Comprehensive Notes BIO 204
Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology
Popular in Biology
This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adrienne Marie on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 204 at Purdue University taught by Dr. David Bridges in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 252 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/25/15
Bio Cheat Sheet of Things to Remember Disorders Broncial asthma is an allergic reaction to foreign allergens in the air Emphysema elastic tissue of the alveoli is replaced by connective tissue Pnemonia disease is a result of an acute infection caused by bacteria viruses fungi or other foreign substances Lung lls with uid because aveoi become infected and all red blood cells die 0 Lung Cancer uncontrolled proliferation fo cells lining the respiratory passage Spirometry Tidal Volume volume of air moved in and out during quiet breathing Inspiratory Reserve Volume volume of air breathed in after a normal inspiration Expiratory Reserve Volume volume of air breathed out after a normal expiration Vital Capacity TV ERV IRV V Inspiratory Capacity TV IRV Residual Volume volume of air that remains in the lungs at all times 0 Have to multiply your vital capacity by 250 for people 34 and under 350 for people 49 and under 445 for people 69 and under 0 Total Lung Capacity VC RV Functional Residual Capacity ERV RV uquotEL5 E1rquotEE7Lc Fa Iii ELEEpil iIERh sdquot lL E igji a Chapter 4 txerCIse DEUTT During Exercise 0 Heart increases cardiac output Blood Flow 0 Increase in active muscles Decrease to viscera No change in blood ow to brain 0 First a decerase and then an increase to the skin Neural Effects are sympatheticadrenergic and shut down the parasympathetic system Loca Effects release a vasodilator substances such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid serves to increase the blood flow through active muscles 4 Variables of Cardiovascular System The Heart The pump Total Peripheral Resistance ArteriolesO Capacity Veins and Venules Volume of Circulating Fluid Blood Volume Important Formulas to Memorize again Stroke Volume End Diastolic End Systolic Pulse Pressure Systolic Aortic Pressure Diastolic Aortic Pressure Mean Blood Pressure Diastolic Aortic Pressure 13Puse Pressure Cardiac Output Stroke Volume x Heart Rate 0 Preoad o Afterload 0 Heart Rate 0 Myocardial Contractiity Tota Peripheral Resistance mean blood pressure cardiac output 0 MBP tota peripheral resistance x cardiac output Hypertensions there is an increase in tpr but not in cardiac output Ejection stroke volume end diastolic volume Four Factors that Determine Blood Pressure Cardiac Output Tota Peripheral Resistance Venous System Volume of uid in the circulatory System Because of exercise Heart rate force of contraction store volume and cardiac output increase Arterioles become constricted reduction of blood flow to stomach Veins increase amount of blood returning to the heart 0 Blood ow to brain does not increase Coronary circulation increases 0 Release of carbon dioxide and lactic acid decreases total peripheral resistance increases blood to active muscles and opens arterioles and sphcters Source oF ATP for Muscle Contraction Atp already in the cell Creatine phosphate already in the cell Glycolysis anaerobic Glucose splits into two puruvate Oxidative phosphlorylation aerobic any pyruvate that doe not enter the krebs cycle is reduced to lactic acid 0 Marathon runners have the most slow bers Sprinters and jumpers have the most fast bers Oxygen De cit An oxygen de cit occurs at the start of exercise because energy use rises immediately but the aerobic systems respond more slowly oThe de cit represents the use of anaerobic energy systems Oxygen Debt Excess PostExercise Oxygen Consumption EPOC The excess oxygen is needed to 0 Convert lactic acid to glucose mainly in the liver 0 Replenish creating phosphate and ATp o Replenish the oxygen content in myoglobin Muscle Fatique Depletion Hypothesis oDepletion of ATP creating phosphate glycogen oxygen on myoglobin Accumulation Hypothesis oLactic acid hydrogen ions pH ammonia and phosphate muscle temperature Chapter 3 Endocrine System Neurons talk to each other by releasing neurotransmitters Four Basic Methods Neural when the chemical messenger diffuses across the synaptic cleft Endocrine the chemical messenger enters the blood stream to target Ussues Paracrine simple diffuse across the extracellular uid to neighboring cells Autocrine repsons to chemical messengers it released itself a moment or two ago 0 somatostatin is more than one of these Pure Endocrine Pineal pituitary parathyroid thyroid adrenals What these hormones do Homeostasis Digestion and Metabolism Reproduction growth and development 5 Chemical Class Steroids derived from cholesterol and lipidsoluble include estrogens androgens Peptides and Proteins are water soluble and are derived from amino acids Amines epinephrine noepinephrine and thyroid hormones Eicosanoids Prostaglandins Retinoids derived from vitamin A retinol Local Hormones 3 Domains Extracellular domain projects outside the plasma membrane into the extracellular uid lntramembraneous Membrane this is part of the molecule embedded in the plasma membrane Intracellular domain projects inside the cell into the cytoplasm o Initiates cascade o Activates enzymes Hormones Are Controlled By other hormones By neural mechanisms Various Substance low calcium levels for parathyroid hormone Negative Feedback Loop is how hormones are controlled Either by the hormone controlling its one signal or by other hormones controlling it Neurons of the hypothalamus secrete CRH which stimulates Anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH which stimulates the Adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol o Cortisol regulates and inhibits CRHhypothalamus has a negative signal if too much of one hormone is being made When the hormone Is the negative signal This is when you have parathyroid hormone which is secreted in response to low blood Ca ist Of Hormones and Where They Are from Hypothalamus 0 Floor of diencephalon and is located below the thalamus o Corticotropinreleasing hormone Gonadotropinreleasing hormone Somatostatin Growth Hormone releasing hormone Prolactin release inhibiting factor Prolactin releasing factor Thyrotropin releasing hormone OOOOOO Posterior Pituitary 0 Simulated by the Hypothalamus the posterior pituitary releases 0 Oxytocin o Antiduiretic Hormone Anterior Pituitary o Pituitary gland is connected to the base of the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk ls nestled in the sella turcica o Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH FollicleStimulating Hormone FSH Luteinizing Hormone Growth Hormone Prolactin ThyroidStimulating Hormone OOOOO Thyroid 0 Has a left and right lobe connected by the isthmus 0 Made up of follicles Filled with thyroglobulin 0 Also contains parafollicular cells called CCells which produce calcitonin Thyroxine t4 Triiodothyronine T3 Calcitonin o Diseases Hypothyroidism Lack of iodine in the diet or too little thyroid hormone quotTsh V TH Patients show a goiter abnormal increase in size of thyroid gland Cretins hypothyroidism in infancy marked by mental retardation and birth defects Graves Disease Autoimmune disease where the boy s immune sytem develops antibodies which bind and block TSH TSH V TH quotquot High metabolic rate Increased Heart Rate Lose weight Thyroid galdn producing a bulge at the neck region TOXIC GOITER when you have an increase ofjust TSH this can result in a enlarged thyroid gland also known as a SIMPLE or ENDEMIC GOITER Parathyroid Gland Has four small modules 0 0 Contain Chief Cells Secretes Parathyroid Hormone Regulates blood calcium in the blood When the blood reaches low calcium levels the parathyroid activates creating more parathyroid hormone and stimulating calcium production Diseases 0 Adrenals Hypoparathyroidism occurs if the parathyroids are damaged or surgically removed Muscle cramps twitches Hyperparathyroidism rare condition where there is an enlargement of the parathyroid Adrenal Cortex 90 of Adrenal o Coritsol gucocorticoid o Adosterone mineralocorticoid o Androgenic Steroids Adrenal Medulla o Epinephrine o Noepinephrine Diseases 0 Cushings Too much cortisol not enough ACTH Thin skin Fat Pads Poor wound healing o Addisons Too much ACTH not enough Cortisol Freckling Low blood pressure Diarehea Vomitting Aneroxia Lose of weight Pineal o Secretes Melatonin helps with daily rythms day and moon cycle Pancreas 0 Has both exocrine and endocrine functions associated with feeding o Islets of Langerhans are responsible for secreting into groups 0 Alpha Cells Glucagon 0 Beta Cells Insulin 0 Delta Cells Somatostatin o F Cells Secrete pancreatic polypeptide o Diseases 0 Type 1 Diabetes mellitus Where you are dependent on insulin Happens in adolescence Ketoacids Due to destruction of beta cells 0 Type 2 Diabetes mellitus Appears after age 40 and is often associated with obesity It is where the beta cells become less responsive by high blood glucose 0 Weight reduction regulation of the number of calories eaten and certain drugs are used to improve tissue responsiveness to insulin Gonads o Ovaries o Estrogens o lnhibin o Progesterone o Testes o Androgen and lnhibin Placenta o Estrogens o Progesterone o Relaxin 0 Human chorionic gonadotropin 0 Human chorionic somatomammotropin Kidneys o Erythropoietin altitudes raise rbc count 0 Renin enzyme that binds to angiotensinogen Stomach 0 Gastrin Small Intestine Secretin Cholecystokinin Gastric inhibitory peptide Liver SomatomedinlGF Erythropoietin Skin 0 Vitamin D Heart 0 Atrial natriuretic factor Adipose Tissue o Leptin Chapter 5 Reporductive System 0 Normal Cells are diploid Gametes spermatozoa and oocytes are haploid Meiosis Two successive nuclear divisions instead of the one division that occurs in mitosis o Crossing over occurs exchange of DNA at the chiasma Rythmic Pattern of Monthly changes Menustration o The ovary is the menstrual cycles timekeeper in humans and other primates ovarian cycle 0 Goal is to prepare the uterus every month for the possible arrival and implantation of a fertilized ovum Menustration if a sperm does not combine the uterus lining sheds and causes vaginal bleeding Occyte are surrounded by a follicle Granulosa cells surround the oocyte synthesize and secrete estrogens Eventually transform to luteal cells during ovulation Theca Cells form an outer layer synthesize the steroid androgens that are used by the granulaosa cells to manufacture estrogens Testes Sertoli Cells surround the developing sperm cells in the seminiferous tubules use testosterone to synthesize estradiol Leydig cells lie in groups in the interstitial space found between the seminiferous tubules manufacture androgens Gonadal hormones can either act locally and act about the whole body The Hypothalamus Pituitary Gonadal Axis Hypothalamus releases the GnRH which stimulates the anterior pituitary gonadotrophs to release FSH and LH on the gonads These then stimulate the release of androgens inhbin progesterone and estrogens Male Hypothalamus secretes GnRH l Anterior Pituitary l Secretes FSH and LH lTestis Serrtoli Cells FSH encourages them to make estradiol and inhibin and Leydig cells LH encourages them to make testosterone All of these have a negative feedback loop Female Hypothalamus secretes GnRH lAnterior Pituitary Dsecretion of Fsh and LH l Ovary Encourages LH to Granulosa to secrete estrogens inhibins into blood stream Luteal Cells to secrete estrogens progesterone inhibin Theca Cells to secrete androgens Testis have the highest amount of testosterone Male Hormones Androgen essential for development of the male reproductive organs in uence sexual behavior 0 Testerone is only secreted and synthesized when the eydig cells are stimulated lnhibin lnhibin is released to control and regulate spermatogenesis when it proceeds too rapidly it is inhbits FSH secretion slowly down spermatogenesis Serotoli Cells Secrete Estradoil which does not escape into circulation Female Hormones Estrogens cause cellular proliferation develpmet and growth of tissues in the sex organs Progesterone Non pregnant female is only secreted at the end of menstrual cycle 0 Most important function prepares implantation of a fertilized ovum lnhibin inhibits the secretion of FSH by the anterior pituitary gland Androgens Not secreted into blood stream ARE USED TO MAKE ESTRADOIL Male Anatomy Testes Covered by the tunica albuginea o Hormone production 0 Spermatogenesis Small tightly coiled seminiferous tubules make up testes Each of these connect to the rete testis Epididymum psudostrati ed columnar o Monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular uid 0 Absorbs damaged spermatozoa and cellular debris 0 Stores spermatozoa and facilitates their functional maturation Vasa Deferenti STORES SPERMATOZOA o Conenctive Tissue 0 Smooth Muscle o Pseudostrati ed Columnar Epithelium with long microvilli Seminal Vesicles form 60 percent of ejaculation 0 Outer connective tissue 0 Smooth muscle 0 Pseudostrati ed columnar Ejaculatory Ducts 0 Same as the other two 0 Penetrate the prostate and join prostatic urethra Prostate Gland 0 Makes up 2030 percent of ejaculation Bulbourethral Glands and Cowpers Glands 0 Make up the mucus life uid that helps propel ejaculation PenisUrethra o Ejaculates uid inot the vagina Bio Lab Immune System 0 Defense 0 Hostile environment Temperature Moisture Foreign substances 0 Invaders Generic Defenders The non speci c innate or natural immune system Macrophages and dendritic cells Mast cells Neutrophils Natural killer cells Complement not cells at all but a group of blood proteins that form killer complexes when activated dring the in ammatory response to invasion by pathogens 00000 This system can immediately kill and phagocytize invading bacteria 0 The speci c acquiredadaptive immune system 0 Lymphocytes 0 Antibodies o Macrophages dendritic cells 0 The speci c immue system comes into play when the pathogens are not ddestroyed by the non speci c immune system It involves the lymphocytes working in conjunction with the antigenpresenting cells Play a vital role 0 Antigens protein or polysaccharide that is part of the surface of the cells or may be soluble o The above rule may not be universal however and recent evidence suggests that some lipids as well as bacterial DNA can also effect Antibodies Antibodies are gycoproteins Each antibody binds speci cally to a foreign antigen Antibodies are secreted only by B lymphocytes Antibody proteins are called immunoglobulins o lmmunoglobuilins circulate in the bloodstream The arms bind the antigen 0 The tail determines what happens once the antigen is bound 0 lnactivate foreign organisms and toxins The antibody does this by masking or otherwise interfering with active sites in the antigen molecule 0000 O 0 Mark organisms and cells for destruction Chemically with complement o A b lymphocyte clone can secrete any one of ve different classes of immunoglobulin molecule against a particular foreign antigen The difference between these classes lies mainly in the tail of the Y For a given Blymphocyte clone the antigen speci city of all classes of immunoglobulins O o IGM o GAE o IGD o IGGE o IGE The rst immunoglobulin to be synthesized by infacts and the rst to appear in the blood stream during the course of infection It mainly circulates in the blood where it represents about 10 serum immunoglobulins IGM is a large molecule which really consists of ve immunoglobulin molecules bound together IGM is a powerful activator of the complement system Generally only found in blood stream and cannot cross the placents lgA antibodies are important in resistance to infection of the mucosal surfaces of the body where it forms a protective coa ng ln secretions lgA exists as a dimer The concentration of lgA in serum is about 15 of the total antibody It is found in external secretions such as milk saliva tears and mucous secretion sin the respiratory reproduction and intestinal tract ls found on the surfaces of Blymphocytes and in trace amounts in the plasma It may have an immunoregulatory function The major immunoglobulin of plasma and extracellular uid Makes up 75 It can diffuse out the blood stream into the interstitial space where its concentration increases during in ammation Large quantitis are secreted by B lymphocytes in the secondary T CROSSES THE PLACENTA lgG bound to antigen can also activate the complement system of the plasma but not so powerfully as lgM lgG binds the the surfaces of macrophages and neutrophils It is produced by plams cells below the respiratory and intestinal ep heHa The majority of IgE is bound to IgE recepors on mast cells and basophils Therefore it only accounts for 002 of the immunoglobulins It is found bound to the surfaces of mast cells and basophils to release histamine and factors that attract eosinophils Unfortunately other antigens can subert the IgE system and provoke a response called an allergic response The most dangerous is anaphylactic shock usually provoked by insect stings or medication Blood Cell Agglutination o Clumping of RBC39s due to antigen antibody interactions 0 Agglutinogens Glycolipid antigens found on the membranes of red blood cells Most important are the A and B agglutinogens these determine blood type 0 Aggulutinins antibodies In the plasma these agglutinins are lgM The Rh Group 0 Apart from the ABO system the Rh system is important clinically It is named after the rhesus monkey where it was rst studied It is a system composed of several agglutinogens the D agglutinogen being the most important o If a person iss Rhpositive the red cells have the D agglutinogen Eighty ve percent 0 AntiD agglutinogen can39t be made unless you have already been exposed to it 0 RH negative individuals have antiD only if they have ever been transfused O is the universal donor because it does not have any agglutinogen o In a transfusion you are just moving cells not plasma 0 ln plasma AB is the universal recipient You can give a pregnant women 0 without hurting her Blood typing is what your cells react to STI STD Chancroid is a type of bacteria that is transmitted through sexual contact o It causes sores on the genitals 0 Symptoms Appear 4 to 10 days after exposed Swollen groin glands Open sores on the penis rectum and vulva 0 Treatment Easily treated with antibiotics 0 Prevention Abstinence or use a condom Chlamydia is a type of bacteria that is transmitted through sexual intercourse Chlamydia can infect the penis vagina cervix anus urethra eye or throat Symptoms Most men and women do not show symptoms o If they do Men Pain or burning while urinating Pus or watery or millq discharge from the penis Swoen or tender testicles Sweing around anus o In women abdominal pain abnormal vaginal discharge bleeding between menstrual periods lowgrade fever painful intercourse pain or a burning feeling while urinating sweing inside the vagina or around the anus the urge to urinate more than usual vaginal bleeding after intercourse a yellowish discharge from the cervix that may have a strong smell 0 Treatment Just to take all the antibiotics given to you 0 Prevention Inform your sex partners of the infection 0 Don39t have sex until treatment is complete 0 Be sure your sex partners are tested and treated before having sex again 0 Once you are cured and start having sex again use female or atex condoms every time you have vaginal or anal intercourse Protection Don39t have sex and use condomns Cytomegalovirus CMV is a virus that is transmitted through many bodily uids 0 Symptoms Often doesn39t show symptoms during its rst infection 0 swoen glands fatigue fever and general weakness 0 irritations of the digestive tract nausea diarrhea o jaundice yellowing of the skin or eyes 0 Treatment There is no cure for this There are medicines to make the symptoms go away 0 Protection and Prevention wear condomns and abstain from intercourse As well as wash your hands HPVGenital WartsCervical Cancer Genital warts are growths on the skin of the genital area and around the anus They are caused by certain types of the human papilloma virus Are passed from skin on skin contact 0 Symptoms Common genital warts symptoms are eshcolored softtothe touch bumps on the skin that may look like the surface of a cauli ower 0 Could take anywhere from 6 weeks to 6 months or longer to appear 0 They often grow more frequently during pregnancy or when a person s digestive system is weakened By chemotherapy Diabetes HIV Aids Antirejection drugs Treatments Often the immune system will ght off the warts and they will disappear If a person is uncomfortable and does not want to wait then there are antibiotics and other medicines that will get rid of them 0 Prevention and Protection Get an HPV shot stop smoking use condomns or absUnence Gonnerea is an infection caused by a kind of bacteria that is passed during sexual contact Often have claymidia as well 0 When women have symptoms 0 abdominal pain bleeding between menstrual periods fever menstrual irregularities painful intercourse painful urination swelling or tenderness of the vulva the urge to urinate more than usual throwing up yellowish or yellowgreen vaginal discharge When men have symptoms they commonly experience puslike discharge from the penis pain or burning feeling while urinating o more frequent urination than usual 0 Can cause the anus to itch Can cause premature babies if it is not treated properly 0 Treatment Antibiotics 0000000000 0 0 Prevention and Protection 0 Inform your sex partners of the infection 0 Have no sex until treatment is complete 0 Be sure your sex partners isare tested and treated before having sex again 0 Once you are cured and start having sex again use female or latex condoms every time you have vaginal or anal intercourse 0 Use a condom or dental dam for oral sex Hepatitis Is an infection of the liver Hepatitis A Infected ncal matter gets in the month or contaminated food 0 Can only get it once and can be spread to partners Hepatitis B Most common sexually transmitted disease 0 Spread through seman vaginal uids blood Hepatitis C O Hepatitis C is passed through direct contact with an infected person39s blood Not usually through intercourse unless one partner has an infection Hepititis B symptoms 0 tenderness and pain in the lower abdomen 0 loss of appetite o nausea vomiting 0 pain in the joints 0 headache o fever 0 hives 0 Later hepatitis B symptoms include o more severe abdominal pain 0 dark urine 0 palecolored bowel movements 0 jaundice yellowing of the skin and eyes 0 Treatment there is no treatment for hepatitis B but 1 and 10 people fully recoven 0 Drugs to treat chronic Hepititis o 1 and 20 become carriers nad pass it to others 0 Can take a vaccine 0 Prevention and protection O 0000 You can abstain from sexual intercourse If you choose to have sex use female or latex condoms every time Get the hepatitis B vaccine Don39t quotshootquot drugs especially with quotuncleanquot needles or quotworksquot Don39t share items such as razors or toothbrushes they may have infected blood on them Herpes Herpes is a very common infection It is caused by two different but closely related viruses The viruses are herpes simplex virus type 1 HSV 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV 2 Both are easy to catch They remain in the body for life and can produce symptoms that come and go 0 Symptoms 0 Cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth Oral o Nonoral you may or may not symptoms blisters burning feelings if urine ows over sores inability to urinate if severe swelling of sores blocks the urethra itching open sores pain in the infected area swollen tender glands in the pelvic area throat and under the arms fever chills headache general rundown feelings achy ulike feelings Treatments Medicines are used to treat herpes Warm baths lower the pain keep sores dry so they heal faster and cotton clothes prevent chaf ng 0 Spread by kissing touching and sexual contact 0 Prevention and Protection 0 Stop having sexual intercourse If you must use a condomn 0 Use Herpes Treatments don39t touch sores 0 Don t wet contact lenses with saliva HIVAIDS HIV causes AIDS HIV stands for human immunode ciency virus It breaks down the immune system our body39s protection against disease HIV causes people to become sick with infections that normally wouldn39t affect them 0 AIDS is short for acquired immune de ciency syndrome It is the most advanced stage of HIV disease 0 Symptoms OF HIV 0 The rst HIV symptoms may include swollen glands in the throat armpit or groin o Other early HIV symptoms include slight fever headaches fatigue and muscle aches These symptoms may last for only a few weeks 0 Then there are usually no HIV symptoms for many years 0 Symptoms of Aids 0 thrush a thick whitish coating of the tongue or mouth that is caused by a yeast infection and sometimes accompanied by a sore throat 0 severe or recurring vaginal yeast infections 0 chronic pelvic in ammatory disease 0 severe and frequent infections 0 periods of extreme and unexplained tiredness that may be combined with headaches lightheadedness andor dizziness 0 quick loss of more than 10 pounds of weight that is not due to increased physical exercise or dieting o bruising more easily than normal 0 long periods of frequent diarrhea Treatment 0 There is no cure o The drug cocktails are designed to strengthen the immune system to keep HIV from developing into AIDS or to relieve AIDS symptoms PreventionProtection 0 Never share needles Get into a needleexchange program Be sure to disinfect the needles you use Abstain from sex Try to do sexual acts that avoid bodily uid 0000 Intestinal Parasites An infection of the intestines Intestinal parasites are microscopic onecell animals called protozoa Are passed by contaminated food water and nonsexual intercourse Symptoms o diarrhea which may become severe and chronic o abdominal pain 0 bloating o nausea vomiting Treatments Yes medicines are available for treatment Pregnant women cannot take some of them And treatments may not be as effective for people with weakened immune systems 0 Protection and Prevention 0 Observe strict rules of daytoday hygiene like careful hand washing 0 Use a Sheer Glyde dam dental dam or piece of plastic wrap during oralanal sex play Molluscum Contagiosum Virus that affects the skin Infects infant and children and can be transmitted sexually and non sexually Symptoms 0 you may have small waxy round growths in the genital area or on the thighs There is often a tiny indentation in the middle of the growth Symptoms usually appear between two to three months after infection 0 Treatment Yes treatment is available A health care provider can remove the small growths with chemicals with an electrical current or by freezing them Or you can use a prescription medicine that can be applied at home 0 But they can go away on their own 0 Protection and Prevention 0 Wear condomns and cover the exposed areas will decrease the chances of them spreading Pelvic In ammatory Disease PID is a serious infection that harms a woman39s reproductive organs t develops when an infection spreads up from the vagina and cervix into the fallopian tubes uterus and ovaries It is usually caused by untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea But it may be caused by other infections PID stands for pelvic in ammatory disease 0 Common and serious complication of some sexually transmitted diseases STDs Treatments 0 Antibiotics 0 Bed rest 0 abstinence Often there are no symptoms 0 unusually long or painful periods and unusual vaginal discharge spotting and pain between menstrual periods or during urination pain in the lower abdomen and back fever chills nausea vomiting pain during vaginal intercourse Condoms reduce your risk OOOOO Pubic Lice Pubic lice are tiny insects that attach themselves to the skin and hair in the pubic area They are also called quotcrabs Symptoms o intense itching in the genitals or anus mild fever feeling rundown irritability the presence of ice or small egg sacs which are called nits in pubic hair Treatments 0 Over the counter drugs A ZOORid o Shaving hot bath and urba remedies Protection and Prevention 0 Limit your sexual partners there is no way to protect yourself from it 0000 Scabies Scabies SKAY beez is a skin condition caused by the scabies mite The mite burrows under the skin It is so small it can hardly be seen with the naked eye It belongs to the same family as the spider Symptoms intense itching usually at night 0 small bumps or rashes that appear in dirtylooking sma curing ines especially on the penis between the ngers on buttocks breasts wrists and thighs and around the belly button 0 Treatment Nix Elimite or Scabene o All bedding clothing ect should be thouroughly cleaned 0 Protection and Prevention 0 O No protection Number the amount of sexual partners you have Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria that are passed sexually It can infect the vagina anus urethra or penis as well as the lips and mouth 0 Symptoms 0 Primary Stage A painless sore or open wet ulcer which is called a chancre appears You may have just one chancre or a few Chancres usually appear about three weeks after infection but may take up to 90 days Without treatment they last 3 6 weeks Chancres can appear on the genitals in the vagina on the cervix lips mouth breasts or anus Swollen glands may also occur during the primary phase Secondary Stage Other symptoms often appear 3 6 weeks after the sores appear These syphilis symptoms may come and go for up to two years They include body rashes that last 2 6 weeks often on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet There are many other symptoms including mild fever fatigue sore throat hair loss weight loss swollen glands headache and muscle pains Late Stage One out of three people who have syphilis that is not treated suffer serious damage to the nervous system heart brain or other organs and death may result This can occur 1 20 years after the start of the infection Treatments 0 0 Early stages are treated with antibiotic Sta rt testing 0 Prevention and protection 0 O 0 Inform your sex partners of the infection Have no sex until treatment is complete Be sure your sex partners isare tested and treated before having sex again Once you are cured and start having sex again use female or latex condoms every time you have vaginal or anal intercourse Use a condom Sheer Glyde dam dental dam or piece of plastic wrap for oral sex Trichomoniasis You may have heard of trichomoniasis or quottrichquot but many people are not sure what it is Trichomoniasis trickohmoNEYEahsis is an infection caused by a protozoan a microscopic onecell animal called a trichomona Trichomoniasis is often called quottrichquot More than eight million Americans are infected with trich every year Symptoms When women have symptoms they may have 0 O O O O frothy often unpleasantsmelling discharge blood spotting in the discharge itching in and around the vagina swelling in the groin the urge to urinate frequently often with pain and burning Men rarely have symptoms When they do have symptoms they may have 0 O discharge from the urethra the urge to urinate frequently often with pain and burning Treatments Treated with antibiotics Protection and Prevention 0 O 0 You can abstain from vaginal and anal intercourse If you choose to have vaginal or anal intercourse use female or latex condoms every time If you already have trich Inform your sex partners of the infection Have no sex until treatment is complete Be sure your sex partners isare tested and treated before having sex again to avoid getting trich again Once you are cured and start having sex again use female or latex condoms every time you have vaginal intercourse Contraceptions Abstinence is not having sex with any partner 0 Advantages prevent pregnancy prevent STDs wait until they39re ready for a sexual relationship wait to nd the right partner have fun with romantic partners without sexual involvement focus on school career or extracurricular activities support personal moral or religious beliefs and values get over a breakup heal from the death of a partner follow medical advice during an illness or infection 0 Disadvantages Some people can39t handle being abstinent Outercourse o Considered anything that is sex play without penetration into the vagina Fooling around Role Play Making Out 0 Advantages has no medical or hormonal side effects can be used as safer sex to help prevent STDs if semen and vaginal uids are not exchanged can increase trust and closeness between partners may make sex play last longer can be used when no other birth control methods are available can help people better understand their bodies 0 Disadvantages Sperm may come in contact with vagina Some would nd it hard to resist intercourse after playing around 0 Periodic Abstinence Your abstinent for a certain amount of time in order to avoid pregnancy Withdrawl A man who uses withdrawal will pull his penis out of the vagina before ejaculation the moment when semen spurts out of his penis Advantages It can be used to prevent pregnancy when no other method is available There are no medical or hormonal side effects No prescription is necessary It is free Disadvantages 0 requires great selfcontrol experience and trust O is not for men who ejaculate prematurely o is not for men who don39t know when to pull out o is not recommended for teens and sexually inexperienced men because it takes lots of experience before a man can be sure to know when he39s going to ejaculate Condomns Male Is a thin strong sheath of ruber or similar material worn by male to prevent sperm from entering vagina Condomns Female Is the same as a male condomn but can come in plastic 0 Cost 50 each for male are 250 each for female 0 Advantages 0 let men help prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections are inexpensive and easy to get are lightweight and disposable do not require a prescription can help relieve premature ejaculation may help a man stay erect longer 0 No side effects Disadvantages 0 Sometimes pleasure is said to be less pleasurable 0 Many men are self conscious Effectiveness 0 Each year 2 out of 100 women whose partners use condoms will become pregnant if they always use condoms correctly 0 Each year 18 out of 100 women whose partners use condoms will become pregnant if they don39t always use condoms correctly OOOOO Diaphrams The diaphragm DIE ah fram is a shallow domeshaped cup with a exible rim It is made of silicone You insert it into the vagina When it is in place it covers the cervix Costs 1575 dollars 0 Advantages o It can be carried in your pocket or purse It can be used during breastfeeding It generally cannot be felt by you or your partner It has no effect on a woman39s natural hormones It is immediately effective and reversible There is no interruption of sex play it can be inserted hours ahead of time Disadvantages 0 may be dif cult for some women to insert 0 may be pushed out of place by some penis sizes heavy thrusting and certain sexual positions 0 must be in place every time a woman has vaginal intercourse 0 may need to be re tted OOOOO 0 Effectiveness o If women always use the diaphragm as directed 6 out of 100 will become pregnant each year 0 If women don39t always use the diaphragm as directed 12 out of 100 will become pregnant each year Sponge The sponge is made of plastic foam and contains spermicide It is soft round and about two inches in diameter It has a nylon loop attached to the bottom for removal It is inserted deep into the vagina before intercourse 915 per package 0 Advantages o It can be carried in pocket or purse o It generally cannot be felt by you or your partner o It has no effect on a woman39s natural hormones o It does not interrupt sex play the sponge can be inserted hours ahead of time and can be worn for up to 30 hours after you put it in During that time you can have intercourse as many times as you like during the rst 24 hours without removing or reinserting the sponge o It can be used during breastfeeding Disadvantages 0 May make sex messy or dry 0 Causes vaginal irritation 0 May be dif cult to insert 0 Effectiveness o If women who have never given birth always use the sponge as directed 9 out of 100 will become pregnant each year 0 If women who have never given birth don39t always use the sponge as directed 12 out of 100 will become pregnant each year NuvaRing The vaginal ring is a small exible ring a woman inserts into her vagina once a month to prevent pregnancy It is left in place for three weeks and taken out for the remaining week each month 0 Cost 15 to 80 per month 0 Advantages 0 Protection against acne bone thinning bad menstrual cramps breast growths that are not cancer cysts in the breasts and ovaries ectopic pregnancy 0 Simple and convenient 0 Regular lighter and shorter periods Disadvantages o bleeding between periods 0 breast tenderness o nausea and vomiting 0 and lots and lots of other side effects 0 Effectiveness 0 Less than 1 out of 100 women will get pregnant each year if they always use NuvaRing as directed 0 About 9 out of 100 women will get pregnant each year if they don39t always use NuvaRing as directed Vasectomy during vasectomy a health care provider closes or blocks the tubes that carry sperm When the tubes are closed sperm cannot leave a man39s body and cause pregnancy Permanet birth control for men 0 Cost 350 to 1000 Advantages 0 Does not change your hormones of vasculinity o Is safe and lasts for life Disadvantages 0 may want to have a child biologically in the future 0 are being pressured by a partner friends or family 0 want to use it to solve problems that may be temporary such as marriage or sexual problems shortterm mental or physical illnesses nancial worries or being out of work 0 Effectiveness 100 BreastFeeding Breastfeeding can be used as birth control when after giving birth a woman breastfeeds her baby exclusively That means the baby does not drink anything besides breast milk The act of breastfeeding naturally changes a woman39s hormones so that she does not become pregnant 0 Free 0 Advantages 0 does not affect a woman39s natural hormone balance is immediately effective is free requires no prescription needs nothing to be put in place before vaginal intercourse reduces bleeding after delivery requires no supplies or medical supervision 0 Health advantages to baby Disadvantages o Reduces Vaginal Lubrication 0 Can only count on it for 6 months before hormone levels return to normal 0 Effectiveness 0 Less than 1 out of 100 women who practice continuous breastfeeding perfectly will become pregnant OOOOOO 0 About 2 out of 100 women who use continuous breastfeeding will become pregnant in the rst six months if they don39t always practice it correctly Emergency Contraception a pill commonly called the morningafter pill The brand names of the morningafter pill are ella Next Choice and Plan B OneStep ParaGard IUD insertion safe and effective way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse Cost 1070 for pill and 500 for insertion Advantages O Prevents preg na ncy Disadvantages 0 00000 breast tenderness irregular bleeding dizziness headaches Nasuea Throwing up 0 Effectiveness O O The sooner its started the better it works Reduces pregnancy by 86 IUD The letters IUD stand for quotintrauterine devicequot IUDs are small quotTshapedquot devices made of exible plastic A health care provider inserts an IUD into a woman39s uterus to prevent pregnancy 0 Cost 500 to 1000 Advantage O O O O IUDs may improve your sex life There is nothing to put in place before intercourse to prevent pregnancy Some women say that they feel free to be more spontaneous because they do not have to worry about becoming pregnant The ParaGard IUD does not change a woman39s hormone levels The Mirena IUD may reduce period cramps and make your period lighter On average menstrual ow is reduced by 90 percent For some women periods stop altogether IUDs can be used during breastfeeding The ability to become pregnant returns quickly once the IUD is removed Disadvantage O O O O 0 mild to moderate pain when the IUD is put in cramping or backache for a few days spotting between periods in the rst 3 6 months irregular periods in the rst 3 6 months with Mirena heavier periods and worse menstrual cramps with ParaGard Effectiveness 0 Less than 1 and 100 women will get pregnant Tubal Sterilizations Ligation The Pill Birth control pills are a kind of medication that women can take daily to prevent pregnancy 0 Cost 1550 a month 0 Advantages 0 reduce menstrual cramps 0 make periods lighter 0 offer some protection against pelvic in ammatory disease which often leads to infertility when left untreated 0 Simple and Easy 0 Combination pill provides protection against protection against acne bone thinning breast growths that are not cancer ectopic pregnancy endometrial and ovarian cancers serious infection in the ovaries tubes and uterus iron de ciency anemia cysts in the breasts and ovaries Disadvantages o bleeding between periods most often with progestinonly pills 0 breast tenderness o nausea and vomiting 0 Effectiveness 0 Less than 1 out of 100 women will get pregnant each year if they always take the pill each day as directed 0 About 9 out of 100 women will get pregnant each year if they don39t always take the pill each day as directed The Patch Othra Evra The birth control patch is a thin beige plastic patch that sticks to the skin It is used to prevent pregnancy A new patch is placed on the skin once a week for three weeks in a row followed by a patchfree week 0 Cost 35 to 250 Advantages 0 Simple easy and convienent Protects against acne bad menstrual cramps bone thinning breast growths that are not cancer ectopic pregnancy endometrial and ovarian cancers serious infection in the ovaries tubes and uterus iron de ciency anemia cysts in the breasts and ovaries pelvic in ammatory disease wh Disadvantages o bleeding between periods 0 breast tenderness o nausea and vomiting 0 Effectiveness 0 Less than 1 out of 100 women will get pregnant each year if they always use Ortho Evra as directed About 9 out of 100 women will get pregnant each year if they don39t always use Ortho Evra as directed Biology Final Lecture 20 Digestive System two Walls of the Digestive system Mucosa o Epithelial Lining Pharynx esophagus anal canal squamous epithelium Small intestine columnar epithelium o Lamina Propria Elastic Fibers Connective Tissue o Musularis mucosa Smooth Muscle Submucosa Contains large amounts of blood vessels Contains Meisners Plexus Muscularis Externa Main muscle coat of the digestive system 0 Smooth muscle 0 Aurbachs Plexus Serosa forms the visceral peritoneum Meisners Plexus Aurbachs Plexus Enteric Nervous system which represents a third branch of the autonomic nervous system It is not sympathetic or parasympathetic Peritonium Serous Membranes that cover the body Mesentry connects the coils of the small intestine to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity Carries nerves lacteals mesenteric lymph nodes and blood vessels 0 Greater Omentum is wrapped around the organs in the upper abdomen 0 Stores fat 0 Contains numerous macrophages that limit infection Digestive Tract Teeth 20 primary teeth deciduous from age 24 and then you grow in 32 secondary teeth or permanent teeth after that time Your First bicuspids second bicuspids and molars do not come in until your permanent teeth start growing in 0 Assist in grinding cutting and tearing up the food placed in the mouth Enamel and cement tooth has a crown covered with enamel and a root covered with bonelike cement Between them is the neck Dentine beneath enamel and forms the bulk of the tooth Contains odontoblasts Dental Pulp Center of tooth and consists of vascular loose connective tissue Carry pain impulses Periodontal Impulses attaches thte tooth in its socket and provides sensory information about the tooth movements Dense connective tissue Tongue assists in moving food around in mouth and swallowing o Tongue is covered by lingual papillae and covered by strati ed squamous epithelium Salivary Glands secrete and discharge saliva into the mouth Saliva is a mixture of serous and mucous cell secretions Parasympatheticwhich causes vasodilation secretion contraction of smooth like muscles Lubricats food Moistens the mucosa Provides a watery solvent Salivary Alpha Amylase Contains antibacterial antiviral and antifungal peptides It acts like a PH buffer Parotids mainly serous Submandibular serous and mucous Sublingual mucus Pancreas Exocrine Function is to create Pancreatic juice in order to break down food in the small intestine 0 Contains bicarbonate and proenzymes Proteins Trypsin Chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidases A and B OOOOOO Ca rbs Alpha Amylase Fats Pancreatic Lipase Nucleic Acids DNAse RNAse o Regulates Secretion is stimulated by parasympathetic 0 Two hormones secreted by cells in the walls fo the small intestine have a strong effect on secretion of pancreatic juice as well as its composition CCK or cholecystokinin Stimulates gallbladder contraction Stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion o Is stimulated by fatty acids Secretin stimulated by acid causes the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate o The exocrine secretions of the pancreas are produced by the acinar cells which form acini which empty into ductules Ductules merge together to form ducts which drain into the main pancreatic duct The pancreatic duct joins the bile duct and the joint duct then discharges into the duodenum via the sphincter of oddi Liver and GallBladder Filtration of blood Metabolic functions Cholesterol Metabolism Macrophages called Kupffer cells recognize and remove bacteria Secretes somatomedin Stores carbs as glycogen triglycerides as lipid droplets Manufactures plasma proteins Detoxi cation Deamination Synthesizes 25 hydroxycholecalciferol Functional Portion of Liver Hepatic Lobule Contains hepatocytes and Kupffer cells At the center of the hepatic lobule is a central vein that ultimately empties into the hepatic vein and thence into the vena cava These venus sinsonoids that drain take in blood from the hepatic veins and arterioles which run between the lobules o Hepatocyes D bile canaliculi D hepatic duct Hepatocytes secrete bile and carry liver functions metabolism Sphincter of Oddi Controls Bile duct in duodenum Gallbladder stores Bile Parasympathetic Cholecystectomy where you remove the gallbladder Have to avoid fatty foods 0 Composition of bile Excretion Excretes wastes that are not easily secreted in the urine Removes cholesterol and bilirubin Neutralization of Chyme Bile Salts Aid in reabsorption and digestion Have no enzymes 0 Bile is important in digestion and absopriton of fatty and fatsoluble substances Acts to emulsify the fats or break them down Sodium Cholate chenodeoxycholate deoxycholate 0 000000000 Anatomy of the Gastronintestinal Blood Circulation 0 Blood is supplied to the GI tract by the celiac superior and inferior mesenteric arteries 0 The liver is supplied directly by the hepatic artery This hepatic portal vein branches in the liver forming the venous sinusoids o Hepatic Portal Vein blood from the capillaries venules and veins of the spleen stomach pancreas and intestines is collected by the hepatic portal vein 0 Blood Drains o Hepatic Sinusoids D Hepatic Veins D Inferior Vena Cava Digestive System 3 Lecture 21 0 Four Major Activities of the Digestive System 0 Motility o Secretion 0 Absorption o Digestion Digestive Products of the three major food classes 0 Proteins amino acids dipeptides and tripeptides Carbs Monosaccharides Trigycerides Fatty acids and monogycerides Absorption in the small intestine o Digestion begins when these molecules cross the brush border and enter the interior of the epithelial cells that form the wall of the small intestine o Chewing breaks up large pieces of food and mixes the food with saliva Swallowing swallowing involves both skeletal and smooth muscl and is controlled by a swallowing center in the brian o Peristalsis wave passing formteh pharyngeal end of the esophageus to the gastric end Stomach o Receptive Relaxation stomach can relax to accommodate quantities of food without raising its pressure appreciably Movements of the pharynx and esophagus 0 Three In uences on Gastric Secretion o Cephalic Excitatory and Inhibitory In uences The sight smell thought of fodd and its presence in the mouth stimulate gastric juice secretion Anger fear and depression all inhibit gastric motility and secretion Contractions of the Small Intestine Segmentation Contractions are ringlike contractions that appear and disappear at various points along the small intestine slosh chyme back and forth Peristaltic Contractions coordinated waves of contraction that move the chyme towards the large intestine Myenteric Re ex propel chyme in one direction Pooping Distension of the rectum stimulates the defecation re ex Colon is quiet between meals but pertacts in three types of contractions o Segmentation contractions assisting absorption 0 Antiperistaltic and peristaltic contractions combine to slow passage of the coon s contents 0 Giant migrating contractions are like intense and prolong peristaltic contractions and serve to strip an area of large intestine clear of its contents Constipation is a matter of muscle contraction in the large intestine Defecation sympathetic distension of the rectum initiates re ex contraction sof its muscles and the desire to defecate Lecture 22 Whole Body Metabolism Terms Metabolism the sum of all chemical processes that go on in the body 0 Metabolic Rate the amount of energy produced by the body at any given time 0 Energy is produced from foodstuffs 0 Energy work energy stored energy heat energy Adenosine triphosphate is used as energy currency for practically every process in the cell except those involving simple diffusion Calories the standard unit of heat energy is a calorie Th amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius Calorimetry the energy released when foodstuffs are burned outside the body can be measured by a bomb calorimeter Process that use energy Muscular Contraction Active Transport Across membranes Synthesis of large molecules such as proteins fats glycogen Degradation of large molecules often calls for energy expenditure 0 Other processes inclue protein phosphorylations involving protein kinases 0 Formation of cyclic AMP All energy created by the body turns into heat Heavy Light and Energy Values of Food 0 Fat yields the most heat 0 When 1 gram is burned it gives off 9 calories 0 To get one calorie from fat you only need 19 1 grams 0 Fat Calories are light calories 0 When 1 gram of weet carbohydrate is burned it gives of 15 calories 0 To get one calorie from we carbohydrate you need 115 1 71 gram ofcarb o Carbs are heavy calories because they contain water Energy Balance simply means the balance between energy intake and nrgy output 0 Low calories more heat burned you lose weight 0 More calories less heat burned you gain weight Storage 0 75 of fat energy is stored o 1 gram yields 93 kilocalories light calories 0 1 carbohydrates is stored glycogen heavy calories are harder to store 0 23 proteins is stored o Caloris stored in proteins are also referred to as heavy calories Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen 0 Monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose o Dissachharides sucrose lactose and maltose o Polysaccharides glycogen and starch Cellular Respiration the controlled buring of glucose to produce useful energy 0 Glycolysis yields two molecules of pyruvate and two molecules of atp 0 Formation of acetyl Coa o Krebs Cycle produces the most NADH and FADH2 o Oxidative phosphorylation produces the most ATP Glucose is the source of energy storage for carbs throughout the body Nervous tissue is an obligatory user of glucose Most other tissue can use fatty acids as well as glucose for energy production o If glycogen is lled up the liver cells transform glucose to triglycerides fat for storage in adipose tissue Fatty acids cannot be converted back to glucose Fats Fats are Triglycerides which are lipids Triglycerides 1 glycerol binded to 3 fatty acids 0 Palmitic acid 0 Stearic acid 0 Oleic acid Phospholipids 1 glycerol 2 fatty acids components of plasma membrance Steroids Sex hormones and cholesterol Metabolism of Fats Fats have to be hydrolyzied into glycerol and fatty acids This is down through beta oxidation Digestion and Absorption of Fats Fat Transport triglycerides stored in adipose tissue are rst hydrolyzed to fatty acids The fatty acids are transported in the blood bound to serum albumin Glucose is the only fuel used by the brain Throught GLUT3 During fasting ketoacids can replace glucose in the brain for energy storage Proteins Linear assemblies of amino acids joined together by covalent bonds called Peptide bonds Non Essential amino acids are synthesized by the body 0000000000 0 Glycine Alanine Se ne Cysteine Aspartic acid Glutamic acid Asparagine Glutamine Tyrosine Proline Essential amino acids have to be eaten in order to attain them all end in ine OOOOOOOOOO Theronin Lysine Methionine Valine Phenylalnine Leucine Tryptophan soeucine Histidine Arginine Protein Metabolism Are broken down by a variety of proteases and peptidases They have to be deaminated their nitrogen containing portions are removed from ammonia and coverted into waste substance urea by combining the two If more energy is needed it goes into the Kreb Cycle Energy is not needed to convert to glucose Role of Metabolism in the Liver Carbs 0 Storage of glycogen removes excess from the blood and returns more once it falls again 0 Converts gaactose and fructose to glucose 0 Gluconeogensis concerned with maintiaing normal blood concentrations of glucose If blood glucose faIIs amino acids are converted to glucose 0 Formation of many intermediate compounds Fats in the liver 0 High rate of fatty acid beta oxidation 0 Synthesizes most of the lipoproteins o Synthesizes cholesterol and phospholipids o Converts carbohydrates and proteins to fat 0 Proteins in liver 0 Deamination of amino acids 0 Formation of urea 0 Synthesis and secretion of nearly all the plasma proteins 0 Synthesis of all the nonessential amino acids Other Metabolic Function 0 Stores vitamins AD 312 0 Storage of iron Detoxi es or excretes many drugs penicillin erythromycin sulfonamides Hormones Insulin o Increases transport of amino acids and glucose 0 Promotes glycogen and protein synthesis and inhibits their breakdown Inhibits breakdown of fats reducing fatty acids 0 Promotes growth by stimulating protein synthesis 0 Indirectly inhibits quconeogenesis Glucagon o Glycogen breakdown stimulated o Glucogan stimulates qucogneogensis o Glucagon does not affect peripheral glucose utilization Thyroid Hormone o Increases metabolic rate increases aII metabolic reactions Proteins Protein Turnover about 2050 grams of proteins are lost everyday and have to be replaced Nitrogen Balance When the amount of nitrogen in the urine is equal to the amount of protein in the diet nitrogen balance 0 Lack of protein causes Kwashiorkor disease vitamin A de ciency Minerals 0 Major Minerals 0 00000 Calcium Phosphorus Iron Zinc Magnesium Iodine Vitamen De ciency and Effects Vitamen A night blindess Thiamine Bl ber beri neuritis Ribo avin b2 cracking at mouth corners tongue in ammation Niacin peagra Pyridoxine convulsions Folic acid anemia Pantothenic acid biotin dermatitis enteritis Cyanocobalamin pernicious anemia Vitamen C Scurvy Vitamin D rickets Vitamin K blood clotting problems Too much of one vitamin Hypervitaminosis A headache diarrhea dizziness irritability Hypervitaminosis D hypercacemia that cause weakness fatigue headaches nausea vomiting diarrhoe Vitamin E recent evidence suggests that high vitamin E intake may be harmful Hypervitaminosis K anemia Vitamin B6 peripheral nerve problems Short term regulation of energy Body temperature Blood glucose Blood fatty acids Blood amino acids Cholecystokinin and other hormones Long term controlled by hypothalamus Lecture 24 Renal System Kidney 6 Fails o Fluid overload Hypertension Hyperkalemia Acidiosis Hyperparathyroidism Anemia Altered medication OOOOOO Role of Kidneys Production of RBC39s Water Balance Regulate Ionic Balance regulate NA K Ca and CI The reninangiotensinaIdosterone system is activated by the kidneys Excretion of waste and other substances such as urea and steroids Kidneys three main function to produce ultra ltrate through Filtration Secretion Absorption Water Reabsorption Henle39s oop prevents dehydration by reabsorbing 179 liters of water everyday Without it we would die
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