Anatomy Lecture Study Guide for Exam 2
Anatomy Lecture Study Guide for Exam 2 Biol 240- Fundamentals of Human Anatomy
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Payton Tallent on Tuesday February 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 240- Fundamentals of Human Anatomy at Kansas taught by Dr. Victor H. Gonzalez in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 246 views.
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Date Created: 02/24/15
Exam 2 study guide Below is the list of topicsstructures that Will be included in the lecture Exam 2 a What are bones a Bone are made up of many different kinds of tissue and they are part of the structure of our body We have bones for these reasons i Support ii Movement iii Protection iv Mineral storage V Blood cell formation and energy storage vi Energy metabolism b Are bones considered organs Why a Yes bones are considered organs because they contain several different types of tissues including i Bone tissue Which predominates ii Nervous tissue in nerves iii Blood tissue in blood vessels iv Cartilage in articular cartilages v Epithelial tissue lining blood vessels c What are sutural and sesamoid Bones a Sutural bones are extra bones inside of one s skull These are markers for disease down syndrome b Sesamoid bones are bones that develop from the tendons patella d What makes up the skeletal system a Bones cartilage ligaments and other connective tissue e What is the function of the skeletal system a Support protection body movement homopoiesis and mineral storage f What are the types of cartilage tissue Where are they found a Hyaline cartilage is found in places like articular cartilage of a joint or the coastal cartilage the cartilage in intervertebral discs and the larynx trachea and lung b Elastic cartilage is found in places like the ear and nose c Fibrocartilage is found in places like the meniscus articular cartilage of a joint and the pubic symphysis g What is the difference between ligaments and tendons Which one prevents and Which one promotes movement a Ligaments attach bone to bone and prevent movement b Tendons attach bone to muscle and promotes movement h What are osteoblasts osteoclasts and osteocytes a Osteoblasts are what secrete collagen and matrix and also hormones that regulate sugar metabolism b Osteoclasts are monofied monocytes that are large multinuclear bone resorbing cells They secrete acid to disolve mineral part of bone c Osteocytes are mature cells formed when matrix surrounds osteoblasts i What are long short at and irregular bones What are their functions Where are they found a Long bones are more common bones They are found in the upperlower extremities and act as levers b Short bones are about as long as they are wide They articulate and distribute forces carpals tarpals sesmoid bones c Flat bones are the skull ribs and scapula They are extensive to the surface for muscles attachment Homopoeisis in adults d Irregular bones are bones with complex shape os coxae vertebrae some in skull j What are projections articulations and depressionscavities a Projections are lines and crests b Articulations are heads facets and condyles This is at surface where something else can attach c Depressions and cavities are what look like indentions k What is the gross anatomy of a long bone ie diaphysis epiphysis etc a Proximal epiphysis articular cartilage spongy bone epiphyseal line b Metaphysis c Diaphysis compact bone medullary cavity endosteum periosteum perforating fibers and nutrient artery d Metaphysis e Distal epiphysis articular cartilage 1 What is the function of red and yellow bone marrow Where are they located in adults and children a In children it is found in the spongy bone and medullary cavity in most bones Red bone marrow produces red blood cells b In adults red bone marrow is found in at bones Yellow bone marrow make red blood cells in emergency cases m What are compact and spongy bones What are their functions Where are they located a To the human eye compact bone looks solid but it is riddled with passage ways for blood vessels and nerves Compact bone is in places like the shaft of a long bone b Spongy bone looks like a sponge This type of bone distributes stress and reduces weight It is located in the epiphyseal plate on long bones 11 What is ossification a Ossification is bone remodeling o What is endochondral and intramembranous ossification aa a Endochondral ossification is development of models from hyaline cartilage Most skeleton develops this way b Intramembranous ossification develops from mesenchyme Where do diametric and vertical growths occur a Diametric growths occur at the periosteum of diaphysis b Vertical growths occur at the epiphyseal plate What is periosteum endosteum and perichondrium Where are they found a Periosteum covers the entire outer surface of each bone except on the ends of the epiphyses b Endosteum covers internal bone surfaces trabeculae of spongy bone c Perichondrium is the connective tissue that envelops the cartilage where it is not at a joint What are fontanelles What is the purpose for fontanelles a Fontanelles are growth spots on babies heads They allow for rapid growth of the brain and other changes during child birth What are the functions of the bones of the cranium a Enclose and protect the brain b Provide attachment sites for some muscles of the head and the neck What are the functions of the bones of the face a Form framework of the face b Form cavities for sense cavities c Provide opening for passage of air and food d Hold the teeth in place e Anchor the muscles of the face What structure is formed by the palantine and the maxilla a Hard palate What is interesting about the hyoid bone a There are no bony articulations b It is suspended by styloid process What is interesting about the ear ossicles a Middle ear cavity and involved in sound transmission What are paranasal sinuses What are their functions a They lighten the facial bones and are a resonance for your voice How many vertebrae do you have a 33 What are the vertebral regions How many vertebrae are in each region a Cervical vertebrae7 b Thoracic verterbrae12 c Lumbar vertebrae5 d Sacral5 e Coccyx4 What are primary and secondary curvatures a Primary curvature is the cshape at birth b Secondary curvature is the cervical and lumbar ab What are the abnormal curvatures lordosis scoliosis etc a Lordosis b Kyphosis c Scoliosis Note Be able to identify the bones and the bony features listed below You should also know the location in the body in anatomical position lateral medial etc as well as the bones they articulate with I 1 Sutures A Adult Skull Coronal Lambdoid Squamous Occipitomastoid B Fetal Skull Fontanelles Anterior Fontanelle Frontal Mastoid Fontanelle Be able to locate and name the cranial and facial bones 2 Cranial fossae A Anterior Cranial Fossa B Middle Cranial Fossa C Posterior Cranial Fossa 3 Facial Bones A Frontal B Parietal C Occipital Occipital condyle Foramen magnum What structure passes through here Extemal Occipital Protuberance D Temporal Styloid Process Mastoid Process Extemal Acoustic Meatus Zygomatic Process Facial Bones A Sphenoid Lesser and Greater Wings Superior Orbital Fissure Optic Canal Sella Turcica What structure of the brain sits here B Ethmoid Cribiform plate What structure passes through here Crista Galli Perpendicular Plate C Vomer D Inferior Nasal Conchae E Maxilla Frontal Process Alveolar Process F Palatine G Zygomatic H Nasal I Lacrimal J Mandible Mandibular condyle K Hyoid L Ear Ossicles 4 Openings between bones A Foramen Lacerum B Jugular Foramen C Inferior Orbital Fissure D Paranasal Sinuses 5 Vertebral Column Intervertebral discs A Cervical Lamina Pedicle Transverse Foramen Know C1 and C2 differences from rest of cervical vertebrae B Thoracic Transverse costal facets Superior and inferior costal facets C Lumbar Body Lamina Pedicle Transverse Process Spinous Process Vertebral foramen Articular Facets D Sacrum E Coccyx 6 Axial Skeleton A Sternum Manubrium Body Xiphoid process B Ribs 1 Upper Limb A ClaVicle B Scapula Glenoid Cavity Acromion Coracoid Process Spine Supraspinous Fossa Infraspinous Fossa Subscapular Fossa C Humerus Greater and lesser tubercles Deltoid Tuberosity Capitulum Trochlea Olecranon Fossa D Radius Head Radial bicipital tuberosity Styloid process E Ulna Olecranon process Styloid process 2 The Hand A Carpals B Metacarpals thumb has different name pollex C Phalanges Proximal Phalanx Middle Phalanx Distal Phalanx 3 Lower Limb A Hip Bone acetabulum Ilium Iliac crest Ischium Ischial spine Pubis Pubis symphysis B Femur Head Neck Greater and Lesser Trochanter Linea Aspera C Patella D Tibia Medial and Lateral condyles Intercondylar eminence Medial Malleolus E Fibula 4 The Foot A Tarsals B Metatarsals big toe has a different name hallux C Phalanges Proximal Phalanx Middle Phalanx Distal Phalanx 9 What are joints a Joints are formed when two bones are connected How they are classified a How much movement is possible between bones functional b Type od connective tissue that holds the bones and presenceabsence of joint cavity structural What are the types of joints according to the functional classification Where are they found a Synarthroses No movement skull Axial skeleton b Amphiarthroses Slightly movement Intervertebral discs Axial skeleton c Diarthroses Freely moveable joints all synovial joints knee hip Appendicular skeleton What are the types of joints according to the structural classification Where are they are found a Fibrous skull unla radius teethsockets b Cartilaginous first rib and sternum c Synovial Most common knee joint shoulder joint ball and socket Is the axial or appendicular skeleton associated with synarthroses amphiarthroses or diarthroses a Axial synarthroses and amphiarthroses b Appendicular diarthroses f How are the structure and function of the joint related Refer to joint chart a Diarthroses i All synovial joints bc you want them to move b Synarthroses i Mixed between fibrous and cartilaginous bc you don t want to move c Amphiarthroses i Mixed between fibrous and cartilaginous bc you want a slight movement g What are synovial joints What are they composed of a Synovial joints i Joints held together by fibrous capsule forming synovial cavity ii Most moveable joints of the body iii Most common joint b Its composed of hyaline cartilage and dense connective tissue h What are synovial membranes What is synovial uid What are the functions of the two a Synovial membrane i Loose connection tissue ii That secretes synovial uid iii Cleans nourishes absorbs impact prevents ossification i What are bursae a Bursae lubricate points of friction b Dissipate force j What are the types of synovial joints depending on the movement ie biaxial saddle condyloid etc a NonAxial plane joint b Uniaxial hinge and pivot c Biaxial saddle and condyloid d Multiaxial ball and socket a What is contractility excitability extensibility and elasticity a Contractility shortens in length and moves body part b Excitability responds to a stimulus such as nerve signals c Extensibility it can be stretched opposite muscles d Elasticity it returns to original length after being stretched b What are the functions of the muscular system a Body movement i Body parts voluntary involuntary b Heat production C d i Converts 75 energy in heat c Posture i Holds organs d Opens and closes body passages ways i Sphincter muscles e Medical i Injection sites What are the main differences among the three types of muscle tissue skeletal smooth cardiac a Skeletal i Striated with peripheral multinuclei b Smooth i Nonstriated with single central nuclei ii Found in visceral organs blood vessel walls c Cardiac i Striated with single central nuclei ii Intercalated discs dark lines What is the difference between the origin and insertion of a muscle a Origin i Attaches to stationary bone ii Usually proximal iii Where it begins b Insertion i Attached to moveable bone ii Usually distal iii Where it ends Types of tendons What are aponeuroses tendon sheaths and retinaculum a Aponeuroses i Flat sheet like tendons 1 Abdominal muscles 2 Latissimus dorsi b Tendon sheaths i Modified bursae 1 Wrist and ankles c Retinaculum i Covers groups of tendons 1 Extensor and exor Associated connective tissue epimysium perimysium and endomysium Of the three layers which are the innermost and outermost layers What is the function of the associated connective tissue a Epimysium i Outermost layer continuous with tendon ii Surrounds the whole skeletal muscle 10 b Perimysium i Middle layer ii Surrounds each fascicle c Endomysium i The innermost ii Surrounds the muscle fibers Within the fascicles iii Electrically insulates individual muscle fibers g What are prime mover or agonist synergistic and antagonistic muscles a Prime mover agonist i Major responsibility for producing a movement b Synergistic i Muscles that cross the same joint ii Contract together iii Have similar actions iv Fixators hold a bone in place c Antagonistic i Have opposite functions ii On opposite sides h How the position of a muscle as it crosses a joint determines the muscles action a Anterior is extion b Posterior is extension c Lateral is abduction d Medial is adduction i How are skeletal muscles named a Direction rectus Oblique b Size i Longus long ii Brevis short iii Miximus Large iv Vastus huge Location brachial abdominal Association With bones temporal OriginInsertion sternohyoid of origins biceps triceps Shape deltoid trapezius Action extensor exor abduction adduction j What are the muscle compartments of the limbs a Dense fibrous connective tissue divides muscle of the limbs into anatomical compartments Muscles With similar dev Origin and function Function synergistically and antagonistically Some share origin and insertion e Each compartment innervated by a single named nerve k What is unique about facial muscles qutmgp 999 11 a They are connecting muscle to face 1 Arrangement of fascicles parallel parallel convergent pennate unipennate bipennate and multipennate and circular What are they a Parallel i Fascicles parallel to long axis of muscle ii Contract over a great distance iii Good endurance but not strong 1 Abdominals b Convergent i Fascicles converging towards insertion point to maximize contraction 1 Pectoralis major c Pennate i Form a common angle With tendon ii There are many fibers per area iii They are strong but tire out quickly 1 Unipennate a Fascicles on one side of the tendon 2 Bipennate a Fascicles on two sides of the tendon 3 Multipennate a Tendon branches With the muscle d Circular i Fascicles forming rings a ii Act as sphincter m What is a motor unit What does the motor unit consist of How do they vary among muscles What principle does the fibers obey What is the neuromuscular junction a Motor unit i A motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates b Motor unit consist of i Motor neuron axon ii Terminal buttons at neuromuscular junctions c Principle does the fibers obey i One per muscle fiber d Neuromuscular junction i Point at Which the nerve ending and fiber meet Shoulder joint a What bones are in the shoulder region a Scapula b Humurus b What muscles act on this joint a Deltoid b Teres major c Lat Dorsi d Pectoralis Major e Biceps c What type of joint is this a Ball and socket joint i Synovial joint d What are the rotator cuff muscles SITS muscles a Supraspinatus b Infraspinatus c Teres minor d Subscapularis e What is the difference between shoulder separation and shoulder dislocation f What is the acromioclavicular ligament a The ligament that attaches you acromion process to your clavicle Knee joint a What bones are in this joint a Femur b Patella c Tibia b What muscles act on this joint a Extensors i Quadriceps b Flexors i Hamstring group ii Gastrocnemius c Rotators i Popliteus 1 Tibia 2 Femur c What types of joints are found a Hinge joint tibia and fibula b Gliding hoint patella and femur d What are intracapsular and extracapsular ligaments a Intrascapular i Anterior cruciate 1 Weaker 2 Prevents hyperextension 3 Prevents anterior displacement ii Posterior 1 Stronger 2 Prevents hyper exion 3 Prevents posterior displacement b Extrascapular i Patellar ii Medial collateral iii Later collateral 13
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