Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide MC 495 Griffin
Popular in MC 495 - Special Topics: Creativity
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melanie Viering on Tuesday February 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC 495 Griffin at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by W. Glenn Griffin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 308 views. For similar materials see MC 495 - Special Topics: Creativity in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/24/15
MC 495 Creativity Midterm Study Guide Creativity the generation of ideas that are both novel and useful for solving problems need to have a benefit to someone other than you Muse according to Greek mythology nine goddesses who preside over the arts and sciences Daemon according to Greek mythology a divinity or supernatural being of a nature between gods and humans Lateral Thinking thinking correctly about a problem to solve it Linear Thinking using prior knowledge and logic to solve a problem Sublimation process of redirecting sexual energy also aggression into other behaviors usually sex why homosexual men are stereotyped as being fashionistas Recursive ability to go back to previous steps in a process Intelligence knowledge or what we know Intellect how we process knowledge Convergent one right answer to a problem Divergent many possible valuable acceptable answers mind maps Production how we process information to solve a problem convergentdivergent Domain specialty or field of expertise Intrinsic Motivation internally motivated do it because you want to it is of no consequence whether you are good or not see Ferris Bueller39s clarinet jam session necessary for to occur Extrinsic Motivation externally motivated award money etc does not facilitate alone but does not always hurt either Connectors know many different kinds of people make friends easily maintain weak ties usually for strategic reasons example Condi Rice Mavens like to provide information to other people but NOT a knowitall motivated to educated and assist but not persuade both a student and a teacher example Martha Stewart Salesmen build trust and rapport with others easily use subtle nonverbal cues in many cases they do not know they are a salesman example Bill Clinton we discussed his empathetic lip bite Team group of people organized to work together Nominal Group individuals work alone before teamwork begins Dyad two individuals working together who are considered partners academic term not used in real life Synergy the result of group interaction individual knowledge and personality differences Adaptor likes working within defined boundaries and in deliberate methodical manners Innovator likes to play with problems and may even redefine a problem they don t like Bridger translates between the innovators and adaptors Groupthink pressure to achieve consensus results in agreement to adopt a bad idea example Challenger explosion incident with equipment under new freezing conditions Social Loafing underperformance by a team member believing that someone else will pick up their slack Production Blocks some team members ideas get lost while others are sharing their own ideas still waters run deep meaning quieter group members could have the best ideas TaskBased Conflict can happen when the discussion is about the work a conflict of ideas ProcessBased Conflict disagreements about strategies plans divisions of labor and responsibilities for getting work done when the group leader says something like I decide when this meeting is over RelationshipBased Conflict negative interpersonal interactions among team members reason for human relations departments in companies worst to alleviate of all conflicts example Dr Griffin s coworker s tragic unrequited love turned to spite made productive collaboration near impossible Positive Affect the extent to which an individual subjectively experiences positive moods such as joy interest and alertness how much fun they are having SelfEfficacy one39s belief in one39s ability to succeed in specific situations can play a major role in how one approaches goals tasks and challenges Leader hold formal positions of influence or demonstrate an informal influence on others 0 Transactional does the job example Tim Cook as Apple CEO the cool factor is eroding but worth noting the size of the shoes he was appointed to fill o Transformational more than just a leader admirable Steve Jobs as a business innovator transcended the job of being a CEO Bear Bryant and Nick Saban players say mushy life stuff about them and notjust things about football ae transcended job Epistemology branch of philosophy on knowledge and learning PerformanceOriented most concerned about appearing successful or competant instead of making real progress motivation primarily example GPA crazed students MasteryOriented highly focused on understanding doesn t fear failure and doesn t compare themselves with others motivation is primarily Human Capital specific skills and knowledge which enter into the productive process Buying Low buying something that has a low value in the hopes that it will increase in value creatively this means putting stock in ideas many thing would you would be crazy to invest time andor money in Selling High selling something at its peak value Metacognition how we leverage our own understanding of how we think and how we mentally supervise the achievement of a cognitive goal in other words thinking about and understanding how you think Plato 4th3rd cent philosopher proponent of argued that a person s creative power comes from Rudyard Kipling author of The Jungle Book proponent of cited a that lives in the writer s pen Edward de Bono author and corporate trainer on how to harness creativity for money proponent of coined the term Alex Osborn BBDO cofounder and coexecutive proponent of developed Sigmund Freud psychologist proponent of believed creativity is the expression of unconscious desires in a publicly acceptable form coined term Graham Wallas political scientist and sociologist author of The Age of Thought where he proposed the proponent of JP Guiliford psychologistscholar proponent of developed the E Paul Torrance psychologist proponent of developed Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi proponent of developed and Teresa Amabile proponent of developed also worked on Malcolm Gladwell author of The Tipping Point Blink Outliers David amp Goliath concepts associated with him Kitty Genovese woman who was stabbed to death in New York with 37 witnesses popularized John Flavell developmental psychologist specializing in children39s cognitive development developed Key Barriers to the Study of Creativity strong connections with mysticism and spirituality academic research is confounded by view of creativity as peripheral psychological phenomenon no operational definition earliest studies conducted were very narrowly drawn example jazz musicians The Mystical Perspective creativity is divine inspiration a creative person is an empty vessel filled with inspiration by a divine are major proponents The Pragmatist Perspective primarily concerned with developing creativity secondarily with understanding it but not so much with testing its theories are major proponents The Psychodynamic Perspective based on the idea that creativity arises from the tension between conscious reality and unconscious drives example sex drive based on ideas of The Psychometric Perspective creativity can be studied via penpaper tasks major proponent and his The Cognitive Perspective seeks to understand the mental representations and processes underlying creative thought the scholarly perspective major proponents I accompanying concepts and the The SocialPersonality Perspective focuses on personality variables motivational variables and sociocultural environment as sources of creativity see and see also and Brainstorming technique for generating ideas groups of three to seven people someone writes all ideas down someone else enforces guidelines 0 four guidelines 0 suspend judgement 0 record every idea 0 encourage oddunusual ideas 0 encourage people to build on ideas of others The FourStage Process Model of Creativity 0 stages everyone who has a creative idea goes through these 0 preparation collect information o incubation nurturemarinate information both consciously and subconsciously I difficult to study because it happens in your head 0 illumination moment of getting an idea 0 verification check if the ideas is any good 0 assumptions 0 simple 0 discrete o sequential The Art of Thought 1926 where proposed the IQ vs CQ Scores intelligence quota vs curiosity quota even if you are not intelligent a drive to learn about a particular subject shows in a C0 the tests you would take to see what field you should get a job in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking TTCT designed for children asks questions like how can you make this toy more fun problem with this is scoring is subjective but intercoder reliability multiple graders as a checksbalances helps validate results 0 test scoring criteria 0 fluency total number of responses to a question 0 flexibility number of different categories represented by responses variety 0 originality statistical rarity answers that ten children came up with are less original than an answer that only one or two children came up with o elaboration amount of detail in an answer a spaceship or a spaceship with seven different specified parts and a back story Structure of Intellect Model fondly referred to as the Rubic s Cube from Hell contents semantics and symbols products what comes out of our head our ideas operations how you process the contents evaluation memory store information cognition recall information Theory of Domain Specificity s creative process looks differently depending upon the in which it is applied separates from which applies to everyone this separation made it a controversial theory Componential Model of creativity there are three nonsequential components necessary for creative work combines both s ideas and s ideas 0 task motivation relevant skills creativity relevant skills How Are Ideas Like Epidemics contagious little changes can bring big effects changes happen very quickly The Traditional CauseEffect Relationship vs Gladwell s Reconceptualized Relationship cause is of equivalent size to effect Gladwell says causes and effects do not need to be proportional a small cause can bring a big effect The Tipping Point the name given to that one dramatic moment in an epidemic when everything can change all at once covered in s The Tipping Point The Law of the Few in a given process or system some people matter more than others factors include social connections energy personality enthusiasm three types of few covered inl s The Tipping Point The Stickiness Factor characteristics of an idea that makes it sticky simple changes in the presentation and structuring of information can make a difference in the message s impact and even make it irresistible covered in s The Tipping Point The Power of Context environmental conditions must be just right for the tip to occur covered in s The Tipping Point The Bystander Effect the greater the number of bystanders the less likely it is that any one of them will help factors ambiguity cohesiveness diffusion of responsibility covered in s The Tipping Point ThinSlicing looking at a small amount of information can be more helpful than prolonged studying the Pepsi Challenge is an example of ineffective thinslicing covered in s Outliers Why Opportunity and Historical Circumstance are Critical to Success Steve Jobs would not have had the same resources in the Great Depression or if he had been born in a thirdworld country covered in s Outliers Desirable Difficulty disadvantages that force an individual to adapt and be better prepared against future difficulties dyslexic entrepreneurs covered in s David and Goliath The Systems View of Creativity another addition by creativity must be defined with respect to a system that includes individual social and cultural factors that influence the creative process see diagram below i the iddiaidua I 39 the tied the deman I initial eeuree ef idea evaluated quality at implemente and perpetuatee the 1 viability ef idea H ueeful idea Assessing the Climate for Creativity o stimulants idea systems suggestion box can be real or a symbol rewards and recognition diversity communication trust resources The Investment View of Creativity successful investors have to be bold take risks and act contrary to the behavior of other investors may have to take shortterm losses for longterm gains no guarantee when or even if one s stock will go up and Epistemological Beliefs knowledge and learning beliefs 0 certainty of knowledge 0 negative knowledge is fixed unchanging and absolute 0 positive knowledge builds and evolves over time o simplicity of knowledge 0 negative knowledge is a collection of discrete and isolated facts 0 positive knowledge is a set of complex and interrelated ideas 0 source of knowledge 0 negative knowledge comes from outside learner 0 positive knowledge is derived and constructed by the learner 0 speed of learning 0 negative should be quick and easy process 0 positive can take time and requires effort 0 nature of learning ability 0 negative one s ability to learn is fixed at birth 0 positive one s ability is mutable changeable with practice investment and better strategies The Theory of Metacognition fruit tests on preschoolelementary school kids to see what they know about their own memory and comprehension skills based on more socialization more education more experience with cognitive tasks 0 Person everything you believe about yourself as a thinker and others as thinkers too 0 Task your perception of the resources that will be required to complete a project 0 Strategy 0 cognitive serve immediate shortterm goals 0 metacognitive serve longerterm ultimate goals
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