese control Mozambique amp Angola Ethiopia is only territory not colonized o DriversPushes for Colonization 0 Raw Materials fuel Ind Rev private companies played role in pushing into the interior 0 Technology Change Quinine malaria no longer as deadly to Europeans Maxim gun easier to take territory machine gun 0 New nationalism in Europe rise of bourgeois class who need power thru colonies Racism social darwinismracist perception of life in Africa New Players Germany Italy Belgium Missionaries Addt l Drivers Man on the Spot whoever gets their first gets the land Celebrity Explorer Cecil Rhodes in charge of British S Africa Company world view British is the race of the world One of the most in uential men in the colonization process colony created by BSAC called Rhodesia present day Zimbabwe independent in 1965 multiracial rule in 1980 0 Origins of State Boundaries o Other nationstates determined by war amp treaties 0 Africa divided in Berlin Conference of 1885 Goals peaceful division of Africa attainment of resources principle of effective occupation if you get there first notify the rest amp it s yours Consequences Herbst Peaceful process for Europeans Arbitrary borders that remain today Weak states Conquest protectorate treaties OOOO O O African leader gttreaty of protection Bribed mislead threat of force put down resistance Large african armies attacked militarily Ashanti Fulani emirates Principles of Early Colonial Rule Fiscal SelfSufficiencv French 1900 fiscal law stated colonies responsible for own financial resources amp expenses light European presence Company rule vs Imperial rule 0 Structure of Early Colonial States District Commissioner king on his castle characteristics young men former criminals effect colonial state manifested based on commissioner Local Security GB martial races doctrine F Armee d Afrique Congo Free State Force Publique Local Chiefs intermediaries deliver taxes labor enforce laws incorporate existing infrastructure under colonial admin Europeans don t care about legitimizing themselves for African natives 0 Revenue Imperatives Head Tax On Indiv tax forced people into wage economy chiefs given commission on taxes collected Hut Tax on household Forced labor Infrastructure Late Colonialism Post WWI 0 Increasing professionalization of colonial administration 0 French ecole colonial trained people to join colonial civil service 0 Emergence of new legitimizing discourse 0 good gov development trusteeship 0 Expansion of colonial state activities 0 Colonial science 0 emergence of colonial anthology 0 Formalization of rule of colonies such as South Africa after the First and Second Boer Wars Rhodesia Kenya 0 Theorv amp practice of Colonial Rule 0 British I Indirect rule we will rule through the chiefs because they know the framework of ancestral customs they will implement the law that is custom 0 French I Direct rule eliminate ancestralnative law even though they ruled through the chiefs they were clear that the position of chief was different chief is the French s auxiliary 0 Belgian I Mix of direct amp indirect but mostly focused on extraction The colony was a personal possession of the King 0 Portuguese I re ected weakness of metropole I intermediaries were mostly individuals of AfroPortugese descent 0 Settler colonies Kenya S Rhodesia I tension btw settlers interest amp colonial state administration 0 Consequences of Indirect Rule according to Mandami 0 Long lasting effect 0 What does he mean by decentralized despotism I in order for chiefs to be effective instruments for colonial power they were given ability to extract taxes amp deliver labor amp also given coercive abilities 0 Impact of colonial rule in these areas I economic depletion of natural resources destruction of native economic system destruction of trade relationships type of jobs introduction of material goods economy is export driven forced into the wage market I social life subservience missionary drivedisruption of culture religion languages used today social organization social dynamics ethnic divisions gtled to future con ict culture of repression psychological impact Colonial Rule Legacies o Arbitrary borders 0 Culture religion language French Portuguese English Afrikaans all introduced and remain primary languages today 0 Structure of economies gt slow growth 0 export oriented o focused on small number of usually natural commodities gold rubber copper timber etc 0 dependent on global economy as minor shocks would impact African countries 0 Continued linkages with colonial powers 0 especially France metropolitan France vs French Empire 0 Ekeh Colonialism amp 2 Publics Primordial and Civic o What is the primordial public what are its key features The primordial public is m and operates on the same moral imperatives as the private realm Tied more to ethnic groupings amp tieskinship groups Public realm gtis hist associated Wcolonial admin and which has become identified With popular politics in postcolonial Africa Based on civil structures the military the civil service the police etc Argument strong social pressuresnorms that you give to your community supposed to be good do What is right by your community 0 What is the civic public What are its key features The civic public in Africa is amoral and lacks the generalized moral imperatives operative in the private realm and in the primordial public Argument morality doesn t exist o What are some of the implications of the existence of these 2 publics for postcolonial politics Issue the same political actors simultaneously operate in primordial AND civic publics Argument distinction between the 2 public is different from other countries development in Europe amp Americas both spaces are governed similarly No natives had in uence over the develop Civic public is distant to everyday life amp space for emerging bourgeoisie class But amorality of civic public leads to corruption Con ict Widentities Colonial Legacies on Ethnic Politics 0 Ethnic Cleavage Structure Indirect rule gave chiefs discretion over valuable resources control over native treasury allocations of public goods in villages loans to tribal members land allocations customary courts powers over dispute resolution strong incentives to invest in the tribal identity evidence in countries change in population of ethnic groups tribes With native authorities in indirect rule 109 tribes Without native authorities in indirect rule 569 percentage of tribes With increasing population shares during indirect rule tribes With native authorities in indirect rule 39 tribes Without native authorities in indirect rule 16 0 Ethnic Inequalities 0 Ex Rwanda Hutu the Bahutu display very typical Bantu features They are generally very short and thickset With a big head a jovial expression a wide nose and enormous lips They are extroverts who like to laugh and lead a simple life Tutsi the mutusi of good race has nothing of the negro Gifted with a vivacious intelligence the Tutsi display a refinement of feelings which is rare among primitive people He is a natural born leader capable of extreme self control amp calculated goodwill Result of School Enrollment Tutsi get disproportionate access to education compared to Hutu 0 Ex Kenya Kalenjin Kamba Kikuyu British thought they were good business man so they were given more education sold representation in civil serviceelites in Kenya Luhya Luo 0 Relations Between GroupsContours of Ethnic Con ict o Chewas amp Tumbakas in Malawi amp Zambia ethnic relations are different on either side of the border Zambia side ethnic groups act nicely amp no con ictMalawi side there is a lot of con ict Main reason is the arbitrary border has created 2 different political structures Malawi competition bw ChewasTumbuka Zambia ChewasTumbuka too small for own parties 0 Ethnic Identity subset of identity categories in which eligibility for membership is determined by attributes associated with or believed to be associated with descent o Primordial Conceptualization each of us belongs to one amp only one ethnic group that group membership remains fixed over a lifetime amp it is passed down across generations 0 Constructivist Conceptualization Identity can be uid Individuals can have multiple ethnic identities May change over time in reaction to politicalsocietal processes Nationalist Movement External Drivers of Move Toward Independence W11 0 Large of African troops fought alongside BF troops gained experience abroad 0 Change in Expectations still treated like subjects o Aura of Invincibility Shattered loss of battles at beg of WWII changed mindset 0 New Superpowers that Didn t Want Colonies 0 US Soviet Union Explicit anticolonial policy Rhetoric anticolonial No desire to maintain system Shifts in Int l Normative Environment 0 Atlantic Charter 1941 Called for selfdetermination People began questioning colonialism o Emergence of UN after WWII UN charter equal rights amp selfdetermination of peoples Internal Drivers of Move Toward Independence New Social Class of IntellectualPolitical Leaders 0 educated people some with educational training in Europe 0 eXservicemen WWII 0 Growth of unions youth movements student orgs amp eXservicemen39s associations 0 Many eventually turned into political parties 0 South Africa Steven Biko black Consciousness Movement panafricanism 0 Senegal Leopold Senghor Negritudea black consciousness which asserted unique contributions values characteristics of black people amp civilization French version of black consciousness other prominent proponents Aime Cesare formed BDS political party argue political federation of 8 territories with combined population powerful enough to gain economic selfsufficiency 0 Ghana Kwame Nkrumah advocate panAfricanism African unity in face of colonial rule began his Convention People s Party called for SelfGovemmentNow he denounced British plan for constitutional reform 0 Belgian Congo Patrice Lumumba active in panAfricanist movement Founded Mouvement National Congolais imprisoned for anticolonial strikes amp riots killed shortly after independence US feared ties with USSR 0 Kenya Jomo Kenyatta Educated in London Active in PanAfricanist circles Imprisoned in 1950s 1st President Trajectories Towards Independence In British Colonies 0 Philosophy prepare colonies for independence 0 Little interest in preventing independence EXCEPT for settler colonies ex S Africa 0 Process 0 Initial elections under colonial rule 0 Period of Constitutional Design 0 Granting of independence to government 0 Result slower process of independence amp timing varied across countries relative to French 0 Ex GhanaGold Coast 0 Kwame Nkrumah Believed political autonomy came before economic o Progression to Independence Police fire on a peaceful march of exservicemen in Accra in 1948 united gold coast convention formed in 1948 to seek independence Nkrumah break away amp form Convention People s Party CPP seek ye first the political kingdom Nationwide strikes lead to imprisonment of CPP leadership in 1950 CPP win election in 1951 amp 1956 independence in 1957 Traiectories in French Colonies 0 French had no plans to prepare colonies for independence Colonies were an extension of France 0 Fall of Fourth Republic in France 1958 Problems wcolonies Algerian Civil War de Gaulle takes military power in coup o Referendum immediately held in colonies on August 8 195 8 Choice Autonomy in France vs Complete Independence Only Guinea chose independence S kou Toure France pulls out immediately stop development assistance Guinea example led other countries to demand complete independence 0 By end of 1960s all French colonies were completely independent 0 Result Less preparation than British colonies Abrupt Settler Colonies independence was long amp violent bc settlers had interest in colonial rule 0 Algeria Civil warprotracted war 19541962 helped downfall of F republic 0 Kenya Man Man uprising 19521960 Concentrated in areas affected by European settlements the White Highlands Mostly Kikuyu youth targeting collaborators amp colonial security forces Negotiations btw settlers amp Kenyans in London in 1960 pave the way for independence in 1963 and British acknowledged war crimes committed 0 Zimbabwe Southern Rhodesia settlers led gov led by Ian Smith declare independence in 1965 independence not recognized by the British Civil war African nationalist groups ZAPU amp ZANU vs white minority gov t Independence in 1980 ZANUPF is in power now Robert Mugabe has been a democratic by nature of the structure of the government dictator since 1987 Portuguese Colonies after WWII authoritarian Salazar regime seek to tighten control over colonies bc regime had no interest in independence 0 Mozambique Front for the Liberation of Mozambique FRELIMO began armed struggle in 1964 Independence in 1975 0 Angola multiple armed groups began struggle for independence in early 1960s Independence in 1975 0 Military coup in Portugal in 1974 Summary 0 Post WWII world was less friendly to colonial rule changes in international environment changes domestically in the colonies 0 Independence trajectories varied by colonial ruler amp depended on settler presence Britishslower amp more deliberate Frenchabrupt with little planning Process in settler colonies was longer amp more violent Process in main Portuguese colonies was also violent amp longer in duration State PostIndependence What are some challenges postindependence Legitimization of power Ethnic differences Economic funding Lack of skilled labor Low education of people prior to independencefew skilled people how new constitution re ected on the ground Power structure State vs Chiefs who were given power under colonial rule 0 Weak States low bureaucratic capacity limited reach outside of capital reach was extraction amp labor 0 Low levels of National integration states but not nations subnational identities with little connection loyalty to state 0 How establish legitimacy amp authority Generate nationalism Weber s source ofAuthority Charismatic personality based Legalrule based office over person Patrimonialpersonal relationships amp ows of resources most of African leaders took this position NeoPatrimonial RuleBig Man Rule 0 chief executive maintain authority through personal patronage rather than ideology or laws 0 right to rule is ascribed to person rather than an office 0 relationships of loyalty amp dependence pervade a formal political amp administrative system 0 leader occupy bureaucratic offices less to perform public services rather does it to acquire wealth amp status 0 Features of Big Man Rule 0 Power concentration Early constitutional changes gt give press large amounts of power over all facets of gov t o Informal relations gt formal rules Selective law Personal connections 0 Patronage Politics Resources of state gt maintains political support Manifestation of Big Man Rule 0 Single party Rule Kenya Tanzania Zambia Ghana Cameroon 0 Long Ruling President Kenyatta in Kenya Banda in Malawi 0 Descent into predatory rule idealism gtcorruption gtabuse of powermismanagement o Unpredictable policies which are often harmful to economy 0 State control of economy 0 Distinctive Political Practices of Big Man Rule 0 Conspiratorial Politics Coups by 1983 50 successful coups in 23 African countries 101180 leadership changes from 19601999 thru coup or extraconstitution event 0 Factional Politics gtintemal competition amp jockeying for power 0 Constant Cabinet Reshuf ing Typologies of Big Man 0 The Prince rules jointly with others by presiding over their struggle for benefits encourages struggle beneath him while staying above the fray allow politic accommodations o Autocrat MOST common commands amp manages state personal property Partygov t officials are his servants amp agents 0 Prophets Visionary wlack means to implement vision Victim to high expectations 0 Tyrant Rule through fear most repressive amp brutal Reward collaborators punish opposition Sources of State Weakness What is Herbst s Argument War helps generate nationalism but not in Africa because it Wrbitrarv state boundaries 0 Accept state amp existing boundaries why expedience to existing borders historically not concerned over territory most leaders didn t have full control over their territories didn t have strong military not quick to gain land through war 0 What are political consequences of peace Taxation nationalism 0 Role of foreign aid political needs sources but foreign aid is giving it to them dependent on outside world those in power are able to maintain rule 0 Summary 0 Neopatrimonial rule provided a solution to political challenges faced at independence exerting authority with a weak state building legitimacy in fragmented society 0 Weak states in part a result of incentives created by post WWII international system Because borders were accepted little incentive to invest in state capacity Informal Institutions amp Clientelism Current Events 0 Boko Haram amp the Nigerian State 0 Boko Haram has exposed frightening vulnerabilities at the heart of the Nigerian state split bw North and South Christians Muslims 0 Army is outmatched o Contributing to the crisis in the fact that most of the officers are political appointees whose promotions are based on ethnicity and loyalty to the powerful not on their astuteness in military affairs Features of the NeoPatrimonial State 1 Clientelism 2 Informal institutions 3 Power concentration 0 Hyper concentration of power in the office of the president 4 quotHybridquot Regimes 0 You have formal institutions that look like democracy that are graphed onto informal practices Why the emergence of neopatrimonial regimes 0 Strategic response to two challenges at independence Fragmented states with little legitimacy Low bureaucratic capacity How to integrate fragmented societies 0 Charisma Charisma pertains to an individual39s unique personal skills amp powers of persuasion that instill followers with faith in the leader39s ability to end suffering amp create a better future 0 State amp nation building Development of edu System delivery of services Indoctrination ex US pledge of allegiance Ex Tanzania edu System enforced common language civic education nationalism villages that would have people from various ethnic groups come together to work o Clientelism Deliver selective private benefits to key elites amp populations in exchange for their support for the regime Essentially buying people off Most African states took this approach 1 Clientelism 0 Definitions Delivering selective benefits to key elites in exchange for support 0 Key features Personal relationships btw individuals of asymmetric status Contingency provision contingent on support giving Monopoly of resources Patron39s power comes from control over resources that the client needs but cannot access elsewhere Contrast with programmatic accountability o Impersonal relationships 0 Parties offer programs that they promise to deliver if elected not selective benefits 0 Benefits disbursed regardless of political behavior of voters non contingent State layers of Clientelist Ties 0 President Ministers Local leaders Citizens 0 Types of Clientelism 1 Modern political clientelism Associated with mass parties seeking votes in elections ex SuperPACs 2 Traditional clientelism pre modern politics tribal 3 Moderntraditional o Hypothetical examples 0 Politicians A politician interferes in the allocation of a food welfare program to ensure that only supporters of hisher party receive the benefit The party in power provides government jobs to its supporters instead of those who are most qualified President appoints a politician from a different ethnic group to the cabinet amp turns a blind eye to corruption in the ministry in exchange for regime support 0 NonPoliticians An employer threatens to fire hisher employees that do not vote for their preferred party 0 Real Examples 0 Malawi 2014 PP aspiration demands back donation Malewsi threw parties to give out money to those who came 0 Uganda Gave an envelope of cash 0 Senegal39s Marabouts Live on land that has high nat resources Control access to resources land loans agriculture access to goods Extract labor from followers taxes control politics Clientelism is fairly common Elements of the Economv of Affection Hvden 0 quotPersonal investments in reciprocal with relations with others as a means of achieving goals that are seen as otherwise impossible to attainquot o Clientelism Relationship btw people of unequal status 0 Pooling putting together wealth for common purpose Unsanctioned by law Kinship networks extended family Ex Cooperative groups labor farming etc Insurance cooperatives Credit sharing groups 0 Charisma When does an economy of affection emerge 1 When the state doesn39t deliver 0 Exclusion is an important element Ex Immigrants might develop Mafia as system for providing social services that they are excluded from 2 State doesn39t provide services people need creates Poverty 3 Risk aversion No insurance markets or state welfare migration of risk Attempt to build security in the face of perceived environmental threatsquot Microcredit movement 0 Culture Not a cultural one but a strategic one State doesn39t provide much Investment in relationships is a useful way to protect oneself o Is clientelism bad 0 Yes corrupt system patrons advantage comes from clients disadvantage thrives off of asymmetrical relationships 0 No people get results immediately services are provided to people 0 How might clientelism in uence how democracy operates What are the implication of clientelism for democracy 0 People in office who don39t have the background for it 0 Less incentive to find out what people want amp use the democratic framework 0 Low bureaucratic capacity 0 Legitimacy of clientelism is undermined 0 Democracy in the ideal person presents ideas people vote based on ideas Clientelism Operates on level on individual Politics amp Economic Growth Whv is there slow growth in Africa 0 Geography 0 Landlocked o Domestication of Plants amp Animals Transition to large scale agriculture doesn39t happen till much later 0 IllnessesPoverty 0 International forces 0 Dependency theory Colonial powers extraction of natural resources 0 Role of international forces continue to take advantage 0 Dependency on primary commodity orientation 0 Institutions 0 Organization is key to colonial development 0 Institutions that would promote development Property rights Health organizations Policy Making amp Politics Politics of Agricultural Policy 0 50 of pop lives in rural areas 0 Cultivation of food market subsistence export 0 Agricultural production is critical to economic development 0 Elements of Agricultural Policy 0 Price of agricultural products gov t intervenes to reduce prices 0 Prices of consumer goods gov t intervenes to increase 0 Price of farm inputs gov t targeted subsidies to large agricultural producers 0 Prices of Agricultural Products 0 Cooperative amp marketing boards Monopsony you are the sole buyer Initial purpose was to smooth riskincome for farmers In reality centers of corruption Surplus of agricultural producers was shifted elsewhere 0 Overvalued Currency If you over value your currency it makes import substitution easier BUT makes farmers harder to sell stuff on international market Lower domestic food prices 0 Agricultural inputs Subsidies Mostly targeted important constituencies amp in uential farms Ex Senegal39s Groundnut Cooperative Virtually every household in the groundnut basin was bound by relations of debt amp dependency to one of the villagelevel cooperatives One cooperative for every 12 villages by 1973 Compulsory membership for household heads Monopoly on distribution of key inputs Control over loans fertilizer amp other inputs Monopsony buyers Local level buying stations of the marketing board 0 Variation in pricing policies Political position of agricultural sector in coalition that took power after independence Worst pricing policies Ghana amp Zambia Slightly better Kenya amp Tanzania Origins of marketing boards West Africa boards were formed by colonial gov East Africa boards formed by farmers seeking to protect interest Little more democratic Were a bit less exploitative Explaining Agricultural Policy 0 Maximization of social welfare Allow farmers to maintain a steady income 0 Response to political demands 0 Political control Allowed politics to remain clientelistic Political Logic of Agricultural Policies 0 Satisfy urban base Urban workers students Military Government bureaucrats 0 Control amp extract rents from population 0 Target divisible benefits to important political actors in rural areas Big producers Important local elites as in Senegal 1990s Wave of Democratization Trends much of Africa was colonizedbecame independent in 510 yr period The Scene in 1989 0 Only 2 African countries had held elections in which the gov previously in power lost power 0 Only 3 African countries can be defined as electoral democracies Range of neopatrimonial regimes Personal dictatorships Singleparty regimes Military regimes Settler oligarchies Apartheid regime in S Africa 0 3rd wave of democratization appeared to miss Africa Started in 70s in E Europe February 1990 Benin 0 Popular protest against Kerekou regime o Triggered by fiscal crisis amp frustration over corruption 0 quotnational conference of active forces of the nationquot 0 Kerekou view idea of conference would provide a venue for those in civil society with grievances control protest into a more structured environment 0 Opposition view saw it as opportunity to delegitimize amp write new rules for political game 0 Outcome was a new democratic constitution New constitution written amp transition to democracy launched February 1990 South Africa 0 Mandela released 0 Mark the formal beginning of negotiated end of apartheid Electoral democracies defined 0 Opposition parties are allowed to run in open conditions not subject to arrest or harassment 0 Universal suffrage all can vote 0 Regular elections 0 Opposition parties have some access to resources that allows them to compete on a moderately level playing field Origins of Regime Crises 0 Fiscal amp economic crises 0 End of 80s GDP per capita m than in 1960s 0 Growth rate in 80s 2 0 Terms of trade for commodities decline 0 Changes in International environment 0 End of Cold War 0 Increased normative commitment to democracy 0 Shift in aiddonor parties 0 Snowballing de ned as events in one country impact events in another o S Africarelease of Mandela o BeninNational Conference Distinctive Features of African Transitions Bottom up social protest Of 21 transitions from 19891991 16 initiated by opposition protest movements 0 Elites fracture over patronage resources economic crisis makes it harder to satisfy patronage demands 0 Middle class supports the opposition Business amp professional class central to opposition Strong property rights 0 Regime responses to crisis varied 1 Dig In Violence Ex Mobutu in Zaire 2 Participatory Thru national conference ex Benin 3 Managed Often used by military regimes ex Ghana democracy amp Guinea not democracy Regimes responds to protest by initiating tightly controlled democratic reforms 4 Straight to elections Often used in singleparty competitive countries ex Kenya Regime believes it can use incumbency advantage to remain in power Former French vs Former British 0 Generally earlier transitions occurred in former French colonies Why 0 No real answer 0 Hypothesis 0 Structure of rentpatronage distribution Former French focus on staterun enterprises amp institutions Former British focus on tariffs licenses amp credit rationing 0 Structure of interest group organization Former French corporatists peak org represents all group of people ex Producers student unions Easier for them to act collectively Former British decentralized amp fragments many org representing all groups of people ex Producers student unions 0 Electoral system under autocracy Former French singleparty list Regime in power weren39t threatened by elections Former British singleparty multicandidate competitive Elections were very threatening to those in power 0 Central control over electoral resources ex Media Former French tight control Former British less control Trends in Founding Elections 0 Early 19891994 Countries 29 Free amp fare 555 Leader alterations 38 Loser accept 60 0 Late 19951997 Countries 11 Free amp fare 0 Leader alteration 66 Loser accept 0 0 Commentary leaders more susceptible held elections earlier held free amp farer elections those who had more control held elections later General ideas about democratizationSummary Economic development 0 No middle class no democracy Less income inequality 0 Wealthy have less to fear from redistribution Oil amp other stateowned natural resources 0 Natural resources tend to undermine prospects of democratization Economic recession or other negative shock Domestic mobilization against the regime 0 Civil society actors International pressures Regime Trajectories Political Regimes Today 3 Kinds of Regimes Today 1 Free 2 Partly Free Hybrid 3 Not Free Authority Trends 1960201 3 Polity Score Index of 10 to 10 0 Those above 6 are democratic 0 Below 6 are autocratic Ghana Post 1990 upward movement towards democracy Senegal Post 1990 move towards democracy Mali Now currently in unclear state Cameroon 1990 started holding elections 1993 at line to present Togo Regime has maintained control in politics through multiparty era Country Classifications Uninterrupted democracies 0 Countries became moreorless democratic after a transition amp continue to be democratic EX Cape Verde Mauritius Sao Tome Principe Ghana Senegal Malawi Benin Botswana Namibia 0 Ghana 0 Rawlings win awed elections in 1992 amp 1996 0 Opposition boycott in 1992 elections 0 Rawlings accept term limits amp does not run in 2000 o 2 peaceful alterations of power since 2000 Authoritarian reversal 0 Countries that became moreorless democratic after a transition but are no longer democratic today 0 EX Kenya Uninterrupted authoritarian countries that adopted elections but never made real transition to democracy amp remain autocratic Ex Uganda Zimbabwe Not as repressive as Zimbabwe Power centralized around leader Differences Across Traiectories 19962010 0 GNI Per Capita o Uninterrupted Democracies wealthier o Authoritarian Reversal o Uninterrupted Authoritarian poorer 0 GDP Per Capita Growth 0 Uninterrupted Democracies 26 o Authoritarian Reversal 101 o Uninterrupted Authoritarian 26 0 Life Expectancy o Uninterrupted Democracies 59 o Authoritarian Reversal 51 o Uninterrupted Authoritarian 52 0 Literacy o Uninterrupted Democracies Higher o Authoritarian Reversal lower 0 Uninterrupted Authoritarian middle 0 Net Overseas Development Assistance per capita o Uninterrupted Democracies 97 o Authoritarian Reversal 44 o Uninterrupted Authoritarian 44 Conclusion uninterrupted democracies have best growth but uninterrupted authoritarian might be more stable well Oil Wealth amp Regime Trajectories goil goes straight to the state Uninterrupted Democracies o S Africa isn39t dependent on oil even though it has a lot of oil Authoritarian Reversal 0 Countries that have oil can revert back to authoritarian regimes Uninterrupted Authoritarian 0 Countries that have oil don39t become democratic Explaining regime trajectories 0 Income amp development 0 Democracy sticks in wealthier countries amp educated countries 0 Economic growth 0 Slow growth destabilizes democracies faster growth stabilizes democracies amp autocracies Oil amp natural resource dependence 0 Almost without exception oil producing countries are not democratic Leadership alternation still unclear 0 Why did Rawlings Ghana accept term limits while Museveni Uganda has not Ethnic Politics Terminology 0 Ethnic Identities o A subset of identity categories in which eligibility for membership is determined by attributes associated with or believed to be associated with descent o Tribe A group generally rural which is bound by traditional political structures to which people are linked by the mechanisms of traditional political obligation Whv is ethnic identitv politicallv important in Africa 0 Economy of affection o Inequality 0 Certain groups may be favored in bureaucracy 0 Lack of national identity o Psychological reasons People in Africa feel strongly about their ethnic ties amp these attachments guide behavior 0 Instrumental reasons ethnic groups are coalitions to desire benefits Interview Response Nairobi Kenya 0 Question Besides being Kenyan which specific group do you feel you belong first and foremostquot 0 Answer quotHow I describe myself depends on where I am When I am with my family I am a student When I am at school I am someone with a job When I travel I am from Central province When I am at church I am a Christian And when I talk about politics I am a Kikuyuquot Ethnic identity is his political identity Constructivist Conceptualization Identity can be uid Groups as Social Constructions Subject to ongoing negation amp renegotiation 0 Migration o Amalgamations Smaller groups combined to form larger ones 0 By perceptions of cultural amp social similarity o By sense of shared history Whv Ethnic groups Features of political competition 0 Patronage oriented o How do we get resources from central gov to local areas Geographic concentration 0 Ethnic groups tend to be concentrated in space 0 Thus preferences about resource distribution will be homogenous 0 Ethnic inequality produced by colonial rule 0 Ex Some ethnic groups happened to live closer to colonial capitals amp missionary activities 0 Produces feelings of marginalization sense of shared history amp fate Colonial administrative boundaries Colonial regimes tried to draw administrative boundaries along tribal lines 0 Core idea of indirect rule 0 Indirect rule gave chiefs discretion over valuable resources 0 Control over Native Treasury 0 Land Allocations o Customary courts power over dispute resolution 0 Political organization often confined within local boundaries during colonial period Urban Political Elite Roles 0 Ethnic identities often constructed in urban areas 0 Creation of ethnic unions amp selfhelp groups 0 Encounters with those from other regions 0 Mobilization along ethnic lines seen as useful for new political elites Choice of which identity dimension to mobilize often guided by a political logic Examples Of Ethnic Groups 0 Kalenjin Kenya high valley areas means I say to you 0 Well known internationally for being marathon amp long distance runners o In 1940 the label Kalenjin didn39t exist By 1960 nationally recognized group 0 Majority in a district of Rift Valley 0 In context of broader colonial Kenya Nandi speakers grew more aware of linguistic amp cultural similarities 0 Motivation for identity construction Fear of political amp economic marginalizationexclusion by larger groups Fear especially of the Kikuyu amp Luo Perceived advantages of increased voting power 0 Key factors I Emerging political elite Local culture brokers media religious leaders etc Religious leaders translated bible into Nandi with purpose of creating shared identity Workers students eXservicemen in urban areas I Unions service eXmilitary groups Igbo Nigeria 0 Prior to colonial rule no real Igbo identity 0 Loose amalgamation of linguistically amp culturally similar communities 0 Igbo identity emerged in urban Nigeria Formation vs Salience Igbo amp Kalenjin are examples of quotnewquot politically important ethnic groups forming out of smaller ones In other instances the preexisting cultural cleavages that are politically important were guided by similar motivations Summary 0 Ethnicity important in politics for instrumental reasons 0 Ethnic groups as socially constructed political coalitions o Primordial appeals 0 Instrumental motivations 0 Ethnic diversity amp public goods findings from existing research 0 Crossnational correlations in Africa Easterly amp Levine I More ethnic diversity gtless educational attainment I More ethnic diversity gtless infrastructure I More ethnic diversity gtworse fiscal policies 0 Comparing rural communities in Kenya Miguel amp Gugety I More ethnic diversity gtless school funding I More ethnic diversity gtworse school facilities I More ethnic diversity gtworse clean water well maintenance 0 What types of goods I School buildings I Clinics I Maternity clinic I Fomo clinic I Clean water I Clean water holes Public Goods Provision In Africa 0 Centrally provided govt vs Locally provided community 0 Ex Kenya Education I Central gov provides teachers amp pays their salaries I Local school committees pay for inputs I All school materials and everything in it I Local fundraising I School fees I Local fundraisers I Harambee events Pulled together I Local funds provide 40 of all funds for schools clean water projects amp other local public goods 0 Challenges of local provision 0 Making decisions about What to provide amp how to provide it I Puts burden on locals especially those that are destitute 0 Free riding I People Who do not contribute can still benefit I Incentive to contribute isn39t that high Explanations 1 Preferencebased explanations 2 Technologybased explanations 3 Social sanctioning explanations 1 Preferencebased explanations What to Provide 0 Commonality of tastes easier to agree Wcoethnics 2 Technologybased explanation How to Provide It 0 Efficacy common language experience understandings facilitate better cooperation 0 Findability I Coethnics more likely to share the same social network I Easier to find amp punish those Who do not cooperate in local provision effort Which fixes the freeriders problem 3 Social sanctioning explanation Free Ride Problem 0 Norms of cooperation may evolve Within groups but not across group boundaries I Failure to cooperate With in group members violates social norms amp expectationsgtsocial sanctioning I Linkage to idea from Economy of Affection 0 As a result people cooperate di erently when interacting with ingroup versus outgroup members I quotstrategy selectionquot I People choose a different strategy With in group vs outgroup members How to figure out Which matters Habyarimana et al39s strategy 0 Commonality of tastes I Otherregarding preferences 0 Finding no difference in how people play when playing with coethnics vs noncoethnics 0 Social sanctioning 0 Play the same game but with people watching I Provide monitor sometimes with your ethnic group amp sometimes those not in your ethnic group 0 Egoists those who don39t give any when not watched give more to co ethnics when they are being observed 0 When monitor is from your ethnic group you give more 0 Findabilitysocial network game 0 Results coethnic paring able to find person 43 of the time nonco ethnic pairing able to find person 28 of the time 0 Puzzle game 0 See if technology on ethnic side is different 0 No differences on ability to solve problems with ethnic group member or with other member Summary of Findings 0 Intergroup social sanctioning matters 0 Findability Matters Solutions 0 Don39t have a system where you have to rely on everyday people to enforce the law 0 State capacity 0 Nation building 0 Developing a national identity 0 EX Kenya vs Tanzania I Kenya More homogenous areas spending more on schools I Kenya education system I No common language until English in later grades I Focus on local amp provincial history culture amp issues I Don39t learn about common Kenyan issues until secondary school I Kenya national issues come later after most student have left school I Many students drop out before secondary school I Tanzania no relationship btw diversity amp money spent on schooling I Tanzania education system I Stresses common Tanzanian culture history amp values I Highlights common African experiences I Purposely cultivates sense of Tanzania national identity I Language standardized in school amp in governmentSwahili Overall Summary 0 Local ethnic diversity is correlated with less public goods provision 0 Patterns seems to be driven by 2 mechanisms p x Social norms that promote cooperation within groups 2 Groups are a proxy for social networkbeing part of the same network makes it harder to shirk local responsibilities which fosters cooperation 0 There are potential solution Elections amp Voting Themes from An African Election 1 Presidential elections are high stakes affairs Democratization did not alter institutional structure that concentrates power in Office of the President Had multiparty election but power President had is concentrated Have a strong system of vertical accountability such as individuals can vote Horizontal system of government checks amp balances aren39t strong Raises stakes amp tensions around elections 2 Electoral competition Little ideological or programmatic differences btw parties Parties all promise development amp better governance Competition about who is best able to deliver 3 Shadow of authoritarianism Sometimes former autocrats rebrand themselves as democrats Some parties were born during authoritarian rule In uence of former leaders can still be important amp sometimes problematic 4 Threats to voter autonomy Violence threats of violence intimidation can be common Ballot box snatching other forms of fraud Ex Ghana get a bunch of macho men to intimidate people by standing near voting box 5 Importance of independence amp credible electoral administration Politically important for results credibility Logistically running an election in a country with poor infrastructure is hard Timely delivery of results is critical to stemming tensions suspicions of fraud emerge when results are not forthcoming 0 Commitment to democracy Everyday citizens highly vigilant in protection of electoral integrity Commitment to democracy evident in surveys conducted across Africa Ethnic Voting the tendency for people to vote for people of their same ethnic group 0 What explains ethnic voting Psychological intrinsic motivations pride Instrumental motivations Expectation of ethnic favoritism People are fearful of marginalizationViolence if another group is in power
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