New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 102 Study Guide for the Final Exam

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Study Guide for the Final Exam BIOL102

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Biology > BIOL102 > Biology 102 Study Guide for the Final Exam
C of C
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a comprehensive study guide for the final exam, covering chapters 24, 28, 31, and 34, from chordates to the endocrine system.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Concepts/Apps in Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by annazeberlein on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.

Similar to BIOL102 at C of C


Reviews for Biology 102 Study Guide for the Final Exam


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/22/16
Biology 102 Study Guide for the Final Exam Chapters 24, 28, 34, 31 Chapter 24 – Chordates - Characteristics o Tail beyond anus o Dorsal notochord o Dorsal nerve chord o Pharynx with gill slits - Invertebrate chordates o Tunicates or sea squirts o Lancelets - Chordates o Craniate chordate - Vertebrate Characteristics o 1) Endoskeleton o 2) Tetrapods o 3) Amniotes o 4) Greater cephalization o 5) Lungs o 6) Paired appendages o 7) Encased eggs o Jawless vertebrates § Lampreys and hagfishes o Jawed vertebrates § Everything else - Chondrichthyes (paired appendages, cartilaginous fishes) o Cloaca o Exposed gills o Scales of chitin o Keen senses o Internal fertilization - Osteichthyes (swim bladder or lungs, bony fishes) o Ray-finned fishes § Fins attached § Scales of bone § Swim bladder § External fertilization o Lobe-finned fishes § Fins attached to fleshy lobes § Living fossil o Lungfishes (early amphibians) - Amphibians (first tetrapods) o Adults are terrestrials, larvae are aquatic o External fertilization o Adults respire through skin and lungs o Ectothermic o Physical adaptations § 3 chambered heart § Eyelids § Improved ears - Amniotes (amniotic egg) o o Live entirely on land o Reptiles, birds, mammals o Eggs are self-contained, require internal fertilization, shelled, and protect from predators and dehydration o Reptile adaptations § Scales of keratin § More developed lungs § Ectothermic § Internal fertilization § Excretory system for water conservation o Bird adaptations § Scales on legs and feet § Internal fertilization § Hardened egg shells § Endothermic § Adapted to fly § 4 chamber heart § Efficient respiratory system § Beak instead of teeth - Mammals o Characteristics § Mammary glands nourish young § Modified scales – hair § Endothermic § 4 kinds of teeth o Monotremes o Marsupials o Eutharians § Internal development of young, placenta § Grow faster § Born more fully formed o Primates Chapter 28 – Animal Tissues and Systems - Levels of organization o Cell o Tissue o Organ o Organ system o Body - 4 kinds of tissue o Epithelial § Covers internal and external body surfaces § Barrier to pathogens § Secretes substances § Classified by shape and number of layers • Simple – 1 layer, stratified – 2 or more layers o Squamous o Cuboidal o Columnar o Connective § Used for transport and storage § Cells scattered in an extracellular matrix • Either solid, semifluid, or fluid § Types of connective tissue • Loose • Dense, irregular • Dense, regular • Cartilage • Adipose • Bone • Blood o Muscle § Aid in movement § Cells are striated (long and thin) § Types of muscle tissue • Skeletal • Smooth • Cardiac o Nervous § Consists of neurons - Organs and organ systems o Integumentary, skeletal, nervous, muscular, excretory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory, immune and lymphatic, circulatory, reproductive o Four tasks § Maintain internal environment § Acquire and use energy, dispose of bi-product § Protect § Reproduce - Homeostasis o Sensory receptors o Responds to negative feedback - How organ systems use energy – growth, development, repair, homeostasis - Bioenergetics o Measured by § Rate of heat loss § O2 consumed § CO2 produced o Endothermy vs. ectothermy § BMR vs. SMR Chapter 34 – Immunity - The body’s defenses o PAMPs (a type of antigen) o White blood cells (WBC’s) § Phagocytes • Neutrophils • Macrophages • Dendritic cells • Eosinophils • Basophils • Mast cells • Lymphocytes o T cells o B cells • Natural killer (NK) cells - The lymphatic system o Functions § Stores and circulates WBC’s § Interstitial fluid - Three lines of defense o 1) Surface barriers § Physical, mechanical, chemical o 2) Innate immunity § 1) Phagocytes • Phagocytosis • Secrete cytokines • More phagocytes signaled § 2) Activate complement • Bacteria invade • Inflammation/Fever • Mast cells release histamines • Activated complement binds bacteria • Phagocytes engulf o 3) Adaptive immunity § 1) Antibody-mediated response • 1) WBC’s screen lymph • 2) Engulf and display antigen • 3) Helper t-cells o Clonal selection § Effector vs. memory § 2) Cell-mediated response § 4 characteristics • Self/non-self recognition • Specificity • Diversity • Memory - Problems with the immune system o Allergies o Organ transplant rejection o Autoimmune diseases o Immunodeficiency diseases § Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacking helper t-cells (AIDS) - Vaccines o Immunization Chapter 31 – Endocrine - Animal hormones o Kinds of hormones § Amino acid-derived hormones § Second messenger § Steroid hormones o Hormones are triggered by hormone receptors, which are controlled by negative feedback - Components of the human endocrine system o Endocrine glands o Hypothalamus o Posterior pituitary gland § ADH – kidney regulation § Oxytocin o Anterior pituitary gland § FSH and LH – sperm production § TSH - thyroid § ACTH – adrenal cortex o Pineal gland o Thyroid and parathyroid glands § Thyroid hormone § Parathyroid hormone § Calcitonin § Responsible for adult metabolism § Hypothyroidism § Hyperthyroidism o Adrenal glands § Adrenal cortex § Cortisol § Adrenal medulla o Pancreas § Islets of Langerhans § Alpha cells § Beta cells § Insulin § Glucagon § Diabetes o When the endocrine system is compromised § Gigantism, dwarfism, acromegaly


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.