Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide CPR 201
Popular in Public Relations Strategy Development
Popular in Communication Studies
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly H on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPR 201 at University of Miami taught by HyunJi Lim in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see Public Relations Strategy Development in Communication Studies at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/25/15
CPR 201 Test 1 22515 848 AM CPR201 Spring 2015 Midterm Exam Study Guide DISCLAIMER 1 This study guide is NOT 100 comprehensive but should work as a guideline to help you 2 I strongly recommend you to read the textbook and lecture note thoroughly 35 MC 20 TF Chapter 0 Introduction Definition of PR 0 Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publicsquot PRSA 2012 o Focuses on the basic concept of PR as a communication process Strategic communication 0 Planned communication campaign Intentional communication undertaken by business nonprofit organization or lessstructured group J The four phases of strategic public relations 0 research 0 strategy 0 tactics 0 evaluation Organizational roles technician vs manager Technician Specialist in a technical craft 0 Ex Taking photographs 0 Writing brochures 0 Preparing news releases 0 Organizing events 0 Tactical Manager role 0 makes daytoday decisions on practical issues 0 Strategic Manager role 0 Making communication policy decisions o Overseeing multiple communication strategies 0 Supervising employees responsible for tactics How PR is different from journalism advertising and marketing 0 Public relations 0 Focus on longterm interaction between organization and pubHcs both supportive amp nonsupportive o Emphasis on generating mutual understanding goodwill amp support 0 Longterm process for generating revenue usually not right away 0 Two way communication 0 Free 0 Influences feeling a certain way 0 Marketing communication 0 Focus on products amp services that respond to wants amp interests of customers 0 Emphasis on economic relationship between organization and customer publics 0 Revenue oriented 0 Advertising 0 Oneway communication 0 Pay for it o Influences actions 0 Journalism 0 Rely on press release from PR professionals bc they don t know every single fact about every situation 0 Journalists more focused on facts PR wants to emphasize a favorable spin Chapter 1 Analyzing the Situation Types of strategic research we use to develop a comprehensive analysis Advantage amp Disadvantage of each research method 0 Casual research 0 Pick brains of client amp colleagues 0 Advantage still get good information easily accessible 0 Disadvantage not scientific 0 Secondary Research Existing Information 0 Organizational files library Internet readingwatching interviews 0 Advantage easy to find inexpensive o Disadvantage might not be exactly what you are trying to figure out 0 Primary Research New information 0 Survey focus group content analysis qualitative quantitative o Advantage you do the research yourself can study exactly what you want 0 Disadvantage expensive The PR situation obstacle v opportunity 0 Opportunity Offers a potential advantage to the organization or its pubHcs Obstacle Limits the organization in realizing its mission PR focus is to turn obstacles into opportunities Campaign vs Program 0 Campaign conducted to solve a problem or take advantage of an opportunity and in a certain time frame It has a set ending 0 Program an ongoing activity serving several objectives associated with a goal It is part of the organization it has been institutionalized Issues management Environmental scanning 0 Environmental scanning develops early warning system for potential roadblocks o IDs keeps up with external economic political technological social pressures on organization Risk management Identifying controlling minimizing impact of uncertain events on organization Uncertain debatable questionable in doubt Term also used in business engineering politics health care Ex UM s Risk Management requires field trip release forms 0 The Department of Risk Management is responsible for the preservation of the University s assets both human and physical This is accomplished by identifying defining assessing preventing and reducing risks facing the University of Miamiquot Crisis management and its six 6 strategic principles 0 A crisis is worst public relations problem 0 May be sudden amp unpredicted but seldom unpredictable 6 strategic principles p 31 0 Existing relationships MediaasAlly Reputational priorities Quick response Fu disclosure One voice OOOOO Types of ethics amp examples of use Deontological Approach 0 Rooted in standards or moral code 0 Actions are inherently right or wrong 0 PRSA Code of Ethics Black amp White 0 Teleological Approach 0 Focused on impact amp consequences 0 Rightwrong actions produce goodbad results 0 What will produce the greater good for the most people 0 Ethical Relativism o Reflect particular social norms o Rightwrong actions are determined by society 0 Situational Ethics 0 Casebycase basis ordependent on society s practices 0 Examples 0 The decision to go to war with Iraq in 2003 0 At first a categorical imperative They are the evildoersquot good v bad black amp white 0 Later after Saddam toppled and no WMD found We got rid of a dictator and freed the Iraqis to become a democracyquot the ends justify the means Chapter 2 Analyzing the Organization Mission vs Vision statements Values statements 0 Mission statement refers to now 0 Brief description of purpose indicating key publics Vision statement refers to the future 0 Brief description of what the organization aspires to become 0 Starting point for positioning 0 Values statement Credo o A set of beliefs that drive the organization and provide a framework for its decisions 0 Has a significant ethical dimensions 0 Example 0 Mission To advance the health of individuals and communities The AHA leads represents and serves hospitals health systems and other related organizations that are accountable to the community and committed to health improvement 0 Vision The AHA vision is of a society of healthy communities where all individuals reach their highest potential for health How we analyze organizations internal environment public perception external environment and their components Teleological 0 Internal Environment 0 Performance Quality of goods amp services viability of causes amp ideas Niche Specialtyfunctionrole making organization different Structure Purposemission of organization role of public relations Ethical base Conscience of organization Internal impediments Obstacles inside organization that limit effectiveness of PR program Questions What communication resources including budget are available How supportive is the organization of public relations activity What is the quality of the organization s performance 0 Public Perception O O O Visibility Extent to which organization is known Whether people know about an organization what they know about it and how accurate this information is Reputation How people evaluate information about organization General overall and longterm impression that people have of an organization Questions How well known is your organization What is the reputation of your organization How do you want to affect this reputation 0 External Environment 0 Supporters Peoplegroups who share interests with organization amp can further its objectives Competitors Peoplegroups who provide similar productservice Opponents Peoplegroups organized to fight organization External impediments Obstacles outside organization that limit effectiveness of public relations program Social political or economic factors outside an organization 0 Questions What is the major competition for your organization What significant opposition exists Is anything happening in the environment that can limit the effectiveness of the public relations program What is public relations audit How often amp when should it be performed Analyzes strengths amp weaknesses Relies on understanding how communication fits into the organization s big picture 0 Should be performed 0 Prior to developing an important campaign Before rolling out a new product or service After management changes within an organization Should be conducted every 57 years Following crisis situation 0000 Chapter 3 Analyzing the Publics Differences in terms public market stakeholder audience 0 Public 0 A group of people that shares a common interest 0 Recognizes its significance 0 Sets out to do something about it 0 Like family you don t pick them 0 Market 0 Market is like your friends 0 Type of public that is consumeroriented segment within the population that can help organization achieve its goals through exchange of goods amp money 0 Stakeholder 0 Alternative term similar to public but defined and used inconsistently so we ll stick to public 0 PRSA associates stakeholder with publicly traded companies 0 Audience 0 People who use a particular communication medium 0 Ex target audience of Super Bowl viewers General characteristics and categories of publics Like family you don t pick them 0 Exist because of interaction amp interdependence with your organization 0 Usually aware of relationship with organization 0 May think issue is relevant May be organized energized to act 0 Homogeneous similar interestscharacteristics Characteristics 0 Distinguishable Identifiable o Homogenous 0 Important to the organization 0 Large enough to matter 0 Accessible Reachable 0 Categories 0 Customers receiveuse productserviceidea of an organization Ex Clients students patients patrons shoppers parishioners members 0 Producers create productserviceidea provide input to the organization Ex Employees volunteers interns unions vendors investors donors stockholders o Enablers intercessory publics regulate by setting the norms or standards for the organization amp help promote productidea Ex Set your standards pro associations government agencies opinion leaders influencers media stockbrokers financial analysts o Limiters reduceundermine the success of an organization Competitors Opponents Unfriendly media InternalExternal publics Primary secondary and marginal publics CurrentFuture publics Proponents opponents and uncommitted publics 0000 V Keytarget publics 0 Specific publics to be engaged by organization in particular strategic communication plan V Opinion Leaders Influential individuals with key public intercessory Intercessor A person who presents your case to another someone who uses their influence to intercede on your behalf to obtain a favor mediate a dispute or to speak for you 0 Formal opinion leaders public officials folks with titles Informal opinion leaders recognized as informed articulate on issue 0 Vocal activists persistent advocates for cause viewed as independent better than singleissue zealots V Two step flow of communication Twostep flow of communication theory Lazarsfeld Berelson amp Gaudet 1944 o The media influence opinion leaders who in turn influence other people 0 Opinion leaders consume more media betterinformed than average folks V Diffusion of innovation which group of people should PR professionals focus Diffusion of innovations theory Rogers 2003 0 Early adopters of ideasproducts are influential with latecomers V Generation Y Millennial as a public 0 Born early 805early 20005 some say 19842005 0 Largest cohort since Baby Boom largest teen population in US history 6065 million Formative events Columbine 1999 2000 election that went to SCOTUS 911 terrorist attacks torture human rights violations wars in Iraq amp Afghanistan election of Barack Obama Stages of development of publics Nonpublic Doesn t share any issue with organization of no significance to organization 0 PR response observation amp periodic monitoring for changes 0 Latent inactive public Shares an issue with organization doesn t recognize situation or its potential 0 Little information situation amp little motivation potential consequences 0 PR response plan communication to enhance its relationship with this publics Apathetic public Faces issue knows it doesn t care 0 Issue is not significant enough to warrant attention andor the consequences are not perceived as being important 0 PR response monitor the situation if the issue beings to capture the public imagination 0 Develop plans to communicate with the apathetic public to transform its apathy into interest 0 However changing negative attitudes is a difficult task Aware public Shares issue not organized to discuss or act on it 0 PR response Initiate proactive communication Provide information about the issue Stress its significance to the public and present the organization s opinion or intended action Organization can control the tone and themes of the message 0 Active public Discusses or acts on shared issue 0 PR response Reactive communication Respond to questions and accusations even active opposition Tone or message themes are no longer controlled by the organization but by the active public Situation Assess public s wants interests needs amp expectations re issue Organization Consider public s relationship with organization Communication Study public s media use communication patterns credible message sources amp level of information activitypassivity Demographics Identify relevant traits such as age income gender etc Personality preferences Consider psychological amp temperamental preferences of public logical vs emotional Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Selffulfillment needs Esteem needs prestige and feeling of accomplishment Psychological needs Safety needs security safety Basic needs Physiological needs food water warmth rest Stereotype is not always negative Know the 3 BASIC QUESTIONS for each step of analysis 22515 848 AM 22515 848 AM
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