Biology 1134: Study Guide- Test 4
Biology 1134: Study Guide- Test 4 BIO 1134
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Friday April 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1134 at Mississippi State University taught by Evan Kaplan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see General Biology (Lecture) in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
• spontaneous generation- living organisms arise from inanimate material • biogenenis- life-from-life • Spontaneous generation was disproved which cause for new theories to come about. • big bang- 13.7 billion years ago, a dense mass of matter exploded in a “big bang”, resulting in the formation of atoms • solar nebular- the solar system was formed from large cloud gases and elements formed from previously existing stars • extraterrestrial- life came from other planets • deep-sea vent- key organic molecules originated from deep-sea vents • creationism- humans, life, the earth, and/or the universe as a whole were created by a supreme being or by another deity’s supernatural intervention • The Four Overlapping Stages Hypothesis • Stage 1: nucleotides and amino acids were produced prior to the existence of cells • Stage 2: nucleotides become polymerized to form RNA and/or DNA, and amino acids become polymerized to form proteins • Stage 3: Polymers became enclosed in membranes • Stage 4: Polymers enclosed in membranes acquired cellular properties • the fossil record • fossils are preserved remnants left by organisms that lived in the past • the relative ages of fossils can be determined by their locations in the rock layers • radiometric dating- can be used to get a more accurate age of fossils • Earth was formed about 4.55 billion years ago (bya) • Prokaryotes appeared about 3.5 bya • Prokaryotes that produced oxygen appeared about 2.4 bya • Single-celled eukaryotes evolved about 1.8 bya • multicellular eukaryotes appeared about 1.5 bya • all the major phyla of animals evolved about 630 million years ago (mya) • Plants and fungi colonized land, amphibians evolved from ﬁsh, and vertebrate life moved onto land about 520 mya • Environmental changes on earth have inﬂuenced the types of organisms that have existed during different periods of time • temperature- not only changes over time, but is also not uniform across the planet • atmosphere- started out with little to no oxygen and then about 2.4 bya, O 2 levels began to rise signiﬁcantly • landmasses- formation of landmasses surrounded by water resulted in two different environments, terrestrial and aquatic • ﬂoods and glaciations- effect living organisms in the vicinity of these events • volcanic eruptions- not only effects living organisms in the vicinity, but also can cause formation of new landmasses, such as islands • meteorite impacts- large meteorites can also effect living organisms in the vicinity, but can also effect surrounding landmasses and environment • Living things have several levels of organization • atoms > molecules > (organelles) > cells • tissues > organs > organisms • population > community > ecosystem > biosphere • atom- the smallest unit of an element; all matter is composed of atoms • molecule- a group of two or more atoms • organelle- structures or “organs” of the cell • cell- the simplest unit of life • tissue- many similar ells that perform a speciﬁc function • organ- several tissues performing a speciﬁc function • organism- an individual living “thing” made up of a collection of different organs • population- groups of interacting individuals of one species occupying the same environment/area • community- all organisms that interact with one another in a particular environment/ area • ecosystem- interactions of a community of organisms with their physical environment • biosphere- the worldwide ecosystem including the air, bodies of water, on the land, and in the soil • evolution- results from heritable changes in one or more characteristics of a population from one generation to the next • The better adapted individuals tend to survive and reproduce. • ﬁtness- a measure of an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce • natural selection- the process of differential survival and reproduction that inevitably leads to changes in allele frequencies over time as those individuals who are the most “ﬁt” survive and leave more offspring • phylogenetics- the study of evolutionary “relatedness” between different organisms • Evidence that supports the theory of evolution • fossils- provide information regarding evolutionary change in a series of related organisms • biogeography- the study of the geographical distribution of extinct and modern species • endemic- naturally found only in a particular location • convergent evolution- two different species from different lineages show similar characteristics because they occupy similar environments • selective breeding- programs and procedures designed to modify traits in domesticated species • homologies- fundamental similarity due to descent from a common ancestor • anatomical homology- the comparison of body structure between different species • developmental homology- the comparison of structures that appear during the development of different organisms • molecular homology- the comparison of cells and molecular information (DNA, RNA, and proteins) of different organisms • population genetics- the study of genes and genotypes in a population • gene pool- all of the alleles for every gene in a given population • polymorphism- traits display variation within a population • polymorphic gene- two or more alleles • monomorphic gene- predominantly single allele • single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)- smallest type of genetic change in a gene; most common, 90% of variation in human gene sequence • Four evolutionary mechanisms that effect microevolution and bring the most genetic change • natural selection- the process in which individuals with certain heritable traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than those without those traits • directional selection- shifts the frequency curve for variations in some phenotypic character in one direction or another; from rare to average • stabilizing selection- acts against extreme phenotypes; favors the survival of the more common intermediate variants (maintains the “status quo”) • diversifying selection- favors the survival of two or more variants of opposite extremes over the intermediate individual • balancing selection- does not favor the survival of one over the other, but maintains genetic diversity • sexual selection- results from individuals with certain traits being more likely to successfully reproduce than others • intrasexual selection- between members of the same sex; males compete • intersexual selection- between members of the opposite sex; female choice • genetic drift- the genetic ﬂuctuation due to random chance from one generation to the next • bottleneck effect- a sudden change in the environment (earthquake, ﬂoods, drought, etc) may drastically reduce the size of a population • founder effect- when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new colony in a new location • migration- the movement of individuals in or out of a population • gene ﬂow- genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations • nonrandom mating- occurs when the probability that two individuals in a population will mate is not the same for all possible pairs of individuals • inbreeding- individuals are more likely to mate with close relatives than with distant relatives • outbreeding- individuals are more likely to mate with distant relatives than with close relatives • species- a group of related organisms that share a distinctive set of attributes in nature • speciation- the formation of a new species • allopatric speciation- gene ﬂow is interrupted or reduced when a population becomes isolated from other populations • sympatric speciation- speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations • Biologists use characteristics to identify a species • morphological traits- physical characteristics • reproductive isolation- prevents one species from successfully interbreeding with other species • prezygotic- before formation of a zygote • habitat isolation- two species encounter each other rarely, or not at all, because they occupy different habitats • temporal isolation- species that breed at different times of the day, different seasons, or different years • behavioral isolation- courtship rituals and other behaviors unique to a species act as reproductive barriers • mechanical isolation- morphological differences prevent successful mating • gametic isolation- two species attempt to interbreed, but the gametes one species may not be able to fertilize the gametes of another species • postzygotic- block development of a viable and fertile individual after fertilization • hybrid inviability- gamete of one species is fertilized by gamete from another species, but fertilized egg can’t develop past early embryonic stages • hybrid sterility- hybrid is viable, but sterile (mule) • hybrid breakdown- some ﬁrst-generation hybrids are fertile, but when they mate with another species or with either parent species, offspring of the next generation have genetic abnormalities that are lethal • molecular features- compare features to identify similarities and differences among different populations • ecological factors and evolutionary relationships- variety of factors related to an organism’s habitat can be used to distinguish one species from another • ecology- the study of the interactions of organisms with each other and their environment • abiotic interactions- between organisms and non-living environment • biotic interactions- all interactions between organisms • organismal ecology- individual organisms’ behavior, physiology, morphology, etc. in response to interactions with the abiotic environment • physiological ecology- how organisms are physiologically adapted to there environment and how the environment impacts the distribution of species • behavioral ecology- how the behavior of individual organisms contributes to their survival and reproductive success • population ecology- the factors which affect population composition, growth, size, and density • density- the number of organisms in a given unit, area, or volume • dispersion- the way individuals are spaced within the population’s living area • growth rate- the overall number of individuals (birth v death) • community ecology- interactions between populations of different species in a given area and their effects on structure and organization • ecological succession- the gradual and continuous change in a species composition of a community following a disturbance • primary succession- plants and animals invade on newly exposed sites where soil has not yet formed • secondary succession- occurs when a site has previously supported life but has undergone a disturbance that leaves soil intact/ present • ecosystem ecology- the responses and changes in the community as a result of interactions between • Hierarchical organization of living systems • atom > molecule > organelle > cell > tissue > organ > organism > population > community > ecosystem > biosphere • biome- a large, relatively distinct terrestrial region with speciﬁc characteristics • terrestrial biomes • tropical forests- warm and rainy, near equator • temperate forests- cold to hot, well deﬁned seasons • temperate coniferous forests- also known as taiga, largest; cold, short, wet seasons • grassland- dominated by grass • desert- hot days and cold nights • tundra- coldest of all biomes • mountain ranges- mountainous • aquatic biomes • marine- saltwater • the open ocean- largest, deep ocean • pelagic zone- includes those waters further from the land, basically the open ocean • benthic zone- the area below the pelagic zone, does not include the deepest parts of the ocean • abyssal zone- the deep ocean • intertidal zone- beach • coral reef- tropical, warm shallow waters • freshwater • lentic habitats- lakes (bigger) ponds (smaller) • lotic habitats- rivers and streams • wetlands- marshes, swamps, and bogs • biogeography- the study of geographic distribution of extinct and living species • populations can have different levels of dispersion • clumped distribution- individuals live close together in groups; this is the most common pattern • ransom distribution- individuals live at variable and random distances from one another; rare • key factor in population growth is how they reproduce • semelparity- “big bang” reproduction in which an individual produces a large number of offspring and then dies • iteroparity- individual produces only a few offspring during repeated reproductive episodes • Population growth depends on: • age of ﬁrst reproduction • frequency of reproduction • number of offspring produced • life span • death rate • ecological footprint- the environmental impact of an individual or a population • Population interactions help limit population growth • intraspeciﬁc- interactions between individuals of the same species • interspeciﬁc- interactions between individuals of different species • Several types of interactions • competition- an interaction between two or more species in which both organisms rely and compete for the same resources and are harmed to some extent • predation- the action of the predator results in the death of the prey • herbivory- the consumption of plant material by animals • symbiotic relationship- involves a symbiont, which lives off another species, called the host • parasitism- the symbiont feeds off another; beneﬁts at the host’s expense • mutualism- both species beneﬁt from one another • commensalism- one species beneﬁts and the other is unaffected • biodiversity- the diversity of life forms in a given location • genetic diversity- consists of the amount of genetic variation occurring within and between populations • species diversity- the number and relative abundance of species in a community • ecosystem diversity- the diversity of structure and function within an ecosystem • extinction- the process by which a species dies out • Four main human-induced threats to species • introduced species- those species moved by humans from a native location to another location • direct exploitation- hunting and ﬁshing of animals, birds, and ﬁsh • habitat destruction- altering the normal habitat by deforestation, agriculture crops, buildings, etc. • climate change- altering climate, atmosphere, and ecological systems reduce Earth’s capacity to sustain life • bioremediation- use of living organisms to detoxify polluted habitats
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