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Midterm Study Guide

by: Kelly H

Midterm Study Guide ARH 107

Marketplace > University of Miami > Art History > ARH 107 > Midterm Study Guide
Kelly H
GPA 3.3
History of Photography
J. Tomas Lopez

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Midterm Study Guide ARH 107
History of Photography
J. Tomas Lopez
Study Guide
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This 170 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly H on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 107 at University of Miami taught by J. Tomas Lopez in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 290 views. For similar materials see History of Photography in Art History at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/25/15
ARH17 MidTerm Study Guide PhotographersScientists Joseph Nicephore Niepce Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre William Henry Fox Talbot 0 Sir John Herschel Matthew Brady Alexander Gardner Hypolite Bayard William Henry Jackson 0 Oscar Gustave Rejlander Henry Peach Robinson 0 Julia Margaret Cameron Lady Clementine Hawarden Edward Curtis Eadward Muybridge Timothy O Sullivan Photographic Processes 39 Heliograph 18267 Daguerreotype 1839 Calotype 1841 Cyanotype 1842 Albumen 1848 Collodion 1851 Ambrotye 1854 TinType 1865 Woodburytype 1866 Platinum 1873 Film 1888 A camera obscura the image formed by the lens and re ected by the mirror on the ground glass is traced camera lucida in use Joseph Nicephore Niepce French b March 7 1765 d July 5 1833 Ni pce is universally credited with producing the first successful permanent photograph in June July 182627 He was fascinated with lithography and worked on this process Unable to draw he needed the help of his artist son to make the images However when in 1814 his son was drafted into the army to fight at Waterloo he was left having to look for another way of obtaining images Eventually he succeeded calling his product Heliographs after the Greek quotof the sunquot To further the process he teamed up with Louis Daguerre in 1829 a partnership which lasted until his death only four years later at the age of 69 He left behind him some examples of his heliographs which are now in the Royal Photographic Society39s collection 0 n t 9 a A nA View from his Window at Le Gras Chalonsur Saone France Heliograph 1826 or 1827 Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre French b November 18 1787 d July 10 1851 Daguerre was perhaps the most famous of several people who invented photography He began work as an apprentice architect and at the age of sixteen was an assistant stage designer in a Paris theatre his elaborate stage designs winning him considerable acclaim He developed an impressive illusions theatre which he termed Diorama it was a picture show with changing light effects and huge paintings This became the rage in the early twenties He regularly used a camera obscura as an aid to painting in perspective and this had led him to seek to freeze the image In 1826 he learned of the work of Ni pce and on January 4 1829 signed up a partnership with him The partnership was a short one Ni pce dying in 1833 but Daguerre continued to experiment He made an important discovery by accident In 1835 he put an exposed plate in his chemical cupboard and some days later found to his surprise that the latent image had developed Daguerre eventually concluded that this was due to the presence of mercury vapor from a broken thermometer This important discovery that a latent image could be developed made it possible to reduce the exposure time from some eight hours to thirty minutesThough he now knew how to produce an image it was not until 1837 that he was able to fix them This new process he called a Daguerreotype fquot llo A D 733 g Boulevard du Temple Paris 0 1838 William Henry Fox Talbot British b 1800 d 1877 William Henry Fox Talbot scholar scientist and photographic pioneer discovered the negativepositive process of photography in the late 1830s He was also the author and publisher of the first book to use photographs as illustrations Talbot39s earliest experiments led to quotphotogenic drawingsquot made by placing objects on paper sensitized with silver chloride and exposing them to the light By 1841 Talbot had invented and patented the calotype process He was among the few early practitioners who foresaw the wide range of uses of photography Daguerreotype c 1844 by Antoine Claudet Unsatisfied with the results he obtained sketching with a camera lucida while on a trip through Italy in 1833 Talbot was inspired to attempt to permanently fix an image on paper He soon began his serious Photographic experiments which resulted in photogenic drawings He made his first paper negative image in 1835 Talbot39s other scientific pursuits left him little time for photographic work It was not until four years after his successful experiments with negatives immediately upon the announcement of Daguerre39s invention that Talbot exhibited his photographs and lectured on his experiments at the Royal Society He considerably improved his original process in 1840 to create the camera obscura process he patented the next year under the name calotype Talbot39s discoveries may be said to have surpassed Daguerre39s because the negativepositive process permitted the duplication of prints from a single negative while daguerreotypes were unique directpositive images on metal plates Salted Paper Print from a Calotype Negative The Open Door by Fox Talbot 1843 Lacec1844 Photogenic Drawing on Salted Paper Print by Fox Talbot The Pencil of Nature 1 84446 Fox Talbot s The Pencil of Nature was the first commercially published book to be illustrated with photographs It was issued in 6 volumes from June 1844 April 1846 and included a total of 24 plates Copy described the history and chemical processes of the Calotype and suggested a wide array of applications for the medium The Cyanotype A contactprinting process discoveredinvented by Sir John Herschel in 1842 From the Greek word meaning dark blue impression cyanotype is a simple process based on combining ferric ferrocyanide and ferrous ferricyanide which forms a light sensitive solution that is then coated on a paper or cloth support The print is exposed under ultraviolet light and fixed by washing in running water The result is an image with a cyanblue color The cyanotype is practiced today by fine artalternative process practitioners and is also called the blue print or Prussianblue process The Collodion Process This process was introduced in 1851 and marks a watershed in photography Up till then the two processes in use were the daguerreotype and the calotype Daguerreotypes were better than calotypes in terms of detail and quality but could not be reproduced calotypes were reproducible but suffered from the fact that any print would also show the imperfections of the paper The search began then for a process which would combine the best of both processes the ability to reproduce fine detail and the capacity to make multiple prints The ideal would have been to coat light sensitive material on to glass but the chemicals would not adhere without a suitable binder which obviously had to be clear At first Albumen the white wet plate camera of an egg was used Then in 1851 Frederick Scott Archer came across collodion Collodion was a viscous liquid guncotton dissolved in ether and alcohol which had only been invented in 1846 but which quickly found a use during the Crimean war when it dried it formed a very thin clear film which was ideal for dressing and protecting wounds One can still obtain this today for painting over a cut Collodion was just the answer as far as photography was concerned for it would provide the binding which was so badly needed The Woodburytype Invented in 1866 by Walter B Woodbury the Woodburytype was a photomechanical process originally developed to create true continuoustone images Due to the fact that the technique was difficult to master couldn t be automated and that the prepress preparation of the lead printing plate required an enormous amount of hydraulic power the method became obsolete in the late 19th century The Woodburytype process produced prints that did not fade because the images did not rely on light sensitive materials The images were in fact made up entirely of stable pigment suspended in gelatin The quality of the Walter B Woodbury pictures was remarkable with no grain and the process was widely used until the turn of the century The Platinum Print The Platinum printing process was perfected and patented in 1873 by William Willis Willis founded the Platinotype Company in 1879 and sold licenses and materials to photographers that wanted to use the process When Willis began marketing his paper platinum was relatively inexpensive but by 1907 platinum had become 52 times more expensive than silver Eastman Kodak and most other producers stopped fabrication of the paper in 1916 Due to the shortage of commercial paper and high cost photographers experimented with palladium paper and platinumpalladium mixes and eventually gave way to the silver gelatin process associated with contemporary black and white photography Like the other 19th century processes covered so far platinum prints are not suitable for enlargement Due to the slow emulsion speed of the paper it is a contact print process only that is only capable of making a print as large as the original negative or glass plate Pure platinum images tend to be neutral brown and are slightly warmer when mixed with palladium With its matte surface and long tonal range the Platinum print is regarded by some as the most beautiful photographic processes and certainly one of the most permanent It is still a popular method of printing within the fine art alternative process community and a niche within this group combines this historical process with modern digital technology Pictorialism Two Children Praying C 1860 45 x 35 inches albumen print By Oscar Rejlander By the second half of the 19th century the novelty of capturing images was beginning to wear off and some people were now beginning to question whether the camera was in fact too accurate and too detailed in what it recorded This coupled with the fact that painting enjoyed a much higher status than photography caused some photographers to adopt a new approach to the medium that would become known as Pictorialism Pictorialism was a photographic movement that subscribed to the idea that any photograph that put the finished picture first and the subject second was art This philosophy included any image that stressed atmosphere or viewpoint rather than the literal subject of the photograph To make photography more of an art form practitioners employed techniques such as soft focus and darkroom manipulation to create images that emulated the paintings and etchings of the time Among the photographers associated with movement were Oscar Rejlander and Henry Peach Robinson Hippolyte Bayard French b January 20 1801 d May 14 1887 Hippolyte Bayard a French civil servant invented his own process known as direct positive printing This in camera process formed a positive image on paper and like the Daguerreotype created a nished product that was unique His invention actually preceded that of Daguerre but was persuaded to postpone announcing his process to the French Academy of Sciences by Count Francois Arago who was championing Daguerre s work This con ict of interest insured that Daguerre s process would receive all of the credit as one of the principle inventors of photography By the time that Bayard published his process in 1840 the matter was considered old news and as a result he received only a small cash from the French government He expressed his disappointment with a miniseries of portraits accompanied by suicide text The most famous of these being SelfPortrait as a Drowned Man Bayard is credited as being the first person to hold a photographic exhibition when in June 1939 he exhibited 30 pictures of his work in Paris He was the founding member of the French Society of Photography and was one of the rst photographers to receive a commission to document architecture and historical sites in France by the Historical Monument Commission Additionally he was the rst to suggest that separate negatives of clouds be used to print in the skies for landscapes A technique that would later be known a combination printing SelfPortrait as a Drowned Man 1840 Direct Postive Paper by Hippolyte Bayard The corpse which you see here is that of M Bayard inventor of the process that has just been shown to you As far as I know this indefatigable experimenter has been occupied for about three years with his discovery The Government which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard and the poor wretch has drowned himself Oh the vagaries of human life l Henry Peach Robinson b July 9 1830 d February 21 1901 Henry Peach Robinson was a pioneer of Pictorialist photography and one of the most in uential photographers of the Pictorialist movement Initially a painter and in uenced by the work of MW Turner Robinson s aesthetic was for the most part academic and conventional Like Rejlander he aimed for photographs that could compete on the same level as the painting of the time The limitations of photography caused him to perfect the idea of combination printing for which he is particularly remembered it is possible that he was first introduced to this technique by Rejlander The technical difficulty of portraying sky as well as subject on the same negative caused him to accumulate a stock of negatives of the sky to be incorporated into his pictures Later works show a strong link to PreRaphaelitism and he began to move away from composition printing In this phase he represented moments of timeless signficance in a mediaeval setting In this he anticipates the work of Julia Margaret Cameron as well as that of other Rosetti followers Fading Away 1858 95 x 155 inches albumen composite print by Henry Peach Robinson Dawn and Sunset 1885 1025 x 145 inches platinum print from collodion glass negative by Henry Peach Robinson Oscar Gustave Rejlander b1817 d1875 Initially a painter Oscar Rejlander turned his energies to photography in 1855 after being inspired by the work of one of Fox Talbot s assistants He began producing domestic scenes of friends and neighbors but eventually made his living taking portraits and creating photographic studies for other artists In a quest to elevate photography to the level of painting Rejlander created many of his complicated allegorical or classical images through the technique of combination printing which required the use of multiple negatives and careful darkroom processing These images usually involved preliminary sketches a series of separate exposures and then painstaking section bysection printing Although he received acclaim for this work he soon tired of the tedious process and attempted to return to the portrait business This proved unsuccessful and Rejlander died a pauper leaving a small but significant collection of superbly imaginative photographs Two Ways of Life 1857 albumen print by Oscar Rejlander 7 16 x 31 inches 55 x 7 inches albumen print by Oscar Rejlander The Bachelor39 3 Dream 1860 Anna Atkins British b 1799 d 1871 Anna Atkins is considered by some historians to be the first female photographer A neighbor and family friend of Sir John Herschel it is believed that she learned the cyanotype process from Herschel shortly after he announced it s discovery Atkins applied the process to solve the difficulties of making accurate drawings of scientific specimens She is known for her images of algae ferns feathers and waterweeds Atkins selfpublished British Algae Cyanotype Impressions in 1843 In 1850 she began to publish more comprehensive collections of her work completing a three volume anthology in 1853 These books containing hundreds of handmade images were the very first published works to utilize a photographic system for scientific investigation and illustration Although Atkins published in 1843 Talbot s Pencil of Nature 18441846 is generally credited by historians as the first to have achieved this important milestone Dictyota Dihotoma in the Young State and in Fruit Cyanotype Photogram by Anna Atkins 1843 Dicya h diatobm ix aglung JM a in wit 7 Julia Margaret Cameron British b June 11 1815 d January 26 1879 Julia Margaret Cameron was an English photographer known for her portraits of eminent people of the day and for her romantic pictures which despite their technical imperfections stand the test of time Her involvement in photography came about as a result of the kindness of her eldest daughter Julia Margaret by this time was aged fortynine her children had grown up and her husband was often abroad on business As a result she suffered from loneliness and her daughter to make her life more fulfilling bought her a camera From this simple beginning a new hobby began which was to turn into an obsession Cameron had a tremendous capacity to Visualize a picture and her portraits show a measure of Vitality which the work of many others of the time did not Among her most famous portraits are those of Herschel and Tennyson She was greatly appreciated abroad and won a number of major prizes She was also in uenced by the PreRaphaelite school which sought to return to artistic practices of Europe in late Mediaeval times Many of her photographs of women and children are undesguisedly sentimental others are delightful and penetrating studies Julia Jackson 1867 1075 x 825 inches albumen print from a collodion glass negative by Julia Margaret Cameron Sir John Herschel 1867 14 x 11 inches albumen print from a collodion glass negative by Julia Margaret Cameron Lady Clementina Hawarden British b 1822 d 1865 Lady Celmentina Hawarden was one of the pioneer women of photography It is thought that she took up photography in 1857 making landscapes and gure studies at the family estate in Dundrum Ireland However her primary subjects were her daughters whom she carefully posed in the rooms of her London home She was able to experiment with light and composition in manner denied to professional portrait photographers to produce studies of mood ambience and sensuality These enchanting images explore an intimate world of Victorian womanhood Lewis Carroll praised and collected Lady Hawarden39s photographs which predated even the work of her betterknown contemporary Julia Margaret Cameron and art historians contend that her photographs in uenced the portrait painting of James McNeill Whistler She exhibited her photographs with the most open of titles simply Photographic Studies or Studies from Life leaving the viewer to guess at the implied narrative in the theatrical scenes or tableaux 5213332322 30122 21 acted out by her children dressed in a variety of costumes for the part 39 Though Hawarden and her daughters were like most women of their day bound by home and hearth in these enigmatic pictures they imagine themselves transformed Clementina Maude and Florence Elizabeth c 18631864 albumen print from wet plate collodion glass negative by Lady Clementina Hawarden Isabella Grace and Florence Elizabeth Maude 5 Princes Gardens 0 1860s albumen print from wet plate collodion glass negative by Lady Clementina Hawarden Rev Charles Lutwidge Dodgson Lewis Carroll b January 27 1832 d January 14 1898 Lewis Carroll the pseudonym of Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson began making photographs in 1856 that mirror the concerns her wrote about in his Victorian fantasy novels Alice 5 Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass Carroll s adroitness in the company of prepubescent girls enabled him to compose images revealing their natural sense of dexterity and intuitive spontaneity Carroll s images probed beneath the surface of the sitter and have come to play a role in creating our conception of Victorian childhood Carroll s preference for moralizing works also lead him to endow his childhood sitters with his own adult melancholic emotional and sexual dilemmas To Carroll s contemporaries such photographs represented childhood purity and virtue and parents brought their daughters to be photographed by him in this manner In the 1930s however when the concept of Victorian repression became culturally pervasive Carroll s work became the object of much unfounded speculation about the photographer s supposed predilection for little girls Alice Liddell 1858 albumen print by Lewis Carroll Nadar GaspardFelix Tournachon French b 1820 d 1910 Nadar must be ranked not only among the greatest photographers of the 19th c but as one of the great personalities of his age Caricaturist journalist novelist balloonist propagandist for heavierthan air ight friend of almost every notable French writer artist journalist and socialist of the Second Empire many of whom he photographed Nadar was a paragon of enthusiasm energy and productivity By the end of the 1840s he had taken up caricature which he produced for humorous journals signing his work quotNadarquot and by 1854 he had set up his younger brother Adrian Tournachon as a photographer Shortly thereafter Nadar himself set up a studio on the roof of the house he shared with his mother and divided his time between his brother39s studio and his own SelfPortrait 1910 by Nadar By 1860 Nadar had opened a new studio on the Boulevard des Capucines with the signature quotNadarquot emblazoned across the front The magisterial portraits he produced from the mid1850s through the mid1860s are notable for their ability to convey the sitter39s personality the case and naturalness of the pose and the clear but subtly orchestrated lighting Nadar typically chose threequarter views often hiding the hands so that the full force of the portrait was conveyed by the face the expression and the position of the seated body In 1871 Nadar turned over the running of the business to his son Paul who became a fairly successful commercial portraitist Although Nadar remained a photographic entrepreneur for most of his life he was an active photographer for only slightly more than a decade Nadar s Contributions 0 the celebrity portrait o the first to use artificial light 0 the first to do aerial photography the first to exhibit Impressionist art 0 the photographic interview CarteDeVisite of Nadar in a a hot air balloon Adrien Tournachon 1854 by Nadar Prince Napoleon c 1860 albumen print from a cartedevisite negative by Disderi Mikhail Bakunin 1863 By Nadar C lt Z 9 Q 9 Charles Baudelaire 1855 Sarah Bernhardt 1864 by Nadar Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi French b 1819 d 1889 or 1890 A French photographer who started his photographic career as a daguerreotypist Andre Disderi was famous for developing the technique of making very small 101 mm x 63mm portraits which came to be known as cartedevisite photographs In May 1859 he had an extraordinarily lucky break when Napoleon stopped his troops outside his studio and went in to have his photograph taken Disderi became instantly famous and people flocked to his studio making him a very rich man The process was so cheap that cartedevisites became enormously popular largely replacing the daguerreotype Enterprising photographers began to take photographs of famous personalities and copies were avidly collected by the people At the height of his fame he was said to be one of the richest photographers in Europe Sadly however his photographic sense was not matched by his business one for he ended his career as a beach photographer in Monaco dying virtually pennHess Disderi selfportrait c 1860 CARTEDEVISITE Cartes deVisite were small Visiting card portraits usually measuring 4 1 2 X 2 1 2 introduced by a Parisian photographer Andre Disd ri who in late 1854 patented a way of taking a number of photographs on one plate usually eight thus greatly reducing production costs The cartesdeVisite did not catch on until one day in May 1859 when Napoleon III on his way to Italy with his army halted his troops and went into Disd ri s studio in Paris to have his photograph taken From this welcome publicity Disd ri s fame began and two years later he was said to be earning nearly 100000 a year from one studio alone The reasons for the success of these cards were 0 their cheapness The average price for a card was a few cents mass produced ones could be bought for 25 cents a dozen 0 they were small light and easy to collect and many people began to place these in photographic albums 0 collections of pictures particularly of royalty became highly treasured Cartes deVisite were Albumen prints and it is on record that in Britain half a million eggs were being delivered yearly to one photographic studio alone quot1 m Untitled 0 1860 uncut albumen print from a cartedevisite negative by Disderi Roger Fenton British b Mar 1819 d Aug 8 1869 Roger Fenton was a British photographer particularly known for his coverage of the Crimean War In 1851 he visited Paris to learn the waxed paper calotype process most likely from Gustave Le Gray its inventor By 1852 he had travelled to Kiev Moscow and St Petersburg making calotypes there and photographed views and architecture around Britain He exhibited his work in England and published a call for the setting up of a photographic society this is now the Royal Photographic Society In 1855 Fenton was sent to the Crimean War as the first official war photographer at the insistence of Prince Albert Despite high temperatures and suffering from cholera he managed to make over 350 large format negatives The photographs produced were published in the Illustrated London News to offset the general aversion of the British people to an unpopular war As a result Fenton avoided making pictures of dead injured or mutilated soldiers Though he is seen as a war photographer Fenton s pictures showed a very onesided cosmetic view as it was largely a propaganda exercise he was bound to show the wellbeing of the troops he wanted to sell his pictures and gruesome realistic ones were probably not very marketable many of his pictures were of the officers a sign perhaps of his sound business sense In fairness to him he often felt obliged to photograph them quotIf I refuse to take themquot he complained quotI get no facilities for conveying my van from one locality to anotherquot Upon returning from the Crimea he published bound volumes of his prints However they did not sell too well as people hardly wished to keep mementos of an event which most wanted to forget It was probably his bout of cholera which led to his early death at the age of fortynine It is worth noting that this prolific output and contribution to photography was confined to just eleven years or so l a Q I t 5quot I a Ho p 39 V t vita v31 A s 0 r I I I ltmmlt 9 9m mjmao 9 0mm CEmSm 3mm 3 x 32 So mmmo vmvm U12 03 m 98m mmmgm g momm mms o 039 lt m 0 0 CD Tl CD 3 FF 0 3 S m H 9 TI c 3 CD I m gt 039 039 CD Zlt A 00 CD 0 Matthew Brady American b 1823 d January 15 1896 Mathew Brady best known for documenting the American Civil War 18611865 was probably one of the greatest documentary photographers Brady himself did not take many of the photographs which bear his name he had set himself up as a portrait photographer and had equipped a number of photographers twenty it is said with darkroom wagons to cover the War with the ruling that his name as employer rather than the names of the photographers themselves would appear on the photographs The limitations of equipment and materials prevented any action shots but Brady s team brought back some seven thousand pictures which well portrayed the realities of war From 1845 Brady embarked upon an ambitious project to photograph famous people of the time and in 1850 published quotA Gallery of Illustrious Americans Among his portraits was one ofAbraham Lincoln which was reproduced and circulated during Lincoln39s first Presidential campaign Though Brady39s work was much admired at the time he gained little in financial terms tired of the war people did not want reminders of it and Brady39s photographs were honest sometimes brutally so Brady invested a fortune into the business but faced bankruptcy after the war In 1875 Congress purchased his archive of photographs for 2840 at public auction and granted him 25000 but this was not enough to cover his debts and he died alone an alcoholic and penniless Dead at Gettysburg aka A Harvest of Death 1863 7 x 9 inch albumen print Matthew Brady photographed by Timothy O Sullivan t I I Wounded Soldiers in Hospital 0 1864 albumen print attributed to Matthew Brady Abraham Lincoln 3 1864 albumen print Matthew Brady Alexander Gardner b October 17 1821 d 1882 Alexander Gardner was a Scot who emigrated to the United States and was hired by Mathew Brady for whom he photographed the American Civil War However Brady39s practice of signing his employees39 pictures did not meet with Gardner39s approval and after some years he left Brady39s firm and opened his own gallery in Washington DC Unlike the somewhat contrived war pictures taken by Roger Fenton Gardner39s are so factual as to be almost macabre His book quotGardner39s twovolume Photographic Sketchbook of the War was published in 1866 The following year he recorded the building of the Union Paci c Railroad He also documented the execution of the conspirators against Lincoln and Lincoln39s funeral In addition he embarked upon making a collection of photographs of convicted criminals for the Washington police force It should also be added however that amongst the genuine pictures of the war there appear to be a few which are contrived further proof that whilst the camera cannot lie the person behind it can For example when Gardner arrived at the decisive scene of the war at Gettysburg two days after it had been fought he set about photographing quotHome of a Rebel Sharpshooterquot However before taking the picture he had dragged the body of a Confederate some thirty meters to where he lies in the picture turning the head towards the camera Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter Gettysburg July 1863 7 x 9 inch albumen print by Alexander Gardner A Sharpshooter s Last Sleep Gettysburg July 1863 albumen print by Alexander Gardner Timothy H O39Sullivan American b 1840 d 1882 In the course of a career that barely covered two decades Timothy O39Sullivan produced one of the most signi cant bodies of photographic work in 19th century America At the age of twenty he was working in Mathew Brady39s New York photographic portrait studio which then was headed by Alexander Gardner During the Civil War O39Sullivan and Gardner were Brady39s most important eld photographers until 1862 when Gardner set up his own Washington DC gallery and launched eld units to photograph the war O39Sullivan joined Gardner and photographed the aftermath of battles such as Bull Run and Gettysburg using the wetplate collodion process Many of his powerful photographs from this period were included in Photographic Sketchbook of the War published by Gardner In 1867 O39Sullivan went west to work as of cial photographer for the US Government Fortieth Parallel Survey one of the many commissioned by either the government or railroad companies to describe and map the vast uncharted expanses west of the Mississippi in this case an area including the proposed route of the Central Paci c Railway The area 900 miles long and 100 miles wide reached from Virginia City Nevada to Denver City in the Utah Territory During this rst expedition O39Sullivan photographed the interior of the Comstock Lode mine using magnesium ares these are among the earliest known photographs of mine interiors For the next two years constantly on the move and undergoing considerable hardship in the eld O39Sullivan produced hundreds of mammoth 20quot X 24 and larger glass plates of which Weston Naef has written for O39Sullivan a photograph was equally an image chosen and organized by the artist and a specimen of preexisting physical fact recorded by the technician The perfectly balanced tension between these subjective and objective concerns is a central characteristic of his work Harvest of Death Gettysburg Pennsylvania July 1863 675 x 9 inch albumen print from a wet plate collodion negative by Timothy O Sullivan Desert Sand Hills near Sink of Carson Nevada 1867 875 x 115 inch albumen silver print from wet plate colldion negative by Timothy O Sullivan Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix French b April 26 1798 d August 13 1863 Jean Louis Marie Eugene Durieu French b 1800 d 1874 The camera perfected by the painter Daguerre was initially seen by landscape and portrait painters as a threat to their livelihood But in fact it freed them from the roles of narrator and illustrator allowing them to explore dimensions of inner experience that had been largely neglected in Western art since the Renaissance The French Romantic painter Delacroix was one of the first to recognize the difference between camera vision and human vision He believed that photography was potentially of great benefit to art and artists Delacroix39s attitude toward the new pictorial medium was markedly ambivalent The painter was thoroughly appreciative of photography as a handmaiden to the artist that provided a fast and comfortable process for capturing an image but was reticent in approving photography as an independent artistic form of expression Working together Delacroix and amateur photographer Eugene Durieu completed a series of nude photographs Delacroix posed the models for Durieu to photograph and then used the images as source material for his own work The nearly three dozen studies that have survived constitute one of the artistic high points of early nude photography Nude Study for Delacroix By Eugene Durieu Figure Study 0 1855 salted paper print by Eugene Durieu Male Nude c 1853 salted paper print by Eugene Durieu Carleton Watkins American b 1829 d 1916 In the last third of the 19th century Carleton Watkins was known as one of America39s foremost landscape photographers primarily for his artistic panoramas of Yosemite and other wilderness areas He made his reputation at a time when the competition included gures such as Timothy O39Sullivan Eadweard Muybridge and William Henry Jackson Watkins photographed throughout the West on field expeditions carrying huge cameras and other equipment He also made many memorable images of the rapid development of San Francisco Watkins was born in Oneonta New York He journeyed to California at the time of the Gold Rush settling in Sacramento where he worked as a carpenter He moved to San Francisco in 1853 taking employment as a department store clerk and became acquainted with photography in 1854 at the studio of Robert Vance for whom he worked in daguerreotype and wet collodion processes He began to record life in the Bay area at this time From 1855 to 1861 he extensively photographed the New Idrea and New Almaden mines and the Mission Santa Clara In 1859 he made views of the Mariposa Bear Valley for James Hutchings Watkins began his first series of Yosemite views with specially constructed mammoth view cameras in 1861 Watkins continued to photograph Yosemite for the next several years and worked privately and on the geological surveys of Josiah D Whitney 1866 and Clarence King 1867 In 1867 Watkins renamed his San Francisco studio quotYosemite Art Galleryquot He photographed extensively in Oregon traveling with landscape painter William Keith in 18671868 He was awarded a medal for landscape at the Paris Exposition of 1868 For the United States Geological Survey he photographed the Mount Shasta and Mount Lassen area in 1870 and in 1871 the North Bloomfield Gravel Mines in Nevada Country California He exhibited at the Vienna International Exposition of 1873 with Timothy O39Sullivan and Eadweard Muybridge Edward S Curtis American b1868 dl952 Edward 5 Curtis began photographing Native Americans around 1895 and producing silver and platinum prints photographs as well as goldtones for sale in his successful downtown Seattle studio At the National Photographic Exhibition of 1899 he was awarded the grand prize for several of his soft focused sepia toned images of Indians collecting clams and mussels along the beaches of Puget Sound Curtis39 romantic images appealed to the turn of the century sensibilities of many who envisioned the Indian as the heroic character of a quotvanishing racequot Like Curtis many EuroAmericans of his day recognized the fact that the traditional lifestyles and landscapes of the Native Americans were quickly disappearing In 1904 Curtis convinced P Morgan to fund his project to photograph over 80 native tribes in North America His masterwork would be a set of 20 books documenting the lifestyles mythology and ceremonies of these tribes with high quality photoengravings taken from his glass plate negatives The project which Curtis expected to take 5 years instead took nearly 25 costing him his financial security his marriage and his health The North American Indian was quotrediscoveredquot in the 1970s after a showing of Curtis work at the Pierpont Morgan Library Because by this time nearly all of his sets were residing in the special collections of museums and libraries and most of his negatives destroyed original Curtis photographs and photoengravings became highly collectable Sets were split up to provide collectors interested in his work with individual images Curtis work has steadily gained in popularity and collectability since that time Apache Medicineman 1907 photogravure by Edward 8 Curtis Navajo Ceremonial Costume 1904 photogravure by Edward 8 Curtis AYoung Umatilla 019003 photogravure by Edward 8 Curtis Thomas Eakins American b1844 d1916 In addition to being an accomplished painter and teacher Thomas Eakins was a dedicated and talented photographer Working with wet plate collodion glass negatives and platinum printing he distinguished himself from most other painters of his generation by mastering the technical aspects of photography Like the DelacroixDurieu tandem Eakins used photography as a direct aid in painting His philosophy was that the camera was a teaching device comparable to anatomical drawing and that this tool trained the eye to see what was truly before it More than 225 known negatives are attributed to Eakins These images consist primarily of figure studies nude and clothed as well as portraits of his students extended family and friends Eakins Naked Series consisted of nude photos of students and professional models which were taken to show real human anatomy from several specific angles and were often hung up and displayed for study at the school Later less regimented poses were taken indoors and out of men women and children including his wife Although witnesses were usually on site and the poses were mostly traditional in nature the sheer quantity of the photos and Eakins overt display of them may have undermined his standing as a teacher In the late 1870s he was introduced to the photographic motion studies of Eadweard Muybridge and became interested in using the camera to study sequential movement He performed his own motion studies usually involving the nude figure capturing movement on film using a single camera to produce a series of exposures on one negative No other American artist of his time matched Eakins39 interest in photography nor produced a comparable body of photographic works Motion Study 1885 by Thomas Eakins Jacob A Riis American b 1849 d 1914 America39s first journalistphotographer in fact a muckraker with a camera Jacob Riis was known at the turn of the century as the quotEmancipator of the Slumsquot because of his work on behalf of the urban poor His brutal documentation of sweatshops diseaseridden tenements and overcrowded schools aroused public indignation and helped effect significant reform in housing education and childlabor laws Riis was selftaught His photographs taken over a 10year period were made without artistic intent yet they deeply influenced the course of American documentary photography Riis wrote quotI came to take up photography not exactly as a pastime It was never that for me I had to use it and beyond that I never went The camera was a weapon of propaganda he wielded in his fight to ameliorate the living conditions of countless underprivileged people who would have remained unseen if not for his passionate social concern Riis was born in Ribe Denmark the third in a family of 15 children one of them adopted ln opposition to his father39s wishes he was a carpenter39s apprentice in Copenhagen from 1866 to 1870 when he emigrated to the United States Riis lived in poverty in New York City for some time before he found a job with a news bureau in 1873 He became a police reporter for the New York Tribune and the Associated Press in 1877 Horrified by the squalor of immigrant life he began a series of exposes on slum conditions on New York39s Lower East Side In 1884 he was responsible for the establishment of the Tenement House Commission In 1888 he left the Tribune for the Evening Sun and began work on his book How the Other Half Lives Riis was among the first photographers to use flash powder which enabled him to photograph interiors and exteriors of the slums at night He worked at first with two assistants but soon found it necessary to take his photographs himself Primarily a writer he wanted pictures to document and authenticate his reports and to supply the vividness that would ensure attention Bandits Roost 1888 by Jacob Riis J wr r 5 quot39 3 39 Hebrew makes ready for Sabbath 1895 by Jacob Riis Lewis Wickes Hine American b 1874 d 1940 Although Lewis Hine was neither the firstnor certainly the last photographer to employ his camera in the cause of social reform the quality of his best work has rarely been equaled More importantly Hine39s documentation of child labor was instrumental in effecting the reforms for which he struggled Allied with many of the important gures of the Progressive and Reform movements Hine was able to use his photographs to mobilize public concern and to generate corrective legislation Born in Wisconsin Hine came to New York in 1901 In 1904 he began photographing immigrants arriving and being processed on Ellis Island Hine documented families individuals and the facilities on the island making over 200 plates in a 5 year period Shortly after meeting Arthur Kellogg the editor of the reformist social work journal Charities and the Commons Hine was engaged as a freelance photographer for the National Child Labor Committee Under the NCLC Hine traveled widely photographing often surreptitiously children working in the mines factories and sweatshops of the eastern United States These photographs led to the establishment of child labor and safety laws for all workers In the 1920s and early 1930s Hine made a series of quotwork portraitsquot which emphasized the human contribution to modern industry In 1930 Hine was commissioned to document the construction of The Empire State Building He photographed the workers in precarious positions while they secured the iron and steel framework of the structure taking many of the same risks the workers endured In order to obtain the best vantage points Hine was swung out in a specially designed basket 1000 feet above Fifth Avenue At the conclusion of his project in 1931 Hine published Men at Work a picture book which summarized his theme Boy Lost Arm Running a Saw in a Box Factory 01909 5 x 35 inch gelatin silver print by Lewis Hine Sadie Pfeiffer Spinner in Cotton Mill North Carolina 0 190810 11 x 14 inch gelatin silver print by Lewis Hine Breaker Boys 1912 5 x 7 inch gelatin silver print by Lewis Hine Mechanic at Steam Pump in Electric Power House 1920 45 x 65 inch gelatin silver print by Lewis Hine Sebasti ao Salgado Brazilian b1944 l u u QIII Sebastiao Salgado is a Brazilian social documentary photographer and photojournalist Earning a master s degree in economics from the University of 8510 Paulo in Brazil Salgado began working as an economist for the International Coffee Organization He began to take his photography seriously while traveling to Africa on missions for the World Bank He chose to abandon his career as an economist for photography in 1973 working initially on news assignments before veering more towards documentarytype work ll ll 5 m 99 3 Salgado initially worked with the Paris based agency Gamma but in 1979 he joined the international cooperative of photographers Magnum Photos He left Magnum in 1994 and formed his own agency Amazonas Images in Paris to represent his work He is particularly noted for his social documentary photography of workers in less developed nations and many in the business consider Salgado to be one of the most important photographer of the early 21st century Salgado works on long term self assigned projects many of which have been published as books The Other Americas Workers and Migrations The latter two are mammoth collections with hundreds of images each from all around the world His most famous pictures are of a gold mine in Brazil He is presently working on a project called Genesis photographing the landscape flora and fauna of places on earth that have not been taken over by man Salgado has won more than 50 international awards for his work including the Eugene Smith Award for Humanitarian Photography in 1982 ICP39s Photojournalist of the Year in 1988 and the Alfred Eisenstaedt Life Legend Award in 1998 Refugees in the Korem camp Ethiopia 1984 gelatin silver print by Sebasti o Salgado GourmaRharous Mali 1985 gelatin silver print by Sebasti o Salgado Full view of the Serra Pelada gold mine Brazil 1986 510 Salgado gelatin silver print by Sebasti Firefighters at Work Sabotaged Oil Wells in Kuwait1991 gelatin silver print by Sebasti o Salgado Eadweard Muybridge British b1830 d1904 Eadweard Muybridge was the most signi cant contributor to the early study of human and animal locomotion His extensive studies and inventions were acknowledged by such pioneers of motion pictures as E J Marey the Lumiere brothers and Thomas Edison Muybridge grew up in England and was employed by the London Printing and Publishing Company He came to the US in 1852 as their representative settling in San Francisco where he learned photography from daguerreotypist Silas Selleck in the early 1860s and worked for Carleton E Watkins the major West Coast scenic photographer before striking out on his own He made photographic surveys for the firm of Thomas Houseworth and worked for the US War Department documenting areas of the West Coast In 1872 Muybridge was enlisted by Leland Stanford to settle a wager regarding the position of a trotting horse39s legs Using the fastest shutter available Muybridge was able to provide only the faintest image He was more successful five years later when employing a battery of cameras with mechanically tripped shutters he showed clearly the stages of the horse39s movement at top speed a trotting horse had all four hooves off the ground simultaneously and in a different configuration from that of a galloping horse Muybridge concentrated his efforts on studies of the motion of animals and human models His work in stopaction series photography soon led to his invention of the quotzoopraxiscopequot a primitive motionpicture machine which recreated movement by displaying individual photographs in rapid succession This machine was demonstrated privately in America as early as 1879 and at public gatherings in Europe over the next two years Muybridge demonstrated and lectured on his work at the Royal Institution and Royal Academy London in 1882 and in major American cities in 1883 3 t3IX39V1I39w quotIv 2 LAN 3 KNIHIHI n u XI39vx1 er n I39Hn H o 39r39v t1HhJ The Horse in Motion 1878 by Eadweard Muybridge Headspring a Flying Pigeon Interfering 1885 by Eadweard Muybridge Descending Stairs and Turning Around 0 188485 by Eadweard Muybridge EtienneJules Marey French b March 5 1830 d May 21 1904 In 1881 afterseeing a photographic demonstration by Edward Muybridge EtienneJules Marey devoted himself to animal photography and its mechanics and in so doing invented the first movie camera Unlike Muybridge Marey decided to use one camera rather than many to produce a series of images in rapid succession In 1882 Marey was able to take 12 pictures per second using his photographic gun which looked like a ri e with a magazine made of a photographic glass plate While creating the illusion of movement the postagestamp size of the photographs was too small and the frames per second too few to allow for adequate analysis of motion After George Eastman marketed in 1885 a photographic film that used a silver bromide emulsion on a gelatin base Marey was able to increase exposure speed In his chronophotographic chamber a paper ribbon of lm that produced images 36 sq in was drawn along behind a shutter There it stopped long enough to be exposed before it was moved forward Marey was thus able to expose 60 images per second During the next 20 years Marey filmed a wide variety of human and animal movements using his new apparatus As well as slowing rapid movements by the use of highspeed cinematography he also invented the technique of time lapse which is used to speed up of slow movements Marey studied his films frame by frame and published his observations in numerous articles in scientific journals Marey also made movies They were at a high speed 60 images per second and of excellent image quality in slowmotion cinematography he had come close to perfection His research on how to capture and display moving images helped the emerging field of cinematography Some in fact see EtienneJules Marey rather than the Lumiere brothers as the true father of cine photography Flying Pelican 18 32 albumen print by EtienneJules Marey Harold Eugene Doc Edgerton American b April 6 1903 d January 4 1990 Dr Harold E Edgerton was one of the most signi cant inventors of the 20th century Among his inventions was the strobe light a fastblinking electronic light that seemed to make moving objects stand still Edgerton39s achievements in stroboscopic and ultra highspeed photography are illustrated in books that tell the history of photography as well as in science textbooks His pioneering research laid the foundation for the development of many modern technologies and electronic devices Edgerton was an electrical engineer and began to take photographs as scienti c experiments In his first he tried to produce a perfect coronet from a single drop of milk falling into liquid To do this he invented the stroboscope a device to produce short bursts of light This allowed him to take splitsecond pictures of objects in motion which could not be seen by the human eye including bullets and hummingbirds in ight light bulbs shattering and athletes in action Some of his photographs had an exposure time of less than 1 10000 of a second Edgerton was an educator as well as an artist He taught at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1927 until his death in 1990 and he was famous for his enthusiastic and enjoyable demonstration lectures His photographs did more than simply record objective facts for his research Edgerton took great pleasure from his creatively inventive photography He had an artist39s eye for the aesthetics of composition and he had a quirky attitude toward the imagery that he depicted Edgerton had fun with his photography and he enjoyed sharing the fun as well as the knowledge with others Edgerton focused upon imagery that would inspire a sense of wonder in viewers His photographs seem to wave a magic wand that stops time and captures realities that are otherwise impossible for people to see or comprehend Milk Drop Coronet 1957 1775 x 1375 inch cprint by Harold Edgerton Queen of Hearts playing card hit by a 30 caliber bullet 1970 8 x 10 inch c print by Harold Edgerton The PhotoSecession Movement After the introduction of the handheld amateur camera by Kodak in 1888 gentlemen with artistic ambitions no longer dominated the medium of photography As an army of weekend quotsnapshootersquot invaded the photographic realm a small but persistent group of photographers stallted their medium39s claim to membership among the fine arts They rejected the pointand shoot approach to photography and embraced laborintensive processes such as gum bichromate printing which involved hand coating artist papers with homemade emulsions and pigments or they made platinum prints which yielded rich tonally subtle images Such photographs emphasized the role of the mum u u u lain m photographer as craftsman and countered the argument that u m1 swat z UN 0quot 29 m Anna photography was an entirely mechanical medium The Photo 3fo rm Secession was founded in 1902 to loosely hold together those Americans devoted to pictorial photography in their endeavor to compel its recognition not as a handmaiden of art but as a distinctive medium of individual expression Advertisement for the PhotoSecession designed by Edward Steichen The Photo Secession was organized by Alfred Stieglitz and operated by him between 1902 and 1917 Composed of carefully selected pictorial photographers the society often did the best and most original photography produced in the United States and abroad Stieglitz himself an expert photographer championed the goals of the PhotoSecession in his magazine Camera Work 190317 and at the little galleries of the Photo Secession 19051917 at 291 Fifth Avenue in New York Alfred Stieglitz American b 1864 d 1946 Had Alfred Stieglitz never taken a photograph he would still be numbered among the most signi cant in uences in American culture prior to World War 11 As editor of the magazine Camera Work as proselytizer for the art of photography and as director of the 291 gallery Stieglitz was among the first to introduce the art of the European and American avantgarde to the American public while simultaneously championing publishing and exhibiting much of the best photography of the period Nevertheless it is Stieglitz39s body of photographic work which has firmly established his place among 20th century artists Stieglitz39s career spanned more than 50 years and bridged 19th and 20th century styles in photography Born in Hoboken New Jersey Stieglitz studied mechanical engineering in Berlin Germany Even while an engineering student he was drawn to photography and in the 1880s he traveled throughout Europe taking pictures At the age of 24 he received first prize in a British photographic competition judged by P H Emerson the first of the 150 medals he was to receive in his lifetime In 1889 Stieglitz returned permanently to New York where he began exhibiting his own work extensively and writing on photography predominantly on the movement now known as Pictorialism whose in uence pervaded his early work When in 1902 Stieglitz formed the PhotoSecession group and opened 291 the American photographers he exhibited were more or less in uenced by Pictorialist tenets These included the application of Aestheticism and Symbolist styles borrowed from the fine arts and the use of printing processes such as gum bichromate soft focus and retouching of the negative to achieve painterly effects In his own work Stieglitz soon came to reject retouching and other forms of manipulation often choosing to photograph in rain mist or snow to create the desired softness of effect as well as to demonstrate that vision was more important than condition or equipment SelfPortrait 1907 quot 0 39 quot p t I 4 a V 391I39M c quot39 J 39 l u The Terminal New York 1892 475 x 625 inch photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz 1575 x 13 inch carbon print Winter on Fifth Avenue by Alfred Stieglitz New York 1893 3 Fl quot I 39 3 EH quot f 4 I 5 The Steerage 1907 13 x 105 inch photogravure by Alfred Stieglitz Alfred Stieglitz and Georgia O Keeffe Alfred Stieglitz was 54 when Georgia O Keeffe arrived in New York23 years her senior In 1918 they began living together although inconveniently Stieglitz already had a wife Emmeline Obermeyer Although the marriage had been a failure for quite some time Emmy had refused Alfred s request for a divorce During the first 8 years of the relationship Stieglitz photographed with a renewed intensity Obsessed with the much younger O Keeffe he made over 300 portraits and figure studies of her between 1918 and 1937 Shortly after their first meeting Alfred took Georgia to the Stieglitz family O Keeffee and Stieglitz 1944 home at Lake George in the Adirondack Mountains They would return by Amo39d Newman to the lake home each summer for years to come with Georgia producing many of her paintings during that time Stieglitz was Georgia39s most avid supporterarranging shows and selling her paintings Buying an quotO39Keeffequot was not only expensive but a collector needed to meet Stieglitz39s somewhat hazy standards for owning one By this time she was known only as quotO39Keeffequot to the art world She rarely signed a painting but instead would sometimes print an quotOKquot on the back of the canvas Alfred39s wife divorced him in September 1924 and he began to press Georgia into marriage She was reluctant to do so since they had lived together since 1918 and having survived the scandal she saw no reason to marry now She finally relented and married late in December By 1928 Georgia began to feel the need to travel and find other sources for painting The demands of an annual show needed new material Friends returning from the West with stories stimulated Georgia39s desire to see and explore new places Alfred had no desire to leave New York and Lake Georgehe hated change of any type In May of 1929 Georgia set out by train to Taos New Mexicoa trip that all but put an end to her relationship with Stieglitz Hands and Thimble Georgia O39Keeffe 1920 by Alfred Stieglitz Georgia O39Keeffe 1931 by Alfred Stieglitz Equivalents Alfred Stieglitz photographed clouds from 1922 into the 1930s A symbolist aesthetic underlies these images which became increasingly abstract equivalents of his own experiences thoughts and emotions The theory of equivalence had been the subject of much discussion at Gallery 291 during the teens and it was infused by Kandinsky39s ideas especially the belief that colors shapes and lines re ect the inner often emotive quotvibrations of the soulquot In his cloud photographs which he termed Equivalents Stieglitz emphasized pure abstraction adhering to the modern ideas of equivalence holding that abstract forms lines and colors could represent corresponding inner states emotions and ideas By photographing clouds Stieglitz meant to demonstrate how quotto hold a moment how to record something so completely that all who see the picture of it will relive an equivalent of what has been expressedquot Stieglitz39s choice of intangible vapors as his ostensible subject was telling for the vagueness of transcendental meaning is not easily sustained by material objects Whether his equivalents achieved their goal is a question each viewer must answer for himself or herself that they demonstrated the ineffable dimension of inspiration is without doubt Equivalent 1929 by Alfred Stieglitz Equivalent 1 925 45 x 35 inch gelatin silver print by Alfred Stieglitz Gertrude K39asebier American b May 18 1852 d October 12 1934 Gertrude Kasebier39s career in art followed from her first career as a mother After studying painting at Pratt Institute and opening a portrait studio in New York in 1897 she switched to photography displaying the in uence of her training as a painter in the Pictorialist style Her family and friends posed for her most celebrated series of photographs on the subject of motherhood Kasebier was well known for her work in portraits employing relaxed poses in natural light She emphasized the play of light and dark and allowed the sitter to fill the frame so little room was left in the edges of the photograph In addition Kasebier was very creative and talented in the printing process Her background in painting gave her the ablility to manipulate the surface of her photographs producing beautiful images that often have a painterly quality Kasebier exhibited her photographs in the Philadelphia Photographic Society exhibitions and Alfred Stieglitz reproduced five of her images in his journal Camera Notes in 1899 She became a founding quotPortrait of the Photographer maniuplated selfportrait by Gertrude Kasebier member of Stieglitz39s PhotoSecession group and Stieglitz devoted the first issue of Camera Work to her images Kasebier broke with Stieglitz and the PhotoSecession over Stieglitz s predilection to the work of Paul Strand and the New Realism or straight photography in 1912 In 1916 she formed the Pictorial Photographers of America with Clarence White and Alvin Langdon Coburn and continued to photograph until she closed her studio in 1929 Blessed Art Thou Among Women c1899 from Camera Work No 1 925 x 55 inch platinum print by Gertrude K sebier Portrait of Miss N 1903 Evelyn Nesbit from Camera Work No 1 75 x 55 inch photogravure by Gertrude K sebier Edward Steichen by F Holland Day Edward Steichen American b 1879 d 1973 Edward Steichen was a photographer painter and museum curator Born in Luxembourg his family moved to the United States in 1881 and he became a naturalized citizen in 1900 Steichen became interested in photography at the age of 16 and went on to become one of the most prominent and in uential figures of 20th century photography In uenced by the atmosphere of moonlight that came to characterize his early Pictorialist photographs he also painted During his long career Steichen worked in a variety of styles in blackandwhite and color his subjects ranged from portraits and landscapes to fashion and advertising photography to photography of dance and sculpture His early work demonstrated a mastery of softfocus Pictorialism yet after the first World War he became a proponent of quotstraightquot photography and the New Realism At the age 21 he met Alfred Stieglitz who purchased 3 of his photographs Steichen set up a studio specializing in portraiture at 291 Fifth Avenue and became a founding member of the PhotoSecession in 1903 In 1923 Steichen went to work for the Cond Nast publications Vanity Fair and Vogue where he photographed celebrities fashion and received advertising commissions Steichen closed his New York studio in 1938 and embarked upon a new more spontaneous photographic phase During World War II he joined the Navy to head up a unit of photographers He was the first curator of photographs at the Museum of Modern Art in New York where he curated the famous quotFamily of Manquot exhibition in 1953 Steichen39s entire body of work is noted for a highly developed sense of design The Flatiron New York 1905 from Camera Work No 14 775 x 625 inches gumbichromate over platinum by Edward Steichen WMquot g yf squot r Milk Bottles Spring New York 1915 gelatin silver print by Edward Steichen Gloria Swanson 1924 10 x 8 inch gelatin silver contact print by Edward Steichen Greta Garbo 1928 10 x 8 inch gelatin silver contact print by Edward Steichen Paul Strand American b 1890 d 1976 Paul Strand was born in New York City the only child of parents of BohemianJewish descent He first became interested in photography as a student at the Ethical Culture School under the in uence of Lewis Hine It was Hine who introduced Strand to Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo Secession Gallery in 1907 In the next few years Strand was exposed both to the new abstract painting and sculpture exhibited by Stieglitz works by artists such as Picasso Braque and Brancusi and also to the photography of Julia Margaret Cameron and Edward Steichen Strand became a selfemployed commercial photographer after graduation and a brief European trip He began his own photographic work on the side experimenting with soft focus lenses and generally working in a pictorialist style During this period he exhibited at both the New York Camera Club and the London Paul Strand 1919 Salon by Alfred Stieglitz In the years 191517 Stieglitz and Strand were in close contact It becomes difficult to distinguish who in uenced whom but when at the end of this period Strand produced a body of sharp focus work including somewhat abstracted stilllives of kitchen bowls and cityscapes Steiglitz was prompt to recognize the breakthrough this work represented The last 2 issues of Camera Work were devoted to the most recent work of Strand and Stieglitz gave Strand a oneman show at the 291 gallery Strand became known as an advocate of the new realism called straight photography Strand visited New Mexico in 1930 returning for 3 consecutive summers making portraits of artist friends and acquaintances It was there that Strand began to develop his belief in the humanistic value of portraiture Strand subsequently traveled to Mexico where he photographed the landscape architecture folk art and people In 1934 he produced a film about fishermen for the Mexican government and would devote the next 9 years to cinematography In 1943 Strand resumed his still photography focusing on the people and surroundings of New England The Museum of Modern Art New York mounted its first fullscale retrospective of a contemporary photographer with the work of Strand in 1945 Wall Street New York 1915 from Camera Work No 49 425 x 625 inch photogravure by Paul Strand The White Fence 1916 from Camera Work No 49 625 x 825 inch photogravure by Paul Strand Blind New York 1916 from Camera Work No 49 875 x 65 inches photogravure by Paul Strand Fred Holland Day American b July 8 1864 d November 12 1933 Fred Holland Day was born in Massachusetts A wealthy man he was in uenced by the Decadent Movement and dressed and acted in a manner which labeled him as an eccentric He first dabbled in painting but then took up photography Day used the subjects before his camera to raise issues dealing with sex religion and race He posed his subjects in unconventional dress in historical and mythological settings often eliciting an idyllic homoerotic sense of ancient Greece He created controversy with his images of full frontal female and male nudity Day was also condemned for portraying a nude black man The images were shocking because Day cast them Solitude Fred Holland Day 1901 aga1nst type Nudes were supposed to be female not male and by E dward Steichen white society was comfortable with images of African Americans in clinical studies or in subservient positions not as individuals and certainly not as equals Day forged new ground by portraying his sitter as a fellow human being Just before the turn of the century Day caused a sensation in Boston with his portrayal of the last seven days of the life of Christ Day was invited by Stieglitz to become a member of the PhotoSecession but refused the offer Day s strong character and independence of thought fostered a rivalry for leadership of the American pictorialist movement though he was eventually eclipsed by the more outspoken Stieglitz The Seven Last Words of Christ The Seven Words 1898 by F Holland Day During the summer of 1898 F Holland Day did a series of 250 photographs of himself as Christ with or without other models posing in scenes from the Passion of Christ This project was planned with meticulous care Day grew his hair long and virtually starved himself before the photographs were taken He then hanged himself on a cross using fake nails Day s justi cation of the project was his desire to extend the tradition of sacred art from the past He was among those that thought a photograph could be a work of art and that subject matter so widely accepted in painting and sculpture should be equally embraced through photography Although controversial in his own community where he was thought to be an eccentric this series of photographs was well received critically JacquesHenri Lartigue French b 1894 d 1986 Born into an uppermiddle class family JacquesHenri Lartigue was given a Brownie camera at age seven From the beginning his photographs were invariably informal shots of everyday subjects which he photographed for his own innocent pleasure In the 1910s and 3920s Lartigue enthusiastically photographed subjects such as automobile races fashionable ladies at the seashore and the park and kite ying These photographs reveal his free spirit and love of life rather than a concern for photographic technique and craft and often capture a sense of movement with a striking freshness and authenticity Jacques Henri Lartigue with Richard Avedon 1963 His greatest achievement was his set of around 120 huge photograph albums which compose the finest visual autobiography ever produced While he sold a few photographs in his youth mainly to sporting magazines in middle age he concentrated on his painting and it was through this that he earned his living although he maintained written and photographic journals throughout his life Only when he was 69 were his boyhood photographs serendipitously discovered by Charles Rado of the Rapho agency who introduced him to John Szarkowski then curator of the Museum of Modern Art in New York who in turn arranged an exhibition of his work at the museum From this there was a photo spread in Life magazine in 1963 coincidentally in the issue which commemorated the death of John Kennedy ensuring the widest possible audience for his pictures Lartigue was proclaimed the discovery of the century and his work acclaimed for its departure from formal posed portraits and for its ingenuous charm and beguiling spontaneity In 1979 he donated his entire archive to the French government My Hydroglider with Propeller 1904 by JacquesHenri Lartigue Zissou Rouzat 1911 16 x12 inch gelatin silver print by Jacque Henri Lartigue Avenue du Bois de Boulogne Paris 1911 25 x 45 inch gelatin silver print by JacquesHenri Lartigue Papa at 80 kilometers and hour 1912 by JacquesHenri Lartigue Eugene Atget French b1857 d1927 Eugene Atget was a pioneer in social documentary photography and is regarded as one of the medium s most in uential gures His images of Paris are perhaps the most vivid record of a city ever made Atget was born near Bordeaux France and was raised by an uncle from an early age after the deaths of his parents He became a cabin boy and sailor and traveled widely until 1879 when he entered the National Conservatory of Dramatic Arts in Paris He studied there for two years and became an actor with minor roles in repertory and touring companies but was never successful In 1897 he tried his hand as a painter and was again unsuccessful He started to Eugene Atget 0492325 photograph the next year at the age of 40 by Berenice Abbott In recording the daily appearance of a rapidly changing Paris Atget made methodical surveys of the old quarters of the city He was to make over 10000 photographs over the next 30 years using rudimentary equipment The quiet even understated appreciation of a subject39s beauty in Atget39s work has led many to consider him naive a primitive In truth his work is marked by a purity of vision a refusal of painterly rhetoric and a deceptive simplicity In 1926 Atget39s neighbor Man Ray published without credit a few of his photographs in the magazine La Revolution Surrealz ste This marked the beginning of the surrealist appreciation of his work Berenice Abbott a student of Man Ray39s was impressed by Atget39s photographs in 1925 and is responsible for rescuing his work from obscurity and preserving his prints and negatives which she acquired upon his death in 1927 Atget39s work was included in the important modernist exhibition quotFilm und Fotoquot in Stuttgart in 1929 The first book of his images was published in 1931 The Abbott Collection is now in the Museum of Modern Art New York Atget was the subject of a major retrospective at the museum in 1969 and of a series of retrospectives there in the early 1980s a w by Nb 139 quot hquot I V C o 05 quotHquot l Ler quot v Un Coin du quai de la Tournelle 5e arrondissement 191011 Corner of the Dock Prostitute Paris 19203 Notre Dame 1925 39 mquot I ITS u 2 1 L m If r 39t O Ti MAO It 2 w on An v Andre Kertesz Hungarian American b 1894 d 1985 Andre Kert sz bought his first camera while working as a clerk at the Budapest stock exchange in 1912 After years of amateur snapshot photography in his native Hungary he moved to Paris in 1925 and began a career as a freelance photographer There the young transplant speaking little French took to the streets wandering observing and developing his intimate approach to image making Recognized as a pioneer in smallformat photography using the newly introduced Leica camera and colleague of Parisian artists such as Piet Mondrian Fernand Leger and Surrealist poet Tristan Tzara he was published in numerous magazines including L Art vivant L Image Vogue Paris Magazine and most often Vu His work was in uential on a subsequent generation of photographers practicing in Paris including Man Ray Brassai39 Berenice Abbott and Henri CartierBresson lmmigrating to the United States in 1936 with his wife to escape the increasing tension in Europe that was leading to World War II Kert sz settled in New York where he earned his living with commercial photography However his personal photographic style did not mesh well with the straightforward photography the American public and magazines expected and this period of commercial work caused his reputation as an art photographer to suffer The fact that he also left his archive of negatives behind in France contributed to his feelings of isolation and discontent In 1963 Kert sz recovered the negatives which had been hidden in a chateau in the south of France during the WWII A 1964 exhibition organized by John Szarkowski at the Museum of Modern Art New York helped to reestablish his international recognition His achievements include a Gold Medal at the Venice Biennale in 1962 a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1975 and was named an Honorary Member of the American Society of Magazine Photographers in 1965 He obtained US citizenship in 1944 and remained in the States until his death Satyric Dancer Paris1926 975 x 775 inches gelatin silver print by Andre Kert sz Sixth Avenue New York 1959ij Chez Mondrian Paris1926 10 x 8 inches gelatin silver print by Andre Kertesz Distortions 1933 Kert sz had not produced many nudes when in 1933 he agreed to a request from a French humor magazine Le Sourire which published among other things saucy images in order to attract the goodnatured interest of a public that loved gossip and frivolities Kert sz s taste for the strangeness of reality lead him to produce a significant body of work that is often associated with the Surrealist movement Using two mirrors from an amusement park and two female models Kert sz for Le Sourire March 1933 four weeks photographed the contracted twisted and tapered bodies by re ection producing over 250 glass plates to ful ll the commission which resulted in the publication of 12 images in March of 1933 Some of the images seem cruel while others are alluring and beautiful In the photographs the women are either grotesque figures or elongated and elegant beauties Mostly they seem unnatural where twisted and deformed body parts seem to come from nowhere and ow everywhere These extraordinary forms are like hallucinogenic apparitions which Kert sz appears to have been drawn to photograph There is a real dichotomy here Kert sz was simultaneously pushing the envelope in a surreal and obsessive experiment and just making simple photographs that captured and re ected what he was seeing in the mirrors DIS39I R39l l 398 Early on Kert sz attempted to make a book of the Distortions but because of the political events in Europe he was unable to do so Kert sz had left the negatives in the care of a friend while he was in the United States and was unable to recover xxnma menu197 them until the early 1960s By this time many of the were damaged but funds Aquot L provided by a Guggenheim fellowship were used to restore the negatives in 1972 paving the way for the Distortions book to be published in 1976 Disfo ions 1976 Distortion No 40 1933 gelatin silver print by Andr Kert sz Brassai Gyula Halasz Hungarian French b1899 dl984 Born Gyula Halasz in the town of Brasso whence his adopted name Brassai s original ambition was to paint He studied art in Hungary and Germany as a youth nally coming to Paris in 1924 as a journalist As a small child he had accompanied his father to Paris and stayed for a year The city left a lasting impression which became a powerful interest upon his return Brassai39 took his first photographs at exactly the same time as Surrealism was beginning to gain a foothold in France The in uence of Surrealism was particularly marked in the realm of photography as this medium was considered to play a key role in terms of the perception of reality For the rst six years of his life in Paris Brassai had avoided photography considering the medium to be too mechanical and impersonal His opinion changed quickly when he saw the results of his first efforts to record Paris after dark and he immersed himself in his newfound pastime in 1933 Motivated by Andre Kertesz and in uenced by the Surrealists Brassai39 contrived stylized tableaus of risque Paris night life that revealed the subconscious social fantastic a place of the erotic and dangerous that lay outside of mainstream society He produced a book of night pictures entitled Paris de N uit which met with critical acclaim His wanderings around the cafes and bars of Paris brought him into contact with many of the artists and writers living in the city during that period He established lifelong ties with Picasso Giacometti Henry Miller and many others Brassai39 produced Surrealist inspired bodies of work such as his Involuntary Sculptures and Transmutations In the 1950s he turned his camera on the graffiti he found in his wanderings through the Paris streets His friendship with Picasso resulted in a highly acclaimed book on the artist and his contemporaries Conversations with Picasso published in 1964 Paris de N uit published 1933 Beginning and ending with the cobble stones that paved the boulevards and alleys of the French capital Paris de Nuit takes the reader through a performance where the architecture and street lights are stage sets and an exotic array of idle and industrious Parisians are the players Working on a folding 6gtlt9cm Voigtlander Bergheil plate camera Brassai39 used time exposures to reveal dream like scenes of the River Seine and views from Notre Dame For his real life actors he employed the harsher light of the newly available ash bulb which had to be fired independently from the camera something Brassai39 turned to his advantage in creating dramatic sidelit portraits of prostitutes and street gangs quot5quot r 39 itquotshum ama a IRASSAI Wrwwm Wmummtsu I i 73y l n I idivouion do J 3quotNIIR M tn VIII OBAPHIQUIS nus ll IUI noun 1 It i I D39 r To record life in the city s less penetrable clubs and societies Brassai39 first secured an entree with an introduction from a friend or acquaintance and then hung around until his face became familiar Once accepted he could begin his work When photographing on the streets he carried a number of prints in his pocket to prove to the disbelieving that photography in the dark was possible In the early 1930s no one had heard of the concept of night photography and the police needed convincing of what he was up to Brassai39 found a more comfortable working environment in the formalised institution of the upmarket brothels which were often owned by respectable families In the rough volatile underworld of dives and back streets Brassai39 had a tougher time suffering two broken cameras a lifted wallet and some 23 stolen plates Yet in spite of the hazards his images of hoods pimps and gangsters are as direct and clear as those taken in the brothels or on the banks of the Seine For the Brassai39 the Parisian night revealed not just another facet of the city but another world a enthralling world of outsiders living outside of convention Lovers in a Small Cafe c1932 from Paris de Nuit gelatin silver print by Brassa39l39 Bijou c1933 from Paris de Nuit gelatin silver print by Brassa39l39 Backstage at the FoliesBergere 1933 I aw Dlquotgww39 quot quot dim l muxm 3quot s 1 5 PalaisRoyale train station From quotParis by Night 1933 WV 39 39p Bflighed i961 3 ix 4 in W i 39 39 I I 34 c I v I 0 4 39 39 l C I v 39 J v I I a 1 Ea 39 I 1 39 39 c 39 y 39 o I I o r I l 39 1 39 r 039 I I 39 39 39 I a I 7 39 i 5 w 1 39 39 o 39 l 39 i 39 quot 1 I g i j A 39 e g o 39 I o p v 39 39 5 l5 Q z 39 39 31 PU l 39 t 394 i 39 t quot fr 1 f y 739 39 b39t 5 A Q g M i i x I a quot I i aBRlssA39I39 GLRAFHTI In 1933 Brassai39 became interested in graffiti and shared his discoveries with the Surrealist circles he frequented He considered graffiti an expression of the dream world a true expression of reality The photographs are of marks left on walls tree trunks and oors Brassai39 reappropriated and decontextualized these works by isolating and closely framing it within the viewfinder of his camera A book of this work was published in 1961 with the introduction written by Picasso He would continue to photograph graffiti for most of his life mm 39 quotn I 39 x 3 393 39 V 1 39 s 39 v l lt 39739 I 1 w hf L w Grafitti Le Roi Soleil H Paris c194550 39 9 x 7 inches 39 39 gelatin silver print A T gt 39 by Brassa i it quot3 jg 39 3 39 quotquota Tings w r 5 4quot r 39 0 quot W 39 39 3 TVJrv T ransmutations While photographing sculpture in December 1932 Brassai left behind a small blank photographic plate in the studio Picasso took hold of it and etched a portrait on it It was a decisive episode for Brassai who later wrote to Picasso It was you who aroused the demon of drawing in me Subsequently both artists experimented with the glass plate technique clich verre each in his own way combining the potential of photography engraving and drawing In the Transmutations which Brassai created in the mid 1930s deformations of his glass plates made by engraving Surrealistlike forms onto their glass surfaces Brassai felt as if he were dredging hidden images and unconscious desires up to the surface of the glass plate I went at these plates mechanically like a sculptor It was strange to see how the nudes would change under the in uence of this tool which wore away at their substance A weird obsession took hold of me I wanted to change these forms into those of a musical instrument first woman then guitar then mandolinwoman Brassai made over 150 39scratchings39 from about thirty negatives of nudes dating from 19311935 Involuntary Sculpture Crumpled Bus Ticket 1932 gelatin silver print by Brassai39 Surrealism Surrealism was officially launched as a movement with the publication of poet Andre Breton39s first Manifesto of Surrealism in 1924 The Surrealists did not rely on reasoned analysis or sober calculation on the contrary they saw the forces of reason blocking the access routes to the imagination Their efforts to tap the creative powers of the unconscious set Breton and his companions on a path that carried them through the territory of dreams intoxication chance 39 sexual ecstasy and madness The images Obtained Edward James in Front of Onthe Threshold of Liberty 1937 by such means whether visual or literary were gelatm Sllver pnnt by Rene magntte prized precisely to the degree that they captured these moments of psychic intensity in provocative forms of unrestrained convulsive beauty quotHUNT Photography came to occupy a central role in Surrealist activity In the works of artists such as Man Ray the use of such procedures as double exposure combination printing montage and solarization dramatically evoked the union of dream and reality Other photographers used techniques such as rotation or distortion to render their images uncanny But the Surrealist understanding of photography turned on more than the medium39s facility in fabricating uncanny images Just as important was another discovery even the most prosaic photograph filtered through the prism of Surrealist sensibility might easily be dislodged from its usual context and irreverently assigned a new role Anthropological photographs ordinary snapshots movie stills medical and police photographs all of these appeared in Surrealist journals like La R volution Surr aliste and Minotaure radically divorced from their original purposes Man Ray Emmanuel Radnitzky American b August 27 1890 d November 18 1976 Born in Philadelphia Emmanuel Radnitsky grew up in New Jersey and became a commercial artist in New York in the 1910s He began to sign his name Man Ray in 1912 although his family did not change its surname to Ray until the 1920s He initially taught himself photography in order to reproduce his own works of art which included paintings and mixed media In 1921 he moved to Paris and set up a photography studio to support himself There he began to make photograms which he called quotRayographsquot and became known for his darkroom experiments and mixed media assemblages In the 1920s he also began making moving pictures Man Ray39s four completed films Return to Reason Emak Bakia Star sh and Mystery of the Chateauwere all highly creative nonnarrative explorations of the possibilities of the medium SelfPortrait with Camera 1932 From 1921 to 1939 he combined artistic endeavors with commercial practice becoming a noted portraitist of Parisian intellectuals and artists and establishing a reputation as a fashion photographer A Dadaist provocateur he became the only American member of the Surrealist movement Shortly before World War 11 Man Ray returned to the United States and settled in Los Angeles from 1940 until 1951 He was disappointed that he was recognized only for his photography in America and not for the filmmaking painting sculpture and other media in which he worked In 1951 Man Ray returned to Paris where he concentrated primarily on painting until his death in 1976 r if 39 r x quotw w l ll N 4 ll Noir et Blanche 1926 95 x 1175 inch gelatin silver print by Man Ray Tears 1930 9 x 1175 inch gelatin silver print by Man Ray Violon d lngres 1930 Kiki de Montparnasse 115 x 9 inch gelatin silver print by Man Ray Clarence John Laughlin American b1905 d1985 Clarence John Laughlin is best known for his photographs of the Old South and is considered by many historians to be the first truly surrealist American photographer His difficult childhood southern heritage and interest in literature in uenced his work greatly Laughlin was born in Lake Charles Louisiana but moved with his family to New Orleans in 1910 He was an introverted child with few friends but had a close relationship with his father who encouraged his lifelong love of literature Laughlin was devastated by the death of his father in 1918 and his grief was compounded by a Priest s false promise that God would save his ailing parent if he prayed hard enough This left Laughlin with a deep suspicion of religion that surfaces frequently in his work His large vocabulary and love of language are evident in the elaborate and often pretentious captions he would later write to accompany his photographs A selftaught photographer Laughlin began photographing in 1935 He worked as a freelance architectural photographer as well as for Vogue magazine and the US government He disliked the constraints of government work and eventually split from Vogue after a con ict with theneditor Edward Steichen Thereafter he worked almost exclusively on personal projects utilizing a wide range of photographic styles and techniques from straight forward geometric abstractions of architectural features to elaborately staged allegories utilizing models costumes and props Laughlin produced images of crumbling plantations graveyards and shadowy figures He posed veiled women to represent spirits and often used double exposure and contrasts of light and shadow to invest inanimate objects with fearful possibilities His best known book Ghosts Along the Mississippi was first published in 1948 and has been reprinted 20 times Laughlin died in 1985 leaving behind a massive collection of books and images He kept careful records to go along with the 17000 negatives accompanied by extensive notes on how to print them His work continues to be shown and collected in the United States and Europe The Head in the Wall 1945 105 x 1375 inch gelatin silver print by Clarence John Laughlin The Bat 1940 135 x 105 inches gelatin silver print by Clarence John Laughlin The Masks Grow to Us 1947 gelatin silver print by Clarence John Laughlin Group f 64 On November 15 1932 at the M H de Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco 11 photographers announced themselves as Group f 64 Ansel Adams Imogen Cunningham John Paul Edwards Preston Holder Consuelo Kanaga Alma Lavenson Sonya Noskowiak Henry Swift Willard Van Dyke Brett Weston and Edward Weston The idea for the show had arisen a couple of months before at a party in honor of Weston held at a gallery known as quot683quot for its address on Brockhurst Street in San Francisco The West Coast equivalent of Alfred Stieglitz s 291 gallery Here they had discussed forming a group devoted to exhibiting and promoting a new direction in photography that broke with the Pictorialism then prevalent in West Coast art photography Church Yard c1932 by Willard Van Dyke The name referred to the smallest aperture available in largeformat view cameras at the time and it signaled the group39s conviction that photographs should celebrate rather than disguise the medium39s unrivaled capacity to present the world quotas it isquot As Edward Weston phrased it quotThe camera should be used for a recording of life for rendering the very substance and quintessence of the thing itself whether it be polished steel or palpitating fleshquot A corollary of this idea was that the camera was able to see the world more clearly than the human eye because it didn39t project personal prejudices onto the subject The group39s effort to present the camera39s quotvisionquot as clearly as possible included advocating the use of aperture f64 in order to provide the greatest depth of field thus allowing for the largest percentage of the picture to be in sharp focus contact printing a method of making prints by placing photographic paper directly in contact with the negative instead of using an enlarger to project the negative image onto paper and glossy papers instead of matte or artist papers the surfaces of which tended to disperse the contours of objects Ansel Adams American b1902 d1984 Born in San Francisco Ansel Adams developed an early interest in the piano which he initially hoped to develop into a professional career In 1916 he took his first photographs of the Yosemite Valley an experience of such intensity that he was to view it as a lifelong inspiration He studied photography with a photo nisher producing early work in uenced by the pictorialist style Each summer he returned to Yosemite for hiking and photography He developed an interest in conservation and by 1920 formed an association with the Sierra Club He became the club s of cial photographer and in 1927 his first portfolio was published Parmelian Prints of the High Sierras His decision to devote his life to photography was in uenced by Paul Strand whom he met in 1930 Adams s rst important exhibitions were held in 1931 at the M H de Young Memorial Museum and at the Smithsonian Institution The following year Adams and several other Californiabased photographers founded Group f 64 For Adams the f 64 philosophy embodied an approach to perfect realization of photographic vision through technically awless prints He created the Zone System a scienti c system used to manipulate the tonality of a print and give the photographer the ability to create as opposed to record Throughout his long and proli c career Ansel Adams created a body of work which has come to exemplify not only the purist approach to photography but to many people the de nitive pictorial statement on the American western landscape He was also strongly associated with a visionary sense of the redemptive beauty of wilderness and the importance of its preservation The prestige and popularity of his work has been enhanced by the extraordinary technical perfection of his photography and his insistence on absolute control of the photographic processes Clearing Winter Storm Yosemite National Park c1937 gelatin silver print by Ansel Adams Moonrise Hernandez New Mexico 1941 gelatin silver print by Ansel Adams The Tetons and the Snake River Grand Teton National Park Wyoming 1942 gelatin silver print by Ansel Adams Moon and Half Dome 1960 Yosemite Valley gelatin silver print by Ansel Adams Imogen Cunningham American b 1883 d1976 s 3939quot 4 Born in Portland Oregon in 1883 Imogen Cunningham was a founding member of Group f64 known for her portraits ower images and nudes In 1906 while studying chemistry at the University of Washington Cunningham developed an interest in photography after seeing the work of Gertrude Kasebier She wrote a 1907 thesis on the chemical process of photography and subsidized her tuition by photographing plants for the botany departmentAfter graduation Cunningham worked for the studio of Edward S Curtis who documented the American Indian culture She established her own studio in 1910 becoming one of the very first t p K professional woman photographers She encouraged other women to join Imogen Cunningham and Twinka 1974 her publishing an article in 1913 titled Photography as a Profession for by Judy Dater Women a a 39 39 3 39 w 3 1 39 I r 3939 h an 32 339 c we r v Amyx R 39 A a In 1917 Cunningham moved to San Francisco with her husband artist Roi Partridge She became increasingly interested in botanical photography especially owers and between 1923 and 1925 carried out an in depth study of the magnolia ower In 1929 Edward Weston nominated 10 of Cunningham39s photos 8 botanical 1 industrial and l nude for inclusion in the quotFilm und Fotoquot exhibition in Stuttgart At this time her interest shifted from botanicals to the human form From 193436 she worked for Vanity Fair in New York and in the 1940s she did documentary street photography as a side project while supporting herself with commercial photography In 1945 Cunningham accepted a position as faculty at the rst fine art photography department at the California School of Fine Arts CSFA She continued to work as a photographer until her death at the age of ninetythree in 1976 The Unmade Bed 1957 gelatin silver print by Imogen Cunningham Magnolia Blossom 1925 gelatin silver print by Imogen Cunningham Ingham Bobby Libarry 1976 int by Imogen Cunn Iver pr Hene In SI gelat Edward Weston American b1886 d1958 Edward Weston was born in Highland Park Illinois and raised in Chicago He received his first camera a Bull39sEye 2 from his father in 1902 and began photographing in his spare time in Chicago parks while working as an errand boy and salesman for Marshall Field and Company In 1906 Weston traveled to California where he worked as a doortodoor portrait photographer From 1908 to 1911 he attended the Illinois College of Photography spending his summers in California working as a printer in photographic studiosWeston operated his own portrait studio between 1911 and 1922 in Tropico California He became successful working in a softfocus Pictorial style winning many salon and professional awards After viewing an exhibition of modern art at the San Francisco World39s Fair in 1915 Weston became more and more dissatis ed with his own work By 1920 he was experimenting with semiabstractions in a hardedged style In 1923 Weston moved to Mexico City where he opened a studio with his apprentice and lover Tina Modotti of whom he made important portraits and nude studies over several years Through Modotti who fast became an accomplished photographer in her own right Weston became friendly with artists of the Mexican Renaissance including Rivera Siqueiros and Orozco all of whom encouraged his new direction In 1924 Weston abandoned the use of softfocus techniques entirely and started his precise studies of natural forms He returned to California permanently in 1926 and began the work for which he is most deservedly famous naturalform closeups nudes and 1andscapesWeston opened a San Francisco studio with his son Brett in 1928 The following year he moved to Carmel where he began photographing in the Point Lobos area He organized with Edward Steichen the American section of the 1929 Stuttgart Film und Foto exhibition at this time Weston was a founding member of Group f 64 and photographed for the WPA Federal Arts Project in New Mexico and California in 1933 He was the first recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship for Photography in 1937 photographing extensively in the West and Southwest in 19371938 Excusado1925 gelatin silver print by Edward Weston NO 30 1930 gelatin silver print F e p p e D by Edward Weston t by Edward Weston In a or c V D 390 3 Z In silver pr gelat Nude Tina Modotti 1923 gelatin silver print by Edward Weston Tina Modotti Italian Mexican 18961942 Tina Modotti was born Assunta Adelaide Luigia Modotti Mondini in Udine Italy In 1896 at the age of 16 she immigrated to the United States to join her father in San Francisco Attracted to the performing arts supported by the Italian migr community in the Bay Area Modotti experimented with acting She appeared in several plays operas and silent movies in the late 1910s and early 1920s and also worked as an artist39s model Some have suggested that Modotti was introduced to photography as a young girl in Italy where her uncle Pietro Modotti maintained a photography studio Later in the US her father brie y ran a similar studio in San Francisco While in Los Angeles she met the photographer Edward Weston It was through her relationship with Edward Weston that Modotti developed as an important fine Tina c1924 art photographer and documentarlan By 1921 Modott1 was Weston39s favor1te by Edward Weston model and by October of that year his lover Modotti became a revolutionary activist in the early 1920s and developed strong ties with members of the Mexican Artists Union group including Manuel Alvarez Bravo Diego Rivera Charlot Orozco and Siqueiros She became a member of the Mexican Communist Party in 1927 Modotti began an affair with Cuban revolutionary Julio Antonio Mella in 1928 She was accused but found innocent of complicity in his murder in 1929 The following year she was accused of complicity in the assassination attempt on the life of Pascual Ortiz Rubio President of Mexico and was deported She continued to photograph in exile in Berlin in 1930 She abandoned photography for political activism while in Moscow from 1931 to 1934 working for Soviet International Red Aid In 1942 during a visit by her close friend German architect Hannes Meyer Modotti died from heart failure in Mexico City under what is viewed by some as suspicious circumstances Mexican sombrero with hammer and sickle 1927 gelatin silver print by Tina Modotti Woman of Tehuantepec c1929 gelatin silver print by Tina Modotti v v gt 0C Pregnant Nude 1959 gelatin silver print by Imogen Cunningham Workers Parade c1926 gelatin silver print by Tina Modotti


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