Bio 1107 Exam 5 Study Guide
Bio 1107 Exam 5 Study Guide BIOL 1107
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Behavioral Sciences at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Bio 1107 Exam 5 Learning Objectives Mitosis Describe what is meant by the term “cell cycle.” Distinguish between Interphase and M-phase of the cell cycle and what happens during each. Distinguish between DNA, Chromosomes, and Chromatin. Draw a diagram that illustrates the difference between condensed and uncondensed chromosomes. Distinguish between sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes. Describe what takes place during each of the five stages of M- phase during Mitosis. Draw a diagram that illustrates the function of each of the following structures during mitosis. o Microtubule spindle o Kinetochore o Cleavage furrow o Daughter cells o Sister chromatids Describe how the G1, G2, and M checkpoints regulate cell division and how a cell would be affected if any of them fail. Meiosis Describe what is meant by the terms “haploid” and “diploid.” Draw a diagram that illustrates the difference between sister- chromatids and homologous chromosomes. Describe in general terms what takes place during each of the stages of M-phase of Meiosis. Distinguish between end results of Mitosis and Meiosis. Describe key differences in chromosomal behavior observed during Mitosis, Meiosis I, and Meiosis II. Draw a diagram illustrating the behavior of the chromosomes in a cell with 1, 2, and 3 homologous pairs of chromosomes during Mitosis and Meiosis. It is possible to distinguish between each of the different homologous chromosomes in a cell (e.g. chromosome 1a and 1b). o For a cell containing 1 or 2 homologous pairs or chromosomes, describe how a non-disjunction event during Meiosis I or Meiosis II would affect the chromosomal makeup of the resulting daughter cells. o For a couple in which the different homologues of chromosome 21 have been identified in each parent (e.g. Parent 1: 21a, 21b; Parent 2: 21c, 21d), determine when and where non-disjunction took place during Meiosis if given the genetic complement for chromosome 21 in a child with Down Syndrome (e.g. 21a, 21b, 21c; 21b, 21b, 21d; etc.) Mendelian Inheritance Distinguish between what is meant by each of the following combination of terms Gene and allele o Haploid and diploid o Genotype and Phenotype o Dominant and recessive trait o Homozygous and heterozygous o Homologous chromosomes Explain what is meant by the term “true breeding.” Describe a Punnett square and explain how you can use one to predict the types and frequencies of offspring produced when following alleles for 1-2 genes. Describe the blending hypothesis of inheritance and give an example that disproves this idea. If shown a cross involving two alleles for a gene, determine which of the two alleles is dominant. If given an individual that displays a dominant phenotype for a simple trait, design a cross that would best enable you to determine the genotype of that unknown individual. Predict the genotypes, phenotypes, and their frequencies of the offspring produced by a cross between two individuals if given these individual’s genotypes for o One simple trait o Two simple traits Predict the genotypes of the parents if given the frequency at which either the genotype or phenotype for one or two simply inherited traits appear in their offspring. Complex Traits and X-linkage Explain the concept of dominant and recessive traits to a non- expert. Describe how the sex chromosomes differ from the autosomes. Distinguish between incomplete and co-dominant traits and describe how these traits are inherited differently than simple traits. Determine the affect of a lethal gene on phenotypic ratio. Describe how the sex chromosomes behave during meiosis. Explain why sex linked recessive traits are more frequently observed in men than in women. Predict the frequency at which a phenotype caused by an X- linked gene will be passed on to the offspring form parents of a given genotype. If given the frequency of a X-linked phenotype among offspring, determine the genotype of the parents. What is X-inactivation and how does it influence phenotypes caused by X-linked genes? Tracing Inheritance in Humans Explain what a “pedigree” is to a non-expert and how this applies to humans. Predict probabilities for inheriting traits for monohybrid crosses. If given the genotypes of the parents, predict the likelihood of a given phenotype appearing in their offspring. Determine the following from a human pedigree o Whether an individual is male or female o Whether an individual displays a given phenotype or not. o Whether a trait displays a Dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance Autosomal or sex-linked pattern of inheritance o The potential genotypes of an individual based on inheritance patterns observed in in the pedigree The likelihood of an individual possessing a particular genotype based on inheritance patterns observed in in the pedigree Meiosis and Mendel Define each of the following o Mendel’s Laws of Segregation o Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment Describe how the chromosomes in a diploid organism are distributed among daughter cells during meiosis. Describe how chromosome behavior during meiosis explains o The law of segregation o The law of independent assortment Assume you have an organism that is heterozygous for three different genes (A/a, B/b, and D/d). These genes are found on two different chromosomes (two on one chromosome and one on another). Draw a diagram that shows the chromosomes (in a condensed state) and the alleles found on each before and after S-phase o Draw a diagram that illustrates how the different possible arrangements for these two pairs of chromosomes during metaphase of meiosis I. o Predict the types of daughter cells (gametes) that could be produced by this cell Assuming no crossing over takes place. Assuming crossing over does take place. Linkage and Mapping Genes Explain how the process of independent assortment of genes and their alleles is related to the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis. Explain to a non-expert the process of homologous recombination or “crossing over.” Describe the type and frequency of gametes produced by an individual heterozygous for two genes (AaBb) when o The genes are located on separate chromosomes. o The genes are located on the same chromosome and no crossing over takes place. o The genes are located on the same chromosome and crossing over takes place between the genes in a given % of meiotic divisions. Predict if two genes are located on the same chromosome (or not) based on the offspring produced by a test cross involving an individual heterozygous for both genes. Predict the type and frequency of offspring produced by a test cross involving an individual heterozygous for two or more genes when the genes are located on the same chromosome and crossing over between each gene takes place in a given % of meiotic divisions. Determine the relative positions and create a linkage map for two or more genes on a chromosome if given the type and number of offspring produced from a test cross involving an individuals heterozygous for these genes.
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