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pol 206 midterm

pol 206 midterm


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Public Administration

-broadly refers to the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy -the government in action -the management of public affairs or the implementation of public policies -whatever gov. does for good or ill -it is PA's political context that makes it public -that distinguishes it from private or business administration

Areas of PA Definition

1. political 2. legal 3. managerial 4. occupational

Goals of Public Administration

1. pursuing the public good 2. enhancing civil society 3. ensuring a well-run, fair and effective public service

PA Political Definition

-Is what government does -Both direct and indirect -Phase in the public policymaking cycle -Implementing public interest -Doing collectively what can not be done so well individually


-when government employees provide services to the public -ex: mail delivery, electricity


-when government pays private contractors to provide public goods or services to citizens -ex: security officers who are not part of the armed forces but are employed by private contractors to help protect workers in the oil fields in Iraq

PA Legal Definition

-law in action -regulation -king's Largesse -theft

PA Managerial Definition

-the executive function of government -management specialty -Mickey Mouse -art, science, craft?

PA Occupational Definition

-occupational category -essay contest -idealism in action -academic field -a profession

Woodrow Wilson

-believed the study of PA could enable officials to increase governmental efficiency -centralization of power through decentralized government functions -argued that political science should concentrate on the more generally neglected details of how governments are administered -"necessary because it is getting harder to run a constitution than to frame one"

2.8 million employees

-Federal employment -15.1 billion dollar payroll

3.8 million employees

-State employment -19.4 billion dollar payroll

11.1 million employees

-Local employment -50 billion dollar payroll


-the totality of government controls the social and economic activities of its citizens -the rule making process of those administrative agencies charged with the official interpretation of law

Pros of two party system

-give the people more say over presidential elections -two parties create division of issues which helps clarify and classify issues based on separate and different idealogies

Cons of two party system

-creates division in gov. -leaves issues too cute and dry with no room in the middle -limits the choice of voters, no middle man -promotes two party system making which makes it hard to enact change in gov. system -limits what people think can be changed


-preamble -bill of rights -amendments -articles


-a brief introductory statement of the Constitution's fundamental purposes and guiding principles

Bill of Rights

-first 10 amendments of the constitution -these amendments guarantee a number of personal freedoms -limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings -reserves some powers to the states and the public

Branches of Government

1. Legislative 2. Executive 3. Judicial

Legislative Branch

-makes law -lawmakers -house of representatives -senate

House of Representatives

-435 reps (each state reps are based off population) -2 year term


-100 senators -2 from each state -serve 6 year terms -vice president is the head but does not vote unless there is a tie

Executive Branch

-makes laws official -enforces law -president -includes the cabinet (secretary of state, treasury, defense)


-elected by entire country -four year term -approves and carries out laws passed by legislative branch -acts as head of state and commander in chief -must be 35 and a U.S. born citizen

Judicial Branch

-oversees the U.S. court system -rules whether something is constitutional or unconstitutional -interprets law

Supreme Court

-9 justices (8 associate, 1 chief) -nominated by president, approved by senate -life time term -decisions are final and no other court can overrule


-power of government split between the states and federal gov. -state law can not contradict federal law -if the constitution does not have a law, states are free to do what they want

Executive Powers

1. Restricted View 2. Prerogative 3. Stewardship

Restricted View

-supported by William Taft -limited view of presidential powers -president should not be able to do anything that is not in the constitution


-supported by Abe Lincoln/John Locke -under certain conditions (national emergencies), they believed that the chief executive can make certain decisions to preserve the nation -in times of national emergency, the president has to do what he thinks is best for a nation to preserve it, even if it means going against the constitution


-supported by Theodore Roosevelt -president should be free to take any actions in the public interest since he represents the people -president can take actions in the public's best interest that is not specifically forbidden by the constitution -essentially, do what the majority of the public wants

Policy Making Steps

1. agenda setting 2. decision-making 3. implementation 4. evaluation or analysis 5. feedback

Agenda Making

-policy making step 1 -process by which ideas or issues bubble up through various political channels that wind up for consideration by a political institution such as legislature or court -ex: Rosa Parks sparking civil rights movement


-policy making step 2 -rationalism vs. incrementalism


-decision-making -all options and means are considered -major changes can be made on a regular basis -decisions tend to be made proactively


-decision-making -only a few options and means are considered -decisions are the product of negotiated settlements -changes are made gradually over time


-policy making step 3 -process of putting a government program into effect -it is the total process of translating a legal mandate, whether an executive order or an enacted statute (law passed by legislature) into appropriate program directives and structures that proved services or create goods

Evaluation or analysis

-policy making step 4 -systematic examination of activities undertaken by gov. to make a determination about their effects, both for short and long term range -programs evaluation is distinguished form management evaluation because the latter is limited to a programs internal administrative procedure


-policy making step 5 -new information feeding back into its original source

Types of Political Culture

1. Individualistic 2.Moralistic 3. Traditionalistic


-politics are viewed as dirty -only professionals participate in politics


-if you are not involved in politics, you're not a good citizen -practice of politics is viewed as healthy and every citizens duty


-politics viewed a privilege -only certain (elite) people can participate

Unitary Government Advantages

-national direction is clear -no confusion as to accountability, clear to voters which level of gov. is responsible for a specific problem or function -duplication of legislatures, bureaucracies and programs is avoided (significant savings) -issues of fairness in raising and spending money between levels or gov. -ex: Denmark, France, Japan, New Zealand

Federal Government Advantages

-a federal system has greater scope for diversity and experimentation in policy -the need to debate issues rather than enact them is instantly may provide more considered and viable policy outcome -this system must consider the different ethnic or cultural groupings that may predominate in a particular state and wish to pursue a distinct cultural or social policy -danger exists in a unitary gov. that the stronger regions, larger racial groups or more powerful interests provide insufficient allowance for the needs of minorities or weaker groups -ex: Australia, Canada, U.S.

Confederation Advantages

-is inherently weak -articles provide for a weak central gov. -states could not compel to respect treaties -states could not regulate interstate and foreign commerce -could not collect taxes directly from the people -ex: soviet union, 11 states that seceded from the union (civil war)

Enumerated Powers

-set forth for the authoritative capacity of Congress -congress may exercise the powers that the constitution grants it, subject to explicit restrictions from the bill of rights and other protections in the constitution

Implied Powers

-these powers authorized by a document from the constitution, which seem to be implied by powers expressly stated -necessary and proper clause,

10th Amendment

-states that federal gov. possesses only those powers delegated to it by the states or the people -powers not granted to the national gov. are reserved to the state gov.

Layered Cake Model

-envisions separate and distinct areas of authority between national and local government

Marble Cake Model

-this model assumes there are few hard and fast lines of distinction as to what constitutes national, state or local responsibilities -like marble cake, government relations are at times swirled or mixed

Picket Fence Model

-represents areas of polices, where grant money flows down from the national government down to the local government, seperated by the policy area

Types of Grants

1. Formula Grant 2. Categorial Grant 3. Project Grant 4. Block Grants

Formula Grant

-non competitive/pre determined that only government agencies can apply for -fixed period of time -scholarships -dollar amount is set to specific criteria through a formula -ex: U.S. Department of Health

Categorial Grant

-have a narrow range of eligible activities and only allow funding to be used for specific narrowly defined purposes -uses a formula -issued by congress -require more administrative accountability -ex: food stamps, the national government spent just over $75 billion on food stamps in 2013. But how was that money distributed? Clearly, some states have higher levels of poverty than other states. So using a formula, the money was distributed to the different states based on the poverty levels and the number of people in each state.

Project Grant

-competitive -fund for specific project or services -open to public and private -ex: U.S. Department of Justice

Block Grant

-funding is distributed on a formula basis -have a broad range of eligible activities, typically addressing a general, rather than specific problem area -broad purposes -fewer regulations and rules, less accountability -based on assumption that local governments better know how to spend funds -ex: Social Service


-employing the private sector to do work for government -proponents argue it is more efficient and effective -opponents argue that government should deliver services that are less tangible and more value oriented -advocates of both government and privatization emphasize that gov. services should be more efficient and effective, while gov. services that are privatized must be responsive to the public -services previously produced by gov. now produce by non-gov

Brownlow Commission

-first president that said look at the federal structure, let's put more stuff on the president -recommended sweeping changes to the executive branch -resulted in the creation of the executive office of the president


-most fundamental unit of government

Frank Goodnow

-first scholar to recognize increasing importance of administrative law -divided public law (law that was neither criminal or civil) -constitution law -administrative law

Ernst Freund

-asserted administrative law was a growing field that should have general principles of its own -foresaw development of subfields in public law specific to certain policy areas

Felix Frankfurther

-supreme court justice -sent lawyers to help with Roosevelt's new deal -viewed administrative law as a field deeply interwoven with constitutional law whose takes to implement social policies while protecting individual freedoms

Administrative Law

-a branch of law concerned with procedures by which administrative agencies make rules and adjudicate cases and the conditions under which the courts can review these laws -law that you will need to rely on if you wish to challenge a decision or action of a government official, department or authority

OTT levels

-level 1: what you can physically see -level 2: values of given organization -level 3: really understanding how organization relates to environment

How we regulate beurcratic growth periods

-economic: regulations banks have to follow, ex: FDIC, FTC, FCC -social: clean air, safe work place, ex: DEA, EPA -subsidiary: pay into programs of our government, ex: social security, medicare, medicaid

Types of Rules

1. substantive 2. procedural 3. interpretive

Substantive Rule

-implement or prescribe law

Procedural Rule

-how it's going to get done

Interpretive Rule

-how we're gong to interpret it


-components of administrative hearings -notice given to all parties -opportunity to be heard by impartial examiner -evidence presented to challenge opposing evidence

Whistle Blowing

-Ralph Nader used this term to describe employees that "blow the whistle" on acts by their own agencies that deem improper


-precedes ethics -influenced by prevailing organizations and political culture

Corruption in Government

-recurrent scandals in public administration -put themselves above the law -destructive to claim that all are created equal -Watergate Scandal (Nixon)

Three approaches to ethics

1. consequences 2. duties 3. integrity

Robert McNamera

-most unethical person according to Professor Adams

Triangle of Ethics

-top: personal morality -middle: professional ethics -bottom left: occupational ethics -bottom right: social ethics

Lying for your country

-ambassadors -dirty hands dilema


-lying for your country -honest men and women sent to lie abroad for the commonwealth

Dirty Hands Dilema

-most common form of lying 1. direct falsehoods 2. exaggerations 3. omissions 4. evasions 5. deceptions 6. duplicity

Two different viewpoints on lying

1. we should not apply the ordinary standards or right and wrong to the extraordinary situation of a person who is acting as a bureaucratic functionary 2. moral rules are still applicable to the acts of person who commits wrong whether that person be a public official or not

Abraham Maslow

-Hierarchy of Needs -theory of human motivation, not behavior, several motives may underlie actions

Maslow Ordered Needs

-pyramid, top to bottom -the need for actualization -experience purpose -esteem needed -love and belonging needs -security need -the physiological needs


-wrote book "the prince" -you can do whatever immoral and evil behavior as long as it keeps you in power