Psychology 1410 Exam 4 (Final) Study Guide
Psychology 1410 Exam 4 (Final) Study Guide Psy-1410-007
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Study Guide Exam 4 Applied Psychology vs. Experimental Psychology A branching off from experimental psychology Applied psychology areas o Clinical o Counseling o School – mostly working with younger kids and families Training of an Applied Psychologist o Undergraduate degree (4 years) o Graduate degree (4 years) o Internship (1 year) o Post-doctoral work (1-2 years) Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist Psychologists – trained in psychology (i.e. human development, clinical psych, etc.), therapists Psychiatrist – physician, medical school, can prescribe medication, usually make more money Roles of Applied Psych Assessment and diagnosis of individual’s mental health Treating and counseling o Looking at developing life skills and providing healthy coping mechanisms Consultation o Working with other people who know the individual being assessed Teaching o Courses at universities and colleges Research Abnormal Psychology What is abnormal? o Normal = typical, healthy o Abnormal = atypical, deviant, maladaptive o The Four D’s Deviance Statistical/social norms Distress Personal suffering Dysfunction Impaired functioning (work, relationship, play) Danger Risk of harm (to themselves or others) Shades of Abnormality o Ambiguous o Just because someone qualifies for one “D” doesn’t mean they are abnormal o Just because someone don’t qualify for ALL the “D’s” doesn’t mean they AREN’T abnormal Subjectivity o Diagnosis/categorization of mental illnesses can be very subjective o Rosenhan’s (1973) “Being Sane in Insane Places” study Group of psychologists infiltrated insane asylums and different mental institutions by pretending to have certain disorders and symptoms, and compared how everyone was treated and diagnosed Treatments all varied – there was a lack of reliability and validity o DSM-5: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5 th Edition) Scientific taxonomy of psychological disorders Set of standards so that everyone in the US can give a proper and reliable diagnosis of a patient – no differing of opinions Provides common framework Used to be a dichotomous system of diagnoses (you either have it or you don’t) Is now more of a scaled approach – on a spectrum of severity Axis I: Clinical Disorders Axis II: Personality disorders and intellectual disabilities Axis III: Medical conditions Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental factors Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning o Has the DSM system become too inclusive? The new editions are getting bigger (the newest edition is about 9x bigger than the first) Diathesis Stress Model How it explains psychological disorders o Shows the threshold for experiencing a disorder Weak disposition, can handle high stress Strong disposition, cannot handle high stress What is diathesis? o Tendency/Predisposition/Nature Psychological Disorders Schizophrenia o Symptoms Psychosis – loss of contact with reality Hallucinations – false sense of perception; mainly hearing (voices) Delusions – false beliefs (thinking they are Jesus) Neologisms – using words that don’t exist Word salad - a confused or unintelligible mixture of seemingly random words and phrases Loose associations – the patient’s responses don’t relate to the question asked (not logically connected) o Age of onset Adolescents or early adult hood o Hypothesized causes Changing in the brain during puberty Brain based condition (strong genetic component) o Historical and current treatments Historical Trephining – drilling holes in skull to let out bad spirits Isolation Current Antipsychotic medications o Block dopamine Psychological intervention Anxiety Disorders o Generalized Anxiety Disorder – chronic excessive worry for 6 months of more Symptoms: strong, long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on anything in particular, feeling anxious and preoccupied for weeks, feeling of impending doom, jumpy, irritable, can’t sleep soundly, fatigue, inability to concentrate Causes: accompanies depression or substance abuse o Panic Disorder – recurring, unpredictable episodes of overwhelming anxiety, fear or terror Symptoms – panic attack (think it’s a heart attack), sweating, heart palpitations, feeling faint Causes: biological or environmental Treatment – demystifying it; proactively using exercises; antianxiety o Phobias – a persistent, irrational unreasonable fear of some specific object, situation or activity Counter Conditioning – conditioning an unwanted behavior or response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior Systematic desensitization – systematic desensitization (slowly introduce and make them comfortable) o Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – an anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors you feel compelled to perform. Obsession – recurring thoughts that cause distress Compulsion – recurrent action that causes distress o Agoraphobia – an intense fear of being in a situation from which escape is not possible going out in public, panic attack connection Affected (Mood) Disorder Bipolar Disorder o Mania o 1% of adults o Tends to run in families – stronger than depression in genes o 2 extremes in mood Manic, depressive Manic episodes - A period of: Excessive euphoria Inflated self-esteem Optimism Hyperactivity Delusions of grandeur Hostility Manic episodes tend to spark creativity Major Depressive Disorder o Based on a spectrum o Feelings of overwhelming sadness that can persist for a long period of time o Symptoms: Sleeping longer or not at all Not eating No physical activity – stops doing the things they used to enjoy Difficulty thinking Do not take care of themselves (i.e. personal hygiene) Do not socialize with others o Treatments depend on where the personal lies on the spectrum o Depression is heritable AND environmental Dysthymic disorder o Type of depression o Symptoms: sad mood, lack of interest, loss of pleasure o To a lesser degree and for a longer period of time than major depression Suicide Trends o Gender Males are more likely to succeed in suicide Males usually use firearms Females are more likely to attempt suicide Females usually use drugs o Age 15% of 8 and 10 graders have attempted suicide White males towards the end of their lifespan are most at risk for suicide (ages 75-85) Debilitating condition, loss of spouse or loved ones, loss of future vision o Geography Rural areas more at risk No access to mental health care Less social connectivity o Location Usually at home More private o Timeframe Peaks during springtime Mondays Warning signs o 90% of individuals leaves clues o Verbal indicators (“you won’t be seeing me again”) o Behavioral clues Giving away possessions Withdrawal Unnecessary risks Personality changes Depressive symptoms Anxiety Eating behaviors (anorexia, bulimia) Sleep schedules Substance abuse Losing interest in favorite activities Kinship Studies of Psychological Disorders Heritability of Psychological Disorders o Bipolar disorder is most heritable, followed by schizophrenia Treatment Bio-psycho-social approach o Biological – prescribing drugs o Psychological – mental processes o Social – cultural factors Psychotherapy o Looking at thinking and behavioral skills, making plans for the future Types of therapy o Behavioral o Cognitive Behavioral o Humanistic o Group o Couples o Family Research on common factors of change o Client – who they are as a person (40%) o Emphasis is on establishing a healthy, positive relationship (30%) o Hope for the future (15%) o Type/technique (15%) Positive Psychology What is mental health? o The absence of psychopathology vs. the presence of wellness Negative psychology o “If there is something wrong, how do we make it better?” o Find what’s wrong, then fix it o Based on psychopathology Positive psychology o Preventing something wrong from happening o Find what’s right, then encourage it o Not trying to replace negative psychology Trying to augment it – balance out the scale o The scientific study of strength and virtues that enables individuals and communities to thrive Social Psychology Attributions Fundamental attribution hypothesis o Internal vs. external/situational o Example: you see a student asleep in class and think “what a slacker.” When YOU fall asleep in class, you wake up and think “I’ve just had a lot going on in my life, I was working late, I didn’t get any sleep late night….” o The tendency to attribute other people’s behavior to internal factors: actor-observer effect o Fundamental attribution error: a bias toward attributing behavior of others to internal factors o Tends to be self-serving bias Example: Getting an F: “the teacher is bad,” “I was too busy this semester” – external and situational factors Getting an A: “I am a genius,” “I did so good” – internal and dispositional factors Stable (unchangeable) vs. Unstable (temporary) o Healthy person: something bad happens, and they realize that this bad feeling is only temporary o Unhealthy/depressed person: something bad happens, they think things will always be bad in their life Just-world Hypothesis o The belief that the world is just and people get what they deserve o Examples: blaming the victim Self-fulfilling prophecy: an initial impression causes us to bring out behavior in another that confirms impression Groups and Social Influence Deindividualization o A state in which people in a group can feel anonymous and unidentifiable and therefore feel less concerned with what others think of their behavior Diffusion of Responsibility o The reduction of personal responsibility of each group member to act appropriately o The bystander effect – “somebody else will help, so I don’t have to” o Kitty Genovese (1935-1964) Was walking home one night Was attacked and stabbed twice by a man She called out for help, and several neighbors heard her, one of which yelled out “let that girl alone!” Attacker fled, but then came back and stabbed her several more times, where Kitty then died Interviewer came and talked to bystander neighbors (approx. 12 people), and they all said that they figured someone else would have helped her Latane and Rodin (1969) o Experiments to study the bystander effect for when the bystander is alone and when they’re in groups Alone = 70% helped a person in need With another person who doesn’t help = 7% helped Darley and Latane (1968) Smoke-filled Room Study o Smoke starts to fill the room in which the participate is in, they go investigate, and then calmly leave the area o Smoke fills the room with the participant along with other people, and when no one else says anything, the participant just sits there and doesn’t leave o People are prone to not act when they should act when in groups Social Loafing – riding on other people’s hard work without doing anything yourself o A tendency to work less hard when group performance is measured o Example: a large group goes out to dinner, people are prone to leave a smaller tip for their server than they would if they were in a smaller group or alone Traditional Individualistic View o Who is responsible? o Who caused it? o Who gets the blame? o Who gets credit? o Examples: Law – culpability Medicine – disease Religion – sin o Instead, consider: Social influences Situational conditions Solomon Asch (1907-1996) o First to study conformity o In 74% of the cases, the participants conformed to the pressure of the group Factors the increase the likelihood of conformity o Group size o Unanimous groups o Authority figure Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment o Students were randomly assigned to roles: “Inmates” vs. “officers” They took up their roles so seriously, they actually became them “inmates” suffered from mental breakdowns “officers/guards” would mentally and psychically abuse inmates – something they would never do otherwise Milgram’s Obedience to Authority Experiment o The shock experiment Participant is the “teacher,” other person (who is in on the experiment, but this is unknown to the participant) is the “student” Participant asks “student” questions, and if the answer is wrong, delivers a shock to the “student” Shocks get stronger which each wrong answer “student” isn’t really getting shocked, but participant thinks they are Experiment to see if the participant will stop administering the shocks as they get more intense, even if the experiment instructor tells them to continue o Findings: 65% of participants continued to the end of the experiment o “With numbing regularity, good people were seen to knuckle under the demands of authority and perform actions that were callous and severe” – Milgram Slippery Slope of Evil –Zimbardo’s 7 social processes: o Mindlessly taking the first small step o Dehumanization of others o The deindividualization of self (Anonymity) o Diffusion of personal responsibility o Blind obedience to authority o Uncritical conformity to group norms o Passive tolerance of evil through inaction, or indifference “Heroism the Antidote to Evil” – Zimbardo o Ordinary people who do ordinary extraordinary deeds o Example: Wesley Autrey: saved a man who had a seizure and fell onto a subway train track – Autrey jumped on the track and got on top of the man while a train passed over the top of them – saved the man’s life Social facilitation o Conformity in a positive manner o Example: child is having behavioral issues; place the child in a social setting for him to see other children doing what they are supposed to be doing; the difficult child conforms and does the pro-social activity Attitudes and Persuasion Cognitive dissonance o The discomfort that results from inconstancies between thought and behavior Will result in a person changing either their thought or changing their behavior to relieve the friction When feelings and facts are in opposition, people will find or invent a way to reconcile them Techniques to induce attitude change o Foot-in-the-door technique It’s better to get your “foot in the door” first before you ask someone outright to do something Create a relationship in order for you to comply Example: after graduation, MTSU will call you and ask how you are doing, what your college experience was like, etc. then they will start asking for donations to the school o Door-in-the-face technique Going to the extreme and asking something totally unreasonable, so that your goal question doesn’t seem so bad or far-fetched o Modeling Example: parents want kids to read more- kids see Dora reading on TV, makes them want to read o Lowballing Technique Example: car shopping Love and Attraction Sternberg’s Triangle of Love o 3 components: Intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment o Intimacy – the feeling of closeness Sharing info, secret, that you don’t share with anyone else o Passion – sexual attraction and the desire for sexual intimacy (quick to fade) o Decision/commitment – the decision that one is “in love” The willingness to label it as such, and a commitment to maintain that relationship Can be unspoken Attraction o Depends partly on situational factors and partly on personal characteristics Matching hypothesis o The notion that people are most likely to form a committed relationship with someone who is similar to themselves and in psychical attractiveness Similarity o People like other who are similar to them o Ex: age, appearance, religion, habits, hobbies Proximity o Attraction will increase with physical proximity (as long as there wasn’t an immediate dislike to begin with) Familiarity Physical Attractiveness o Important in early stages in a relationship
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