ARH 107 Quiz 1
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ARH 107 Quiz Study Guide PhotographersScientists Joseph Nicephore Niepce Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre William Henry Fox Talbot Sir John Herschel Matthew Brady Alexander Gardner Hypolite Bayard William Henry Jackson Oscar Gustave Rejlander Henry Peach Robinson Julia Margaret Cameron Lady Clementine Hawarden Edward Curtis Eadward Muybridge Timothy O Sullivan Photographic Processes Heliograph 18267 Daguerreotype 1839 Calotype 1841 Cyanotype 1842 Albumen 1848 Collodion 1851 Ambrotye 1854 TinType 1865 Wood bu rytype 1866 Platinum 1873 Film 1888 A camera obscura the image formed by the lens and re ected by the mirror on the ground glass is traced camera lucida in use Joseph Nicephore Ni pce French b March 7 1765 d July 5 1833 Ni pce is universally credited with producing the first successful permanent photograph in June July 182627 He was fascinated with lithography and worked on this process Unable to draw he needed the help of his artist son to make the images However when in 1814 his son was drafted into the army to fight at Waterloo he was left having to look for another way of obtaining images Eventually he succeeded calling his product Heliographs after the Greek quotof the sunquot To further the process he teamed up with Louis Daguerre in 1829 a partnership which lasted until his death only four years later at the age of 69 He left behind him some examples of his heliographs which are now in the Royal Photographic Society39s collection View from his Window at Le Gras ChalonsurSaone France Heliograph 1826 or 1827 Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre French b November 18 1787 d July 10 1851 Daguerre was perhaps the most famous of several people who invented photography He began work as an apprentice architect and at the age of sixteen was an assistant stage designer in a Paris theatre his elaborate stage designs winning him considerable acclaim He developed an impressive illusions theatre which he termed Diorama it was a picture show with changing light effects and huge paintings This became the rage in the early twenties He regularly used a camera obscura as an aid to painting in perspective and this had led him to seek to freeze the image In 1826 he learned of the work of Ni pce and on January 4 1829 signed up a partnership with him The partnership was a short one Ni pce dying in 1833 but Daguerre continued to experiment He made an important discovery by accident In 1835 he put an exposed plate in his chemical cupboard and some days later found to his surprise that the latent image had developed Daguerre eventually concluded that this was due to the presence of mercury vapor from a broken thermometer This important discovery that a latent image could be developed made it possible to reduce the exposure time from some eight hours to thirty minutesThough he now knew how to produce an image it was not until 1837 that he was able to fix them This new process he called a Daguerreotype mmm 0 ES dEEmF o Emgtmom 39quot quot William Henry Fox Talbot 39 British b 1800 d 1877 William Henry Fox Talbot scholar scientist and photographic pioneer discovered the negativepositive process of photography in the late 1830s He was also the author and publisher of the first book to use photographs as illustrations Talbot39s earliest experiments led to quotphotogenic drawingsquot made by placing objects on paper sensitized with silver chloride and exposing them to the light By 1841 Talbot had invented and patented the calotype process He was among the few early practitioners who foresaw the wide range of uses of photography h V I Uquot u D gt 39 2 7 m 1 3 13 5 125 39 Daguerreotype c 1844 by Antoine Claudet Unsatisfied with the results he obtained sketching with a camera lucida while on a trip through Italy in 1833 Talbot was inspired to attempt to permanently fix an image on paper He soon began his serious Photographic experiments which resulted in photogenic drawings He made his first paper negative image in 1835 Talbot39s other scientific pursuits left him little time for photographic work It was not until four years after his successful experiments with negatives immediately upon the announcement of Daguerre39s invention that Talbot exhibited his photographs and lectured on his experiments at the Royal Society He considerably improved his original process in 1840 to create the camera obscura process he patented the next year under the name calotype Talbot39s discoveries may be said to have surpassed Daguerre39s because the negativepositive process permitted the duplication of prints from a single negative while daguerreotypes were unique directpositive images on metal plates The Open Door by Fox Talbot 1843 Salted Paper Print from a Calotype Negative l I 11 Iru 1lquot 1 a II Lacec1844 Photogenic Drawing on Salted Paper Print by Fox Talbot The Pencil of Nature 184446 Fox Talbot s The Pencil of Nature was the rst commercially published book to be illustrated with photographs It was issued in 6 volumes from June 1844 April 1846 and included a total of 24 plates Copy described the history and chemical processes of the Calotype and suggested a wide array of applications for the medium The Cyanotype A contactprinting process discovered invented by Sir John Herschel in 1842 From the Greek word meaning quotdark blue impression cyanotype is a simple process based on combining ferric ferrocyanide and ferrous ferricyanide which forms a light sensitive solution that is then coated on a paper or cloth support The print is exposed under ultraviolet light and xed by washing in running water The result is an image with a cyanblue color The cyanotype is practiced today by ne art alternative process practitioners and is also called the blue print or Prussianblue process The Collodion Process This process was introduced in 1851 and marks a watershed in photography Up till then the two processes in use were the daguerreotype and the calotype Daguerreotypes were better than calotypes in terms of detail and quality but could not be reproduced calotypes were reproducible but suffered from the fact that any print would also show the imperfections of the paper The search began then for a process which would combine the best of both processes the ability to reproduce fine detail and the capacity to make multiple prints The ideal would have been to coat light sensitive material on to glass but the chemicals would not adhere without a suitable binder which obviously had to be clear At first Albumen the white of an egg was used Then in wet plate camera 1851 Frederick Scott Archer came across collodion Collodion was a viscous liquid guncotton dissolved in ether and alcohol which had only been invented in 1846 but which quickly found a use during the Crimean war when it dried it formed a very thin clear film which was ideal for dressing and protecting wounds One can still obtain this today for painting over a cut Collodion was just the answer as far as photography was concerned for it would provide the binding which was so badly needed The Woodburytype Invented in 1866 by Walter B Woodbury the Woodburytype was a photomechanical process originally developed to create true continuoustone images Due to the fact that the technique was dif cult to master couldn t be automated and that the prepress preparation of the lead printing plate required an enormous amount of hydraulic power the method became obsolete in the late 19th century The Woodburytype process produced prints that did not fade because the images did not rely on lightsensitive materials The images were in fact made up entirely of stable pigment suspended in gelatin The quality of the pictures Walter B Woodbury was remarkable with no grain and the process was widely used until the turn of the century The Platinum Print The Platinum printing process was perfected and patented in 1873 by William Willis Willis founded the Platinotype Company in 1879 and sold licenses and materials to photographers that wanted to use the process When Willis began marketing his paper platinum was relatively inexpensive but by 1907 platinum had become 52 times more expensive than silver Eastman Kodak and most other producers stopped fabrication of the paper in 1916 Due to the shortage of commercial paper and high cost photographers experimented with palladium paper and platinumpalladium mixes and eventually gave way to the silver gelatin process associated with contemporary black and white photography Like the other 19th century processes covered so far platinum prints are not suitable for enlargement Due to the slow emulsion speed of the paper it is a contact print process only that is only capable of making a print as large as the original negative or glass plate Pure platinum images tend to be neutral brown and are slightly warmer when mixed with palladium With its matte surface and long tonal range the Platinum print is regarded by some as the most beautiful photographic processes and certainly one of the most permanent It is still a popular method of printing within the fine art alternative process community and a niche within this group combines this historical process with modern digital technology Pictorialism Two Children Praying c 1860 45 x 35 inches albumen print By Oscar Rejlander By the second half of the 19th century the novelty of capturing images was beginning to wear off and some people were now beginning to question whether the camera was in fact too accurate and too detailed in what it recorded This coupled with the fact that painting enjoyed a much higher status than photography caused some photographers to adopt a new approach to the medium that would become known as Pictorialism Pictorialism was a photographic movement that subscribed to the idea that any photograph that put the nished picture rst and the subject second was art This philosophy included any image that stressed atmosphere or viewpoint rather than the literal subject of the photograph To make photography more of an art form practitioners employed techniques such as soft focus and darkroom manipulation to create images that emulated the paintings and etchings of the time Among the photographers associated with movement were Oscar Rejlander and Henry Peach Robinson Hippolyte Bayard French b January 20 1801 d May 14 1887 Hippolyte Bayard a French civil servant invented his own process known as direct positive printing This incamera process formed a positive image on paper and like the Daguerreotype created a finished product that was unique His invention actually preceded that of Daguerre but was persuaded to postpone announcing his process to the French Academy of Sciences by Count Francois Arago who was championing Daguerre s work This con ict of interest insured that Daguerre s process would receive all of the credit as one of the principle inventors of photography By the time that Bayard published his process in 1840 the matter was considered old news and as a result he received only a small cash from the French government He expressed his disappointment with a mini series of portraits accompanied by suicide text The most famous of these being SelfPortrait as a Drowned Man Bayard is credited as being the first person to hold a photographic exhibition when in June 1939 he exhibited 30 pictures of his work in Paris He was the founding member of the French Society of Photography and was one of the first photographers to receive a commission to document architecture and historical sites in France by the Historical Monument Commission Additionally he was the first to suggest that separate negatives of clouds be used to print in the skies for landscapes A technique that would later be known a combination printing SelfPortrait as a Drowned Man 1840 Direct Postive Paper by Hippolyte Bayard quotThe corpse which you see here is that of M Bayard inventor of the process that has just been shown to you As far as I know this indefatigable experimenter has been occupied for about three years with his discovery The Government which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard and the poor wretch has drowned himself Oh the vagaries of human life I Henry Peach Robinson b July 9 1830 d February 21 1901 Henry Peach Robinson was a pioneer of Pictorialist photography and one of the most in uential photographers of the Pictorialist movement Initially a painter and in uenced by the work of MW Turner Robinson s aesthetic was for the most part academic and conventional Like Rejlander he aimed for photographs that could compete on the same level as the painting of the time The limitations of photography caused him to perfect the idea of combination printing for which he is particularly remembered it is possible that he was first introduced to this technique by Rejlander The technical difficulty of portraying sky as well as subject on the same negative caused him to accumulate a stock of negatives of the sky to be incorporated into his pictures Later works show a strong link to PreRaphaelitism and he began to move away from composition printing In this phase he represented moments of timeless signficance in a mediaeval setting In this he anticipates the work of Julia Margaret Cameron as well as that of other Rosetti followers Fading Away 1858 95 x 155 inches albumen composite print by Henry Peach Robinson Dawn and Sunset 1885 1025 x 145 inches platinum print from collodion glass negative by Henry Peach Robinson Oscar Gustave Rejlander b1817 d1875 Initially a painter Oscar Rejlander turned his energies to photography in 1855 after being inspired by the work of one of Fox Talbot s assistants He began producing domestic scenes of friends and neighbors but eventually made his living taking portraits and creating photographic studies for other artists In a quest to elevate photography to the level of painting Rejlander created many of his complicated allegorical or classical images through the technique of combination printing which required the use of multiple negatives and careful darkroom processing These images usually involved preliminary sketches a series of separate exposures and then painstaking sectionbysection printing Although he received acclaim for this work he soon tired of the tedious process and attempted to return to the portrait business This proved unsuccessful and Rejlander died a pauper leaving a small but significant collection of superbly imaginative photographs 1r 39b r 39 rquot L 4 quotquotvquotquot39 u w Two Ways of Life 1857 16 x 31 inches albumen print by Oscar Rejlander 5 Dream 1860 The Bachelor 55 x 7 inches albumen print by Oscar Rejlander Anna Atkins British b 1799 d 1871 Anna Atkins is considered by some historians to be the first female photographer A neighbor and family friend of Sir John Herschel it is believed that she learned the cyanotype process from Herschel shortly after he announced it s discovery Atkins applied the process to solve the difficulties of making accurate drawings of scientific specimens She is known for her images of algae ferns feathers and waterweeds Atkins selfpublished British Algae Cyanotype Impressions in 1843 In 1850 she began to publish more comprehensive collections of her work completing a three volume anthology in 1853 These books containing hundreds of handmade images were the very first published works to utilize a photographic system for scientific investigation and illustration Although Atkins published in 1843 Talbot s Pencil of Nature 18441846 is generally credited by historians as the first to have achieved this important milestone Dictyota Dihotoma in the Young State and in Fruit Dayan diatom V Cyanotype Photogram by Anna Atkins 1843 in aglung JM 0 in wit Julia Margaret Cameron British b June 11 1815 d January 26 1879 Julia Margaret Cameron was an English photographer known for her portraits of eminent people of the day and for her romantic pictures which despite their technical imperfections stand the test of time Her involvement in photography came about as a result of the kindness of her eldest daughter Julia Margaret by this time was aged fortynine her children had grown up and her husband was often abroad on business As a result she suffered from loneliness and her daughter to make her life more fulfilling bought her a camera From this simple beginning a new hobby began which was to turn into an obsession Cameron had a tremendous capacity to Visualize a picture and her portraits show a measure of Vitality which the work of many others of the time did not Among her most famous portraits are those of Herschel and Tennyson She was greatly appreciated abroad and won a number of major prizes She was also in uenced by the PreRaphaelite school which sought to return to artistic practices of Europe in late Mediaeval times Many of her photographs of women and children are undesguisedly sentimental others are delightful and penetrating studies Julia Jackson 1867 1075 x 825 inches albumen print from a collodion glass negative by Julia Margaret Cameron SirJohn Herschel 1867 14 x 11 inches albumen print from a collodion glass negative by Julia Margaret Cameron Lady Clementina Hawarden British b 1822 d 1865 Lady Celmentina Hawarden was one of the pioneer women of photography It is thought that she took up photography in 1857 making landscapes and gure studies at the family estate in Dundrum Ireland However her primary subjects were her daughters whom she carefully posed in the rooms of her London home She was able to experiment with light and composition in manner denied to professional portrait photographers to produce studies of mood ambience and sensuality These enchanting images explore an intimate world of Victorian womanhood Lewis Carroll praised and collected Lady Hawarden39s photographs which predated even the work of her betterknown contemporary Julia Margaret Cameron and art historians contend that her photographs in uenced the portrait painting of James McNeill Whistler She exhibited her photographs with the most open of titles simply Photographic Studies or Studies from Life leaving the viewer to guess at the implied narrative in the theatrical scenes or tableaux giggle With Dona39d acted out by her children dressed in a variety of costumes for the part 39 39 Though Hawarden and her daughters were like most women of their day bound by home and hearth in these enigmatic pictures they imagine themselves transformed Clementina Maude and Florence Elizabeth c 18631864 albumen print from wet plate collodion glass negative by Lady Clementina Hawarden Isabella Grace and Florence Elizabeth Maude 5 Princes Gardens c 18603 0 albumen print from wet plate collodion glass negative by Lady Clementina Hawarden Rev Charles Lutwidge Dodgson Lewis Carroll b January 27 1832 d January 14 1898 Lewis Carroll the pseudonym of Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson began making photographs in 1856 that mirror the concerns her wrote about in his Victorian fantasy novels Alice 5 Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass Carroll s adroitness in the company of prepubescent girls enabled him to compose images revealing their natural sense of dexterity and intuitive spontaneity Carroll s images probed beneath the surface of the sitter and have come to play a role in creating our conception of Victorian childhood Carroll s preference for moralizing works also lead him to endow his childhood sitters with his own adult melancholic emotional and sexual dilemmas To Carroll s contemporaries such photographs represented childhood purity and virtue and parents brought their daughters to be photographed by him in this manner In the 1930s however when the concept of Victorian repression became culturally pervasive Carroll s work became the object of much unfounded speculation about the photographer s supposed predilection for little girls Alice Liddell 1858 albumen print by Lewis Carroll Nadar GaspardFelix Tournachon French b 1820 d 1910 Nadar must be ranked not only among the greatest photographers of the 19th c but as one of the great personalities of his age Caricaturist journalist novelist balloonist propagandist for heavierthanair ight friend of almost every notable French writer artist journalist and socialist of the Second Empire many of whom he photographed Nadar was a paragon of enthusiasm energy and productivity By the end of the 1840s he had taken up caricature which he produced for humorous journals signing his work quotNadarquot and by 1854 he had set up his younger brother Adrian Tournachon as a photographer Shortly thereafter Nadar himself set up a studio on the roof of the house he shared with his mother and divided his time between his brother39s studio and his own SelfPortrait 1910 by Nadar By 1860 Nadar had opened a new studio on the Boulevard des Capucines with the signature quotNadarquot emblazoned across the front The magisterial portraits he produced from the mid1850s through the mid1860s are notable for their ability to convey the sitter39s personality the case and naturalness of the pose and the clear but subtly orchestrated lighting Nadar typically chose threequarter views often hiding the hands so that the full force of the portrait was conveyed by the face the expression and the position of the seated body In 1871 Nadar turned over the running of the business to his son Paul who became a fairly successful commercial portraitist Although Nadar remained a photographic entrepreneur for most of his life he was an active photographer for only slightly more than a decade Nadar s Contributions 0 the celebrity portrait 0 the rst to use arti cial light 0 the rst to do aerial photography 0 the rst to exhibit Impressionist art 0 the photographic interview CarteDeVisite of Nadar in a a hot air balloon Adrien Tournachon 1854 by Nadar Prince Napoleon c 1860 albumen print from a cartedevisite negative by Disderi Mikhail Bakunin 1863 By Nadar a n 1864 Sarah Bernhardt by Nadar Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi French b 1819 d 1889 or 1890 A French photographer who started his photographic career as a daguerreotypist Andre Disderi was famous for developing the technique of making very small 101mm x 63mm portraits which came to be known as cartedevisite photographs In May 1859 he had an extraordinarily lucky break when Napoleon stopped his troops outside his studio and went in to have his photograph taken Disd ri became instantly famous and people ocked to his studio making him a very rich man The process was so cheap that cartedevisites became enormously popular largely replacing the daguerreotype Enterprising photographers began to take photographs of famous personalities and copies were avidly collected by the people At the height of his fame he was said to be one of the richest photographers in Europe Sadly however his photographic sense was not matched by his business one for he ended his career as a beach photographer in Monaco dying virtually penniless Disderi selfportrait c 1860 CARTEDEVISITE Cartes deVisite were small Visiting card portraits usually measuring 4 1 2 X 2 1 2 introduced by a Parisian photographer Andre Disd ri who in late 1854 patented a way of taking a number of photographs on one plate usually eight thus greatly reducing production costs The cartesdeVisite did not catch on until one day in May 1859 when Napoleon III on his way to Italy with his army halted his troops and went into Disd ri s studio in Paris to have his photograph taken From this welcome publicity Disd ri s fame began and two years later he was said to be earning nearly 100000 a year from one studio alone The reasons for the success of these cards were 0 their cheapness The average price for a card was a few cents mass produced ones could be bought for 25 cents a dozen 0 they were small light and easy to collect and many people began to place these in photographic albums 0 collections of pictures particularly of royalty became highly treasured Cartes deVisite were Albumen prints and it is on record that in Britain half a million eggs were being delivered yearly to one photographic studio alone Untitled c 1860 uncut albumen print from a cartedevisite negative by Disderi Roger Fenton British b Mar 1819 d Aug 8 1869 Roger Fenton was a British photographer particularly known for his coverage of the Crimean War In 1851 he visited Paris to learn the waxed paper calotype process most likely from Gustave Le Gray its inventor By 1852 he had travelled to Kiev Moscow and St Petersburg making calotypes there and photographed views and architecture around Britain He exhibited his work in England and published a call for the setting up of a photographic society this is now the Royal Photographic Society In 1855 Fenton was sent to the Crimean War as the first official war photographer at the insistence of Prince Albert Despite high temperatures and suffering from cholera he managed to make over 350 large format negatives The photographs produced were published in the Illustrated London News to offset the general aversion of the British people to an unpopular war As a result Fenton avoided making pictures of dead injured or mutilated soldiers Though he is seen as a war photographer Fenton s pictures showed a very onesided cosmetic view as it was largely a propaganda exercise he was bound to show the wellbeing of the troops he wanted to sell his pictures and gruesome realistic ones were probably not very marketable many of his pictures were of the officers a sign perhaps of his sound business sense In fairness to him he often felt obliged to photograph them quotIf I refuse to take themquot he complained quotI get no facilities for conveying my van from one locality to anotherquot Upon returning from the Crimea he published bound volumes of his prints However they did not sell too well as people hardly wished to keep mementos of an event which most wanted to forget It was probably his bout of cholera which led to his early death at the age of fortynine It is worth noting that this prolific output and contribution to photography was confined to just eleven years or so c023 Emom gto mgtrmmmc mmmm m Eot Eta Eqmq 88 2 m5 x 3 mm Eats me 3 252 2 B gtmvmgt Vista Furness Abbey 1860 by Roger Fenton The Long Walk Windsor 0 1860 by Roger Fenton Matthew Brady American b 1823 d January 15 1896 Mathew Brady best known for documenting the American Civil War 18611865 was probably one of the greatest documentary photographers Brady himself did not take many of the photographs which bear his name he had set himself up as a portrait photographer and had equipped a number of photographers twenty it is said with darkroom wagons to cover the War with the ruling that his name as employer rather than the names of the photographers themselves would appear on the photographs The limitations of equipment and materials prevented any action shots but Brady s team brought back some seven thousand pictures which well portrayed the realities of war From 1845 Brady embarked upon an ambitious project to photograph famous people of the time and in 1850 published quotA Gallery of Illustrious Americans Among his portraits was one of Abraham Lincoln which was reproduced and circulated during Lincoln39s first Presidential campaign Though Brady39s work was much admired at the time he gained little in financial terms tired of the war people did not want reminders of it and Brady39s photographs were honest sometimes brutally so Brady invested a fortune into the business but faced bankruptcy after the war In 1875 Congress purchased his archive of photographs for 2840 at public auction and granted him 25000 but this was not enough to cover his debts and he died alone an alcoholic and penniless Dead at Gettysburg aka quotA Harvest of Death 1863 7 x 9 inch albumen print Matthew Brady photographed by Timothy O Sullivan Wounded Soldiers in Hospital c 1864 albumen print attributed to Matthew Brady Abraham Lincoln c 1864 albumen print Matthew Brady Alexander Gardner b October 17 1821 d 1882 Alexander Gardner was a Scot who emigrated to the United States and was hired by Mathew Brady for whom he photographed the American Civil War However Brady39s practice of signing his employees39 pictures did not meet with Gardner39s approval and after some years he left Brady39s firm and opened his own gallery in Washington DC Unlike the somewhat contrived war pictures taken by Roger Fenton Gardner39s are so factual as to be almost macabre His book quotGardner39s twovolume Photographic Sketchbook of the War was published in 1866 The following year he recorded the building of the Union Paci c Railroad He also documented the execution of the conspirators against Lincoln and Lincoln39s funeral In addition he embarked upon making a collection of photographs of convicted criminals for the Washington police force It should also be added however that amongst the genuine pictures of the war there appear to be a few which are contrived further proof that whilst the camera cannot lie the person behind it can For example when Gardner arrived at the decisive scene of the war at Gettysburg two days after it had been fought he set about photographing quotHome of a Rebel Sharpshooterquot However before taking the picture he had dragged the body of a Confederate some thirty meters to where he lies in the picture turning the head towards the camera Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter Gettysburg 0 July 1863 7 x 9 inch albumen print by Alexander Gardner uquotiquoto A Sharpshooter s Last Sleep Gettysburg 0 July 1863 albumen print by Alexander Gardner Timothy H O39Sullivan American b 1840 d 1882 In the course of a career that barely covered two decades Timothy O39Sullivan produced one of the most signi cant bodies of photographic work in 19th century America At the age of twenty he was working in Mathew Brady39s New York photographic portrait studio which then was headed by Alexander Gardner During the Civil War O39Sullivan and Gardner were Brady39s most important eld photographers until 1862 when Gardner set up his own Washington DC gallery and launched field units to photograph the war O39Sullivan joined Gardner and photographed the aftermath of battles such as Bull Run and Gettysburg using the wetplate collodion process Many of his powerful photographs from this period were included in Photographic Sketchbook of the War published by Gardner In 1867 O39Sullivan went west to work as of cial photographer for the US Government Fortieth Parallel Survey one of the many commissioned by either the government or railroad companies to describe and map the vast uncharted expanses west of the Mississippi in this case an area including the proposed route of the Central Paci c Railway The area 900 miles long and 100 miles wide reached from Virginia City Nevada to Denver City in the Utah Territory During this rst expedition O39Sullivan photographed the interior of the Comstock Lode mine using magnesium ares these are among the earliest known photographs of mine interiors For the next two years constantly on the move and undergoing considerable hardship in the eld O39Sullivan produced hundreds of mammoth 20quot X 24 and larger glass plates of which Weston Naef has written for O39Sullivan a photograph was equally an image chosen and organized by the artist and a specimen of preexisting physical fact recorded by the technician The perfectly balanced tension between these subjective and objective concerns is a central characteristic of his work Harvest of Death Gettysburg Pennsylvania July 1863 675 x 9 inch albumen print from a wet plate collodion negative by Timothy O Sullivan Desert Sand Hills near Sink of Carson Nevada 1867 875 x 115 inch albumen silver print from wet plate colldion negative by Timothy O Sullivan Carleton Watkins American b 1829 d 1916 In the last third of the 19th century Carleton Watkins was known as one of America39s foremost landscape photographers primarily for his artistic panoramas of Yosemite and other wilderness areas He made his reputation at a time when the competition included gures such as Timothy O39Sullivan Eadweard Muybridge and William Henry Jackson Watkins photographed throughout the West on field expeditions carrying huge cameras and other equipment He also made many memorable images of the rapid development of San Francisco Watkins was born in Oneonta New York He journeyed to California at the time of the Gold Rush settling in Sacramento where he worked as a carpenter He moved to San Francisco in 1853 taking employment as a department store clerk and became acquainted with photography in 1854 at the studio of Robert Vance for whom he worked in daguerreotype and wet collodion processes He began to record life in the Bay area at this time From 1855 to 1861 he extensively photographed the New Idrea and New Almaden mines and the Mission Santa Clara In 1859 he made views of the Mariposa Bear Valley for James Hutchings Watkins began his first series of Yosemite views with specially constructed mammoth view cameras in 1861 Watkins continued to photograph Yosemite for the next several years and worked privately and on the geological surveys of Josiah D Whitney 1866 and Clarence King 1867 In 1867 Watkins renamed his San Francisco studio quotYosemite Art Galleryquot He photographed extensively in Oregon traveling with landscape painter William Keith in 18671868 He was awarded a medal for landscape at the Paris Exposition of 1868 For the United States Geological Survey he photographed the Mount Shasta and Mount Lassen area in 1870 and in 1871 the North Bloomfield Gravel Mines in Nevada Country California He exhibited at the Vienna International Exposition of 1873 with Timothy O39Sullivan and Eadweard Muybridge m5 3 6 00 1 e n O r e b m U N w m V t S a O C by Carleton Watk Edward 8 Curtis American b1868 dl952 Edward 5 Curtis began photographing Native Americans around 1895 and producing silver and platinum prints photographs as well as goldtones for sale in his successful downtown Seattle studio At the National Photographic Exhibition of 1899 he was awarded the grand prize for several of his soft focused sepia toned images of Indians collecting clams and mussels along the beaches of Puget Sound Curtis39 romantic images appealed to the turn of the century sensibilities of many who envisioned the Indian as the heroic character of a quotvanishing racequot Like Curtis many EuroAmericans of his day recognized the fact that the traditional lifestyles and landscapes of the Native Americans were quickly disappearing In 1904 Curtis convinced P Morgan to fund his project to photograph over 80 native tribes in North America His masterwork would be a set of 20 books documenting the lifestyles mythology and ceremonies of these tribes with high quality photoengravings taken from his glass plate negatives The project which Curtis expected to take 5 years instead took nearly 25 costing him his financial security his marriage and his health The North American Indian was quotrediscoveredquot in the 1970s after a showing of Curtis work at the Pierpont Morgan Library Because by this time nearly all of his sets were residing in the special collections of museums and libraries and most of his negatives destroyed original Curtis photographs and photoengravings became highly collectable Sets were split up to provide collectors interested in his work with individual images Curtis work has steadily gained in popularity and collectability since that time Bear s Belly Arikara c1908 photogravure by Edward S Curtis S d O m e In t m 0 r f g m Hamatsa Emerg Koskimo 1914 I Curtis photogravure by Edward S Navajo Ceremonial Costume 1904 photogravure by Edward S Curtis Thomas Eakins American b1844 d1916 In addition to being an accomplished painter and teacher Thomas Eakins was a dedicated and talented photographer Working with wet plate collodion glass negatives and platinum printing he distinguished himself from most other painters of his generation by mastering the technical aspects of photography Like the DelacroixDurieu tandem Eakins used photography as a direct aid in painting His philosophy was that the camera was a teaching device comparable to anatomical drawing and that this tool trained the eye to see what was truly before it More than 225 known negatives are attributed to Eakins These images consist primarily of figure studies nude and clothed as well as portraits of his students extended family and friends Eakins quotNaked Series consisted of nude photos of students and professional models which were taken to show real human anatomy from several specific angles and were often hung up and displayed for study at the school Later less regimented poses were taken indoors and out of men women and children including his wife Although witnesses were usually on site and the poses were mostly traditional in nature the sheer quantity of the photos and Eakins overt display of them may have undermined his standing as a teacher In the late 1870s he was introduced to the photographic motion studies of Eadweard Muybridge and became interested in using the camera to study sequential movement He performed his own motion studies usually involving the nude figure capturing movement on film using a single camera to produce a series of exposures on one negative No other American artist of his time matched Eakins39 interest in photography nor produced a comparable body of photographic works untitled photographic study for quotSwimmingquot 883 platinum print by Thomas Eakins by Thomas Eakins Motion Study 1885 Jacob A Riis American b 1849 d 1914 America39s firstjournalistphotographer in fact a muckraker with a camera Jacob Riis was known at the turn of the century as the quotEmancipator of the Slumsquot because of his work on behalf of the urban poor His brutal documentation of sweatshops diseaseridden tenements and overcrowded schools aroused public indignation and helped effect signi cant reform in housing education and childlabor laws Riis was selftaught His photographs taken over a 10year period were made without artistic intent yet they deeply in uenced the course of American documentary photography Riis wrote quotI came to take up photography not exactly as a pastime It was never that for me I had to use it and beyond that I never went The camera was a weapon of propaganda he wielded in his fight to ameliorate the living conditions of countless underprivileged people who would have remained unseen if not for his passionate social concern Riis was born in Ribe Denmark the third in a family of 15 children one of them adopted n opposition to his father39s wishes he was a carpenter39s apprentice in Copenhagen from 1866 to 1870 when he emigrated to the United States Riis lived in poverty in New York City for some time before he found a job with a news bureau in 1873 He became a police reporter for the New York Tribune and the Associated Press in 1877 Horrified by the squalor of immigrant life he began a series of expos s on slum conditions on New York39s Lower East Side In 1884 he was responsible for the establishment of the Tenement House Commission In 1888 he left the Tribune for the Evening Sun and began work on his book quotHow the Other Half Lives Riis was among the first photographers to use ash powder which enabled him to photograph interiors and exteriors of the slums at night He worked at first with two assistants but soon found it necessary to take his photographs himself Primarily a writer he wanted pictures to document and authenticate his reports and to supply the vividness that would ensure attention Bandits Roost 1888 by Jacob Riis z 39 v v29 Q I 00 O f u 4 I v 39I I 3 1 quot 3 Itt 39 V lt 5 D quotI Scrub Child Housekeeper 1892 by Jacob Riis Lewis Wickes Hine American b 1874 d 1940 Although Lewis Hine was neither the firstnor certainly the lastphotographer to employ his camera in the cause of social reform the quality of his best work has rarely been equaled More importantly Hine39s documentation of child labor was instrumental in effecting the reforms for which he struggled Allied with many of the important gures of the Progressive and Reform movements Hine was able to use his photographs to mobilize public concern and to generate corrective legislation Born in Wisconsin Hine came to New York in 1901 In 1904 he began photographing immigrants arriving and being processed on Ellis Island Hine documented families individuals and the facilities on the island making over 200 plates in a 5 year period Shortly after meeting Arthur Kellogg the editor of the reformist social work journal Charities and the Commons Hine was engaged as a freelance photographer for the National Child Labor Committee Under the NCLC Hine traveled widely photographing often surreptitiously children working in the mines factories and sweatshops of the eastern United States These photographs led to the establishment of child labor and safety laws for all workers In the 19203 and early 19303 Hine made a series of quotwork portraitsquot which emphasized the human contribution to modern industry In 1930 Hine was commissioned to document the construction of The Empire State Building He photographed the workers in precarious positions while they secured the iron and steel framework of the structure taking many of the same risks the workers endured In order to obtain the best vantage points Hine was swung out in a specially designed basket 1000 feet above Fifth Avenue At the conclusion of his project in 1931 Hine published Men at Work a picture book which summarized his theme Sadie Pfeiffer Spinner in Cotton Mill North Carolina c 190810 11 x 14 inch gelatin silver print by Lewis Hine Breaker Boys 1912 5 x 7 inch gelatin silver print by Lewis Hine Eadweard Muybridge British b1830 d1904 Eadweard Muybridge was the most signi cant contributor to the early study of human and animal locomotion His extensive studies and inventions were acknowledged by such pioneers of motion pictures as E I Marey the Lumiere brothers and Thomas Edison Muybridge grew up in England and was employed by the London Printing and Publishing Company He came to the US in 1852 as their representative settling in San Francisco where he learned photography from daguerreotypist Silas Selleck in the early 1860s and worked for Carleton E Watkins the major West Coast scenic photographer before striking out on his own He made photographic surveys for the firm of Thomas Houseworth and worked for the US War Department documenting areas of the West Coast In 1872 Muybridge was enlisted by Leland Stanford to settle a wager regarding the position of a trotting horse39s legs Using the fastest shutter available Muybridge was able to provide only the faintest image He was more successful five years later when employing a battery of cameras with mechanically tripped shutters he showed clearly the stages of the horse39s movement at top speed a trotting horse had all four hooves off the ground simultaneously and in a different configuration from that of a galloping horse Muybridge concentrated his efforts on studies of the motion of animals and human models His work in stopaction series photography soon led to his invention of the quotzoopraxiscopequot a primitive motionpicture machine which recreated movement by displaying individual photographs in rapid succession This machine was demonstrated privately in America as early as 1879 and at public gatherings in Europe over the next two years Muybridge demonstrated and lectured on his work at the Royal Institution and Royal Academy London in 1882 and in major American cities in 1883 O V39 f u no I g 39 o a o o g o u O O 39 39 w 6 39 0 g r n I d quot 53 1 UKUN FH 39w I 39 quotv 3 LAN 9 N511 Id IHIJ r II39DK1 39r1 nl392n Itu 39r39v nlnhJu1H7391 39Q Aquot 39 U The Horse in Motion 1878 by Eadweard Muybridge Descending Stairs and Turning Around c 188485 by Eadweard Muybridge EtienneJules Marey French b March 5 1830 d May 21 1904 In 1881 afterseeing a photographic demonstration by Edward Muybridge EtienneJules Marey devoted himself to animal photography and its mechanics and in so doing invented the first movie camera Unlike Muybridge Marey decided to use one camera rather than many to produce a series of images in rapid succession In 1882 Marey was able to take 12 pictures per second using his photographic gun which looked like a ri e with a magazine made of a photographic glass plate While creating the illusion of movement the postagestamp size of the photographs was too small and the frames per second too few to allow for adequate analysis of motion After George Eastman marketed in 1885 a photographic film that used a silver bromide emulsion on a gelatin base Marey was able to increase exposure speed In his chronophotographic chamber a paper ribbon of lm that produced images 36 sq in was drawn along behind a shutter There it stopped long enough to be exposed before it was moved forward Marey was thus able to expose 60 images per second During the next 20 years Marey filmed a wide variety of human and animal movements using his new apparatus As well as slowing rapid movements by the use of highspeed cinematography he also invented the technique of time lapse which is used to speed up of slow movements Marey studied his films frame by frame and published his observations in numerous articles in scientific journals Marey also made movies They were at a high speed 60 images per second and of excellent image quality in slowmotion cinematography he had come close to perfection His research on how to capture and display moving images helped the emerging field of cinematography Some in fact see EtienneJules Marey rather than the Lumiere brothers as the true father of cine photography Flying Pelican 1882 albumen print by EtienneJules Marey Harold Eugene Doc Edgerton American b April 6 1903 d January 4 1990 Dr Harold E Edgerton was one of the most signi cant inventors of the 20th century Among his inventions was the strobe light a fastblinking electronic light that seemed to make moving objects stand still Edgerton39s achievements in stroboscopic and ultra highspeed photography are illustrated in books that tell the history of photography as well as in science textbooks His pioneering research laid the foundation for the development of many modern technologies and electronic devices Edgerton was an electrical engineer and began to take photographs as scienti c experiments In his first he tried to produce a perfect coronet from a single drop of milk falling into liquid To do this he invented the stroboscope a device to produce short bursts of light This allowed him to take splitsecond pictures of objects in motion which could not be seen by the human eye including bullets and hummingbirds in ight light bulbs shattering and athletes in action Some of his photographs had an exposure time of less than 1 10000 of a second Edgerton was an educator as well as an artist He taught at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1927 until his death in 1990 and he was famous for his enthusiastic and enjoyable demonstration lectures His photographs did more than simply record objective facts for his research Edgerton took great pleasure from his creatively inventive photography He had an artist39s eye for the aesthetics of composition and he had a quirky attitude toward the imagery that he depicted Edgerton had fun with his photography and he enjoyed sharing the fun as well as the knowledge with others Edgerton focused upon imagery that would inspire a sense of wonder in viewers His photographs seem to wave a magic wand that stops time and captures realities that are otherwise impossible for people to see or comprehend Milk Drop Coronet 1957 1775 x 1375 inch cprint by Harold Edgerton Queen of Hearts playing card hit by a 30 caliber bullet 1970 8 x 10 inch cprint by Harold Edgerton
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