BMS 212 Final Exam
BMS 212 Final Exam BMS 212
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 212 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Leonard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Glycocalyx: sticky external sheath (loose=slime layer, attached=capsule) Prokaryotes: Archaea and Bacteria; perform transcription/translation at same time b/c lack nucleus flagella: made of flagellin and allows for phototaxis & chemotaxis Taxis: movement in response to a stimulus Cell wall: made of peptidoglycan, repeating NAG/NAM units Eukaryotes: Algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, plants; larger w/nucleus Biofilm: group of bacteria working together—more pathogenic and adherence is better Catabolism: break down chemical in metabolism (exergonic—release energy) Anabolism: synthesize larger molecules from fragments (endergonic— requires energy) Substrate level phosphylation: transfer of phosphate to ADP from another phosphorylated organic compound Oxidative phosphorylation: energy from redox rxns attach inorganic phosphate to ADP Photophosphorlyation: light energy to phosphorylate ADP with inorganic phosphate Apoenzyme: proteins in combination to make enzymes Cofactors: non-protein structures that allow enzymes to be active (organic/inorganic) Coenzymes: organic cofactor Holoenzyme: binding of apoenzyme and cofactor Competitive inhibitors: shape to active site and prevent substrate binding Noncompetitive inhibitors: prevent activity by binding to allosteric site Allosteric inhibition: binds to allosteric site to change active site shape and prevent activity Excitatory allosteric control: binding at allosteric site allows for substrate to fit in active site Feedback inhibition (negative feedback): product of later enzyme acts as allosteric inhibitor for one of previous enzymes to prevent activity when not needed Chemiosmosis: ion gradient for ATP synthesis Fermentation: partial oxidation of sugar to use energy of organic molecules Protease: splits proteins into amino acids Photoautotrophs: light as energy source, carbon dioxide as carbon source Chemoautotrophs: energy from chemical compounds, carbon from carbon dioxide Photoheterotrophs: energy from light, carbon from organic compounds Chemoheterotrophs: chemical compounds for energy, carbon from organic source Obligate aerobes: oxygen is essential Obligate anaerobes: poisoned in presence of oxygen Facultative aerobes: metabolism slowed but function with fermentation Aerotolerant anaerobes: tolerate oxygen with enzyme to break down Growth factors: organic chemicals that cannot be synthesized but needed for growth Psychophiles: grow best bellow 15 degrees Celcius Thermophiles: grow best above 40 d celcius Quorum sensing: detect cell density nearby and create biofilms Antagonist relationship: one microbe is damaged/killed as result Synergist relation: increase chance of survival for both but can thrive w/o Symbiotic relationship: become dependent on each other to survive Clinical specimen: sample of human material Defined media: exact chemical composition known Complex media: contains partial digestion of beef, yeast, soy, or protein *exact formula unknown Lyophilization: removing water from frozen specimens Desiccation: drying to preserve food Nucleoid: location of prokaryotic circular molecule of DNA Plamids: DNA that replicated independently of chromosomes Genotype: set of organisms genes in their genome Phenotype: set of physical features and functions Transcription: DNA copied to RNA nucleotide sequences Translation: RNA molecules of ribosomes synthesize peptides Promoters: located at beginning of gene and initiate transcription Silent mutations: code for the same gene Missense mutation: codes for different amino acid Nonsense codon: changes codon to stop codon Nucleotide analogs: similar in structure to normal nucleotides Horizontal gene transfer: passing of genes from donor cell to recipient in same generation Transformation: take up gene from outside environment (dead organisms) Transduction: transfer DNA from once to the next by replicating virus Bacteriophage/phage: virus that infects bacteria Conjugation: donor remains alive and needs physical contact b/w cells Sterilization: remove/destroy all viable microoganisms—endospores and viruses Sanitaiton: remove organism/debris on inanimate objects to a safe level Disinfection: destroying vegetative cells on inanimate surface (homes) Antisepsis: chemical removes organisms from living tissue Degermination: cleaning animate objects by scrubbing—physically removing Thermal death point: lowest temp to kill an organism in a given period Thermal death time: shortest time to organism at certain temperature Ionizing radiation: sufficient energy to remove electrons creating ions Non-ionizing radiation: affect dimensional shape of molecules Therapeutic Index: rate safety of antimicrobials (toxic dose/therapeutic dose) *larger safer Opsonins: increase quantity and kind of binding sites for microbe to increase phagocytosis Toll-like receptors: protein on membrane that acts as warning to trigger immunity Interferons: proteins released by host to non-specifically stop spread of infection Type I (alpha/beta): protective steps for neighboring uninfected cells Type II (gamma): produced by active T cell/natural killer cells Innate immunity: present at birth; physical barriers and cells/cell processes Adaptive immunity: immune response from B and T cells
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