Midterm Study Guide
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Holocaust Study Guide January 27th Two schools of thought as to why the Holocaust occurred 1 Intentialism and German character The idea that the Germans always planned to eventually kill off undesirables particularly Jews Explains the Holocaust as a oneoff event 2 Functionalism The idea that a bunch of things just came together at once through historical circumstances Best supported by historical evidence For example no record of Hitler ever mentioning an intent to kill Jews before the warno top Nazi of cial in fact History of Judaism AntiSemitism antiJewish sentiment or hatred of all things Jewish In Europe Jews were the only signi cant minority group Christians majority 4000 years ago in the Middle East approx what is now Iraq lived Hebrew Tribes Multiculturaldifferent ethnic groups also resided there Then for mysterious reasons the Hebrew Tribes migrated from Iraq and returned to a nomadic lifestyle from a more urban lifestyle Their patriarch was considered to be Abraham He is also considered the founder of Judaism and thus Christianity and Islam as well After the migration Abraham entered into a covenant or agreement with the Hebrew god known as El Shaddai or God of the RockMountain The terms of this covenant were that the Hebrew people would worship only El Shaddai and reject all other gods In return El Shaddai promised the Hebrews protection and to guidance to a new homeland calling the Hebrews his chosen people gtgtgt1000 years later approx 1000 BCE the ancient Hebrews took possession of their holy land which was the Land of Canaan historically known as Palestine and currently the nation of Israel The Hebrews chose Jerusalem as their capital They built a large temple for worship considered one of the great wonders of the ancient world which was the center of their faith and community The Hebrews were also able to turn ancient Israel into a major power by military force because they were skilled ghters and warriors Eventually the Hebrew tribes split into two kingdoms a result of con ict among the Hebrews themselves Approx 900 BCE However the ancient Hebrews beliefs continued to develop For example El Shaddai was converted to simply Yahweh because it was not a proper name which re ects the Hebrews belief that God is too big to be reduced to a name However the Hebrews were not yet completely monotheistic Although they believed in one god for their people they acknowledged that other groups such as the Pharisees had their own gods they worshipped gtgtgtgtIn 586 BCE Israel and Judah disappeared by conquest from outside empires Jerusalem was destroyed including the temple The Hebrew people became homeless having lost the land given to them by Yahweh They did not regain possession of this land until 1948 The empire that sacked Jerusalem was the Babylonian empire They enslaved captured Hebrews and began a period known as Babylonian Captivity Babylonian Captivity Babylonians brought enslaved Hebrews to Babylon to work as slaves During this time however the Hebrews solidi ed their beliefs and became completely monotheistic They also began to put together religious texts eventually compiling ve books that would become the sacred Torah The Torah told the basic history of the Jews and their laws The rst ve books of the Torah are also the Old Testament in the Bible Later on the Torah was joined by the rest of the Hebrew Bible which is mostly made up of prophecies letters and stories Hebrew leaders continued to remind believers of their faith and laws through creation of a Jewish calendar which included holy days and rituals Most importantly it included the Sabbath a weekly holy day that begins at sundown Friday night and continues until Saturday at sundown During this time Jews were expected not to work or do any kind of labor The Babylonian Captivity ended in approximately 500 BCE when they were conquered The Hebrews were set free which marked the age of their Restoration Restoration During this time the Hebrews restored the temple although it was not as magni cent as the original and returned to Jerusalem The Jewish religion also continued to evolve becoming known as Temple Judaism This involved rituals centered around the temple and the temple also became the center of economic and political life and power However Jewish power was limited because they still did not have possession of the land gtgtIn approx 200 BCE the Roman Empire was established around Jerusalem The Roman Empire was tolerant of religions but still required laws and taxes to be followed by subjects of the empire Judea was a province of the Roman Empire and most of the inhabitants were not Jewish once again making the Jews a minority There were also frequent Jewish rebellions against authority They still felt that the land belonged to them In 71 CE the Romans crushed a rebellion and destroyed most of the second temple in Jerusalem This marked the Diaspora Diaspora Means dispersal After the crushing of the rebellion many Jewish families left and migrated all over the world Once again the Jews were homeless and without a temple of worship leading many to consider the Torah a portable temple because it was all they had The Jews also shifted from Temple Judaism to Rabbinic Judaism a large reason why the Jewish religion survived the Diaspora and consequent actions against them Rabbis were teachers who met with small groups of male students to teach and keep the traditions of Judaism alive Through this the Jewish tradition of a high value on education was developed including the ability to read think write and debate no matter socioeconomic status or occupation February 3rd 2015 Christianity Began as an offshoot of Judaism Founder was Jewish Jesus of Nazareth Jesus primarily wanted to purify and simplify Judaism Jesus crucified in Jerusalem approximately 30 CE for being a troublemaker Jesus followers after his death began to separate his teachings from Judaism EX Suggestion that Jesus of Nazareth had been the Messiah or Savior sent by God Jewish leaders rejected that idea false Messiah Jesus Christ Christ comes from the Greek word Christos meaning savior His followers rejected traditional Jewish laws such as dietary laws against eating porkshellfish and Christianity began to develop more of a following during the 1st century Attempts at separation continued including arguing that Jews were responsible for killing Jesus and they rejected the savior gtgtgtgtApprox 300 CE Christianity was the largest religion in the Roman Empire Developed institutional structure becoming organized religion Early Christian leaders called this the Roman Catholic Church Catholic means universal At the heart of the institution is the papacy the popes or leaders Early on leaders had strong opinions about Jewish people which became a part of the culture of Europe Popes made it officially acceptable to persecute Jews although at the time not too relevant because Jewish communities were small and widely scattered The Roman Empire collapsed in the 400s but the Roman Catholic Church became the dominant force in Europe both religiously and politically gtgtgtAfter the fall of Roman Empire Jews began to migrate to Spain because they were free from persecution there due to the Muslim rulers 600s 7th century emerged a new religion Islam Islamic warriors established a large empire known as the Unmayad Empire Jews were now under the authority of Muslim warriorshowever considered a golden age in Jewish history because Jews were accepted in society Muslims accepted Jews because they were Peoples of the book they believed in many of the same things as Muslims such as one God books as holy resources and prophets such as Abraham and Jesus Muslims suggest that Jews Christians and Muslims all listenrespect the same prophets so there was no reason to oppress J ews Christians on religious grounds Europe s Middle Ages Approx 5001400 CE Germanic Tribes precivilized people who were not literate or settled were present in Europe Members of Germanic tribes converted to Christianity the last group being the Vikings although it took hundreds of years Germanics were warlike they placed a high value on warfare 800 CE a Germanic kingCharlemagneestablished a new empire around FranceGermany Entity was called the Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne invited Jewish families to live in his kingdom despite his strong Roman Catholic views He respected the Jews educational level and business skills things his empire needed He granted Jews who migrated there royal protections Jewish people began to appear in the area known as the Rhineland region around the Rhine River in Germany They were prosperous and secure there gtgtgtgt1096 CE the Crusades begin Christian warriors tried to conquer the Middle East Maj or target was Jerusalem in 1096 under control of Muslim warriors Crusades were called for by the Church set off a long period of con ict Crusaders told to kill Muslims as called for by God thus also making it acceptable to kill Jews 10961294 10 major Crusades each starting off with pogroms or attacks against the Jewish people in the Rhineland New restrictions were placed on Jews after the Crusades in much of Europe Ex Forced to live in designated areas ghettos and were not allowed to be farmers or own land ght as soldiers engage in craft trades Jews could only do retail trade shops or be moneylenders usury because Christians weren t allowed as moneylending was considered sinful by the Church These restrictions led to more stereotypes about Jews such as the stereotype that Jews are greedy with money Crusades were accompanied by the Reconquest of Spain Christian warriors tried to reconquer Spain from the Muslims Ended in the year l492 the last Islamic ruler of Spain was ousted The Christians then targeted Jews living in Spain Given three options Convert to Christianity go into exile majority took this route or be killed Most Jews left Spain or were executed It became a habit to use Jews as scapegoats in the Middle Ages of Europe Key example the Black Death 13471352 was a massive epidemic of Bubonic Plague in Europe that killed 13 of Europe s population It became common to blame Jews for the plague because it tended to be worse in overcrowded areas and Jews were forced to live in overcrowded ghettos Thus Jews were massacred to get rid of the plague sometimes by being nailed into barrels and thrown into the Rhine Eastward Migration Jews in l300l400s moved East and left Western Europe Destination was Kingdom of Poland which at the time was a major European power Kingsnobles of Poland invited Jews and promised them protection from persecution and oppression They were essentially free to practice any religion or occupation Large Jewish communities emerged and thrived By 1939 most Jews lived in Eastern Europe about 8 million out of 11 million in Europe Vast majority of victims of the Holocaust were eastern European Jews Many Jews lived in shtels small villages made up of mostly Jews In shtels distinctly European Jewish culture evolved such as their own customs traditions and language Yiddish gtgtgtgtl700s1800s Included the EmancipationAssimilation of Jews in Western Europe In the early 1700s Jews achieved legal emancipation in Western Europe thus no more restrictions Happened mostly because of liberal revolutions happening around the world such as the French and American revolutions that stressed the idea of all men created equal and all people are born with certain natural rights such as freedom of worship In the early 1800s Reform Judaism took shape This type of Judaism is not a xed set of beliefs and claimed that Judaism is an ongoing conversation Assimilation Reform Jews said it was acceptable to change so that Jewish people could fit in with mainstream European society For example they did not have to wear prayer shawls or observe dietary laws Jews essentially became the same as Christians Industrialization also helped this process due to the new importance of skills rather than connections or family heritage Industrialization wanted people who could build a bridgereligion was irrelevant In the late 1800s mixed marriages were becoming more common By 1914 in Western Europe most Jewish people identi ed with their national citizenship rst before their Jewish roots In the late 1700s the Kingdom of Poland ceased to exist it was partitioned by Russia Partitioned Poland Jewish shtel communities became Russian Russian leaders hated Jews so they placed new restrictions on them They established the Pale of Settlement a big area where Jews could live but they could not live outside of it or even move from their home villages Sons had to perform same jobs as fathers Jews also not permitted to get educations outside of their own communities They had to pay special taxes Leaders of Russia also used Jewish manpower young Jewish men often drafted into 25 years of service Pale of Settlement kept Jews in Eastern Europe isolated they did not become modernized gtgtgtl 8705 The Russians staged pogroms against the J ews they were not random but elaborately planned Intent was not to kill Jews but rather to terrorize them by burning buildings villages and crops Also delivered beatings and public humiliations The reason was that the Russian government believed the Jews were associated with radical political groups such as Communists and Terrorists Long Depression 18741892 This was a long economic downturn that led to feelings of antiSemitism Resulted in high unemployment and draining of life savings for many Europeans Lead to scapegoating the Jews because they were believed to be in charge of the ecoomy Jews were also doing well at the time Politicians used antiJewish sentiment to garner votes most famous of these is Karl Lueger the mayor of Vienna from 1895 to 1910 It is likely that Hitler learned how to be antiSemitic politically from Lueger because Hitler lived in Vienna at the time Alfred Dreyfus and the Dreyfus Affair Dreyfus was a Russian Jew living in France He was an Army officer who had won medals and was felt to be fully assimilated In 1894 Dreyfus was arrested on charges of treason against the French state for allegedly giving military secrets to the Germans He was found guilty even though the trial was clearly bogus Sentenced to life imprisonment on isolated island Caused a huge uproar in Europe and France Some in the French army were afraid that the army was losing public support so they staged the whole thing to gain public support and attention Chose a Jew because no one would work that hard to defend a Jew Dreyfus was brought back for a second trial and found guilty again French president pardoned him but he was still technically considered guilty so his medals and pension were taken away Whole incident suggested that assimilation might not mean that much Protocols of the Elders of Zion 1 890s Was a record of a meeting held among Elders of Zion Jewish leaders Protocols suggested that Jewish leaders planned to take over the world by setting off waves of panic through bombings and terrorist attacks in major Western European cities Then the Jewish leaders would stepin and create a oneworld army The document became extremely popular it was translated into 50 languages It was required reading in some schools and in 1919 the Ford Motor Company published it in their newspaper It was known to be made up and written by the Russian secret police Responses of Jews 1 Immigration Over 1 million Jews left Russia Two main destinations Western Europe and the US There were two different communities in Western Europe for the Jews such as the wellassimilated and then the traditional eastern European Jews In the USA it was mostly Eastern European Jews who migrated By 1939 NYC was the biggest Jewish city in the world There was some antiSemitism but not much 2 Zionism The Dreyfus Affair got so much attention that reporters traveled to France Jewish reporter Theodor Herzel from Austria was convinced that Jews would never truly be accepted in Europe He argued that Jews needed their own country In 1898 Herzel published The Jewish State saying that Jews needed a refuge where they would be safe have representatives to advocate internationally on their behalf and earn full selfrespect By 1900 Zionist offices in every major city worked to fundraise and send small groups to Palestine to buy and lease small tracts of land and make that land productive The ultimate result is modern Israel This provided many Jews a sense of activism and the idea of a way out February 10 2015 Racial Ideologies and Scientific Racism The Western world became obsessed with race in the 1800s There was the sense that some races were superior and others inferior Nazis argued that Jews were a different and lesser race who did not belong in Europe People believed this could be proven scientifically biological differences Today we know that there is only one race biologically the human race Any difference between people otherwise accounts for less than 2 Social Darwinism Misapplication of Darwin s theory of natural selection 1859 Darwin published On the Origins of Species Darwin claimed that species are constantly in a struggle for survival individuals over time change mutate to better adapt to their environments which allows for reproduction and assimilation He argued that higher forms of life emerged and humanity was the highest and most complex Social Darwinism applies this framework to humans would describe national peoples as distinct races German race Russian race In the struggle for survival some national peoples would prevail and others would go under Herbert Spencer English writerphilosopher Argued some individuals are more evolved than others thus they deserved to dominate Darwinists used circular logic pointed to those who were wealthy and powerful as evidence of this theory Applied this theory to nationstates also Said that GermanyGreat Britain were superior because prior to WWI they were the most powerful nations in the world They were the best adapted to their environment Removed morality from human affairs as well as reason biological determination Orientalism mid l 800s The study of what Europeans called The Orient meaning anything to the east of Europe Max Muller was a German orientalist in the 1840s 1 850s He was mostly a student of languages and helped confirm that the languages of India and Europe had a lot in common He came up with lists of words that had a similar meaning EX In Sanskrit the word for God is Deua In Spanish it is Dios In French Diem In the Roman Empire Deus In addition in Sanskrit Arya means land of the noble and Aryans were the inhabitants of this land Iran means land of the blessed Thus the peoples of northern India and elsewhere had a set of common ancestors The Caucasus were a mountain region of Russia were the Caucasians came from They eventually dispersed and moved to different areas of Europe and India taking with them their languages hence the similarities Aryan Myth Orientalists began to form this based on ancient poems songs and stories Idea that the ancient Aryan people were unique and impressive They were activewarlikecreative technology Argued that Aryans not only migrated but conquered wherever they went Also supposedly physically biggerlighterskinned Europeans thought of themselves as descendants of the Aryans especially the German Gobineau French racial philosopher Published a book and essay titled Essay on the Inequality of Race Claimed all humans identifythink in terms of race and race difference Being aware of these differences is what makes us human dangerous to deny it He claimed 3 fundamental races existed black white and yellow Around the edges of these groups existed subdivisions which were noticeable by skin color This laid the framework for Social Darwinism Claimed the white race was clearly superior to the other two Evidence was great accomplishments of Europeans such as the telegraph and other industrialization era technologies Argued that IndiansArabs part of white race but weakened over time from race mixing Gobineau believed one maintained racial purity by avoiding race mixing white Europeans more pure thus more superior However it was the Aryans who had done the best job he meant Germans English Swedes Dutch Danes His book was a bestseller Nazis targeted Jews because they were a threat to Germany s racial purity 3 Richard Wagner Wagner was a composer and musician who composed operas a popular form of entertainment at the time He committed himself to Aryan myth and wanted to use music and stories to express it Used stories from old Germanic myths Believed these stories would be stronger with music because it affects people at sub rational level captures essence of life Wagner believed his modern world was becoming too mechanical humans becoming machines but with Germanic tribes stories and music we could change that Helped instill the idea of the romantic outsider a young man struggling against all odds at great personal cost to improve human life Hitler perceived himself as a romantic outsider Wagner s musicideas inspired Wagnerism a type of cult Wagnerites argued that German culture especially music was the best ever produced which re ected German racial superiority The best music composers particularly classical were all German Bay Reut In Bavaria where Wagner s music was produced and shown at an annual festival Wagner s most famous tune was Ride of the Valkries f1gures from ancient Germanic myth This music was also politically supported Germany became a unified state for rst time in 1871 This music in 1880s1890s defined German nationalism and their valuesideals Kaiser Wilhem II was very interested in this he was the leader of the 2nd Reich He fully supported the notion that German culture was superior Hitler also devoted to Wagner s music made annual music festival in Bay Reut a national holiday After WWII festival was banned by the Americans because of its dangerous levels of nationalism It was not done again until the 1960s Houston Stewart Chamberlain English He wanted to be German so he moved to Bay Reut and married Wagner s daughter In 1899 published Foundations of the 19th Century Wanted to show where all the great achievements of the 19th century came from Explained Germans as being responsible for it all He hoped in the 20th century German dominance would continue but they had to deal with the Jews rst He also claimed the Germans were the source of all light order and creativity while the Jews were dark and chaotic Claimed Christianity did not grow out of Judaism but rather was begun by a German and that Jesus was German He also envisioned a nal battle between Germans and Jews If Germans prevailed they would continue on as before But if the Jews prevailed Europe would descend into chaos His book was a bestseller in Germany Top Nazis read the book although Hitler not so much When Chamberlain learned of Hitler he said that he had the right idea Craniometry There was a push to prove that races differ scienti cally One way of this was measuring skulls and observing size and shape Samuel George Morton was a prominent American craniologist who believed you could prove Europeans were superior by their skulls He used crude methods Claimed the size of the skull cavity is a re ection of the size of your brain and the larger one s brain the more intelligent a person is He measured skull cavities using beans Morton found that peoples of Europe did indeed have larger skull cavities proved only that Europeans had bigger heads because they had bigger bodies because they had a more stable and meatbased food source Morton also thought shape was important He looked for harmonious facial features and an even at plain from forehead to chin All of this led to racial hierarchies Racial Hierarchies l The superior people in Europe were the Nordic Teutonic or Aryan peoples they were the most racially pure 2 Alpine peoples included French Austrians northern Italy Basically Nordic but somewhat weaker from centuries of race mixing 3 Mediterranean peoples Spanish southern Italy Greeks Irish 4 Slavic peoples Russians Polish Eastern Europeans 5 J ews they belonged to a separate racial category altogether Not native to Europe did not belong EugenicsAmerican Immigration Maj or wave of immigration from 188019205 from Europe to America Vast majority from southem eastern Europe Many Jewish Most earlier immigrations were from more Nordic countries Americans were concerned that these new immigrants would biologically weaken US The Passing of the Great Race by American pseudoscientist Madison Grant was published in 1916 and was a precursor the Immigration Act of 1924 Claimed that Americans were becoming racially impure Very popular book Eugenics selective breeding Used in agriculture and livestock but applied to humanity Late 1800s considered by Europeans but never legally put into practice until the Holocaust Basically said that inferior people should not be allowed to breed because it weakens the overall race Inferiors included handicapped and genetic disabilities such as mental or physical illness Intelligence tests were invented in the early 20th century to identify stupid people and prevent them from breeding came up with terms like morons and imbeciles Some states in the US did enforce this but not really enforced in Europe In 1924 the Immigration Act was passed in the United States in an effort to uphold purity in America Encouraged immigrants from Nordic countries and discouraged immigrants from eastem southern Europe they had smaller quotas Remained in effect until 1965 February 17 2015 Central Powers Austria Turkey Germany Triple Entente United States France Great Britain WWI no clear reason for fighting 10 million soldiers died destroyed an entire generation Lost generation 1917 two major events 1 Russian Revolution Russia taken over by revolutionary communists called Bolsheviks Took over in Russia advocated for supreme radical changes possible to abolish private property and create a relatively equal society Wanted this communist revolution to be international Communism now in power in one of the most powerful nations 2 United States joined WWI Triple Entente side Turned the tide of the war US Had enough supplies so that the Triple Entente would never run out Treaty of Versailles Fall of 1918 Germany s leaders realized they could not win the war Asked for an armistice from Triple Entente Armistice not exactly a surrender A cease re agreement in which a peace treaty is negotiated afterwards The peace treaty is the legal end to the war Armistice took effect on November 11 1918 Armistice Day or Veterans Day Immediately followed by a breakdown of German leaders winter of 19181919 German Bolsheviks tried to bring communist revolution to Germany It was unsuccessful but prevented a strong government for months The Germans were not allowed to take part in the peace treaty anyway however Treaty was put together by the French British and US It was signed in the summer of 1919 Simply seemed to lay groundwork for another war Terms were too harsh EX Germany had to give up territory to other nations The worst condition of all was that Germany had to pay for the war in war reparations which prevented the German economy from recovering Had to pay 40 of their total gross domestic product each year another major cause of the Depression By the summer of 1919 however Germany had a democratic government called the Weimar Republic which lasted until 1933 Weimar Republic Traditional democracy First to give women the right to vote of all modern democracies A lot of Germans saw the leaders as November Criminals who betrayed Germany by accepting the terms from the Treaty of Versailles and pulling out of the war early as well as opening up Germany to communism Hitler s Early Life He was born in Austria on April 20th 1889 Came from a dysfunctional family father was 30 years older than mother and a drunk and violent Roman Catholic upbringing which prevented the possibility of divorce He was a weirdo and loner growing up considered himself to be an artist At 17 he moved to Vienna where he tried to pursue a career as an artist but he did not have much success as he did not even get accepted into art school He also began to talk about his dislike of the Jews and how they had wronged him In 1913 he moved to the German state of Bavaria and lived in Munich He wanted to avoid serving in the military for Austria because he did not want to ght for a multiethnic empire He enthusiastically joined the German army Was a good soldier who won two top medals for bravery although he was never promoted above corporal which was extremely unusual especially because so many men were dying Leaders did not see him as a leader of men When the war ended the army assigned him as a spy on political groups his job was to go to political party meetings in Munich One meeting was the German Workers Party Hitler ended up leaving the army and joining this party German Workers Party More of a club in the beginning Believed that the German working man had been betrayed by war profiteers or industrialists who kept the war going to make money Hated communists They were extreme nationalists who thought German race had a special destiny Hitler after joining learned he had special skills speci cally his oratory skills Emerged as a leader of the party eventually making it clear he should be the only leader Also said the party needed a different name to not sound like communists Began to call themselves National Socialist German Workers Party NSDAP Called Nazis because of the German word for nationalism 1921 Hitler began to articulate Nazi beliefs more clearly 25 Points These were 25 of the main beliefs goals of the Nazi party Some important points 1 wanted to get rid of the Weimar Republic 2 Wanted all war profiteers punished 3 Wanted Germans to be ready to fight communism 4 The Jewish people can never be Germans Nazis tended to also view the Jews as war profiteers as well as the Bolsheviks Fascist Movement This movement began in Italy with Benito Mussolini Mussolini An extreme nationalist WWI veteran Believed democracy was too weak to restore national pride or stop communism Came to power in 1922 using methods Hitler would later learn from He formed paramilitary groups from his supporters who were called Blackshirts typically young men WWI veterans and rightwing The Blackshirts were sent into the streets to take direct action which sometimes resulted in violence Fascism used many military methods both in the streets and in higher levels of government To achieve national goals there was no tolerance of dissent All people should be ready to sacri ce for the national state Fascist dictators arose out of the working class and tended to view themselves as ordinary people Hitler learned the usefulness of direct action SAs Hitler formed his own type of Blackshirts called Brownshirts who were stormtrooper paramilitary groups Leader was Ernst Romm who was a highly respected German of cer that gave the Nazis more respect and authority with the German people Began adopting their symbols like swastikas to direct power and decisiveness Nazis grew slowly during the 1920s In 1923 Hitler recruited Hermann Goering who helped give the Nazi Party some glamour Hermann Goering Famous in Germany WWI pilot one of Germany s rst ying aces Thought to have moviestar good looks Became the 2 man in Nazi Germany and Hitler s designated successor 1923 Nazis made rst attempt to seize power Beer Hall Putsch November 1923 Beer halls big indoor spaces in Munich where political party meetings were held Night of the Putsch a big political meeting at a beer hall with many high ranking of cials in Germany Hitler surrounded the beer hall with Brownshirts and the Nazis seized control of the meeting tried to convince of cials to join the Nazis Used General Erich von Ludendorff who was a famous and wellrespected of cial Hitler managed to recruit Munich s of cials played along for a while but the plan ultimately failed and Hitler was arrested Put on trial in 1924 Trial began to make Hitler famous he acted his own defense and made political speeches Found guilty sentenced to prison Spent much of 1925 in jail Prison sentence was shortened and it was a fairly cushy prison term he could have visitors whenever he wanted and access to writing materials Wrote Mein Kampf which was published in 1925 Means My Struggle Mein Kampf Believed Germany needed another big war concentrated in Eastern Europe Also elaborated on Nazi ideology democracy a mistake most people meant to follow few people meant to lead Claimed it was perfectly ok to lie to the people to achieve goals especially if it made people comfortable Notion known as the Big Lie the more outlandish the lie the more likely to be believed Also blamed Jewish people for loss of WWI Germany s economic troubles and said that if some 15000 Jews had been gassed WWI could have been prevented Said once he was in power he would put in policies to control J ews never explicitly mentioned a plan to exterminate them Hitler was released from prison in 1925 and came to the realization that he had to take power legally Tried to expand Nazi movement Nazi Movement Expands New leaders emerged such as Joseph Goebbels Joseph Goebbels A media guy who used words and pictures to manipulate people Told Hitler he could get German people to believe anything Hitler wanted Used advertising in elections one of the first politicians to do so Considered one of the top 3 Nazis Heinrich Himmler In 1929 he was chosen to lead the SS the Nazi Party s elite guard Himmler had great ambitions wanted SS to be most powerful branch largely succeeded Holocaust was essentially an SS project 1930 Nazi Party was a legitimate political party not the biggest but respectable with about 10 of the vote Great Depression hit Germany in 1930 Great Depression Global economic collapse High unemployment rate about 34 in Germany No unemployment checks no welfare Germans began to look at democracy and capitalism as failures Many millions of Germans became communists or Nazis In the summer of 1932 another election held and Nazi Party became biggest single political party by winning the majority of Parliament 3 7 of the total vote 1932 Election Hitler argued he had a claim to become chancellor of Germany no direct election for this office either the head of the largest single political party with over 50 of the vote and only elected in local community Can only be chancellor if the total vote is under 5 0 if you form a coalition government proportional representation If chancellor is head of the government they are not the head of state the President is At the time the President was Paul von Hindenburg more of a f1gurehead position like the Queen of England Hitler had come in 2nd for the presidency to Hindenburg Hitler tried to put together a coalition to become chancellor but Hindenburg rejected it because he found Hitler to be lowclass and not someone meant to lead the government He finally allowed Hitler to become chancellor because Hindenburg was convinced that he could be controlled by more experienced people Hitler took office on January 30th 1933 Hitler Takes Power Less than a month later Reichstag Fire takes place Mysteriously burnt but clearly arson Hitler blamed re on the communists and that it was a sign to begin a communist revolution He declared it a national emergency and gave himself special powers during this time Declared communism illegal held book burning sessions Attempted to intimidate those opposed to the Nazi movement In March 1933 Hitler passed the Enabling Act which gave him permanent dictatorship powers and make his own laws He could also act outside the Weimar Republic without fear of legal challenge Hitler announced the civil service acts which banned communists and J ew Socialists from holding any position in the government including schoolteachers and university professors This opened up a lot of jobs which were filled by Nazis Hitler opened the first concentration camp in April of 1933 which were special prisons for political opponents The concentration camps were opened by Himmler and the SS By the end of 1933 Nazi Party was the only party left others made illegal or disbanded In 1934 Hitler had 2 remaining obstacles 1 leftwing of the Nazi Party wanted to completely overturn German society thought Hitler was too willing to work with traditional German elites At the heart of this branch was Ernst Romm who wanted to turn the SA into the army 2 Regular German army they were not fully sold on Hitler Traditional honorable distrustful of Hitler too lowclass However Hitler made a deal with them called Pact of Deutschland The Deutschland was a ship that Hitler met the army on and made a deal with them Pact of Deutschland Hitler promised to control SA Promised military leaders he would expand the German military Asked generals to back him up with any major moves he would make Night of the Long Knives On June 30th 1934 Hitler murdered 100 of his political opponents including Ernst Romm Shocked the nation and the world Army backed him up saying it was necessary to save state from chaos Hindenburg was still president but he died shortly after in August of 1934 Following his death Hitler proclaimed democracy off1cially over he now had sole political authority Called himself Der Fuehrer leader Weimar Republic replaced by the Third Reich lasted 12 years Most Germans still not sold on Hitler February 24 2015 Consolidation of Power Hitler put in place state coordination policies Designed to tie every part of German life to the Nazi state somehow including army and local interest clubs State took direct control of all communications and media no longer left to free enterprise Examples movies radio books magazines etc Nazis dictated type of content allowed in these forms of media Took direct control of all education from preK to universities Began to dictate what kinds of things could be taught in schools students began learning things such as racial science Hitler Youth In addition to state coordination Nazis also targeted young people much easier to brainwash and the future of Germany Less life experience would be easier to manipulate Nazis had elaborate programs for young people entitled Hitler Youth for various age groups and gender Not required to join Hitler Youth but a lot of peer pressure existed ex Tried to make it fun and appealing to younger people up to age 18 They had dances parties sporting events campouts etc The movement grew and elbowed out alternatives By the end of the 193 OS if you were a young person you could only do those fun things through the Hitler Youth so many joined Also indoctrination in Hitler Youth reminders of the need to serve Hitler and the German state Young boys expected to become soldiers Emphasis on sports mostly team sports Young girls were in separate organizations for girls Expected to later serve state as submissive wives and mothers Most young Germans really liked it By the end of the 193 OS about 80 of German young people were involved in Hitler Youth Most parents were ok with this In addition to young people Nazis targeted industrial workers in early 20th century industrial workers were likely to be leftists Communists Socialists but you need industrial workers especially if planning a war Nazis tried to appeal to these workers both nice things and brutal punishment Nazi state completely banned labor unions and any kind of activity of that sort It was strongly punished Most industrial workers had jobs thanks to the Nazi state s rearmament Nazis tried to show them it cared about their quality of life through Strength through Joy program Strength Through Joy Tried to make workplace more pleasant cafeterias gyms etc Tried to make available various cheap things such as cheap tickets to professional sporting events concerts etc Tried to make possible for industrial workers to have cheap vacations during a time when industrial workers hardly ever got vacations due to money or lack of time Most famous effort was the effort to supply ordinary industrial workers with their own car Designed a whole new program and vehicle called Volkswagen meaning People s Car Very rst Volkswagen Beetle was invented during Nazi era for this purpose What convinced most Germans that the Nazis were ok by the end of the 193 OS Germany was the only country to emerge from the Great Depression All Germans had secure jobs many for the rst time The Nazi government was also making Germany strong and proud again AntiJewish Policy The Jewish people were a relatively small minority in Germany Germany s population was 60 million about 500000 Jewish Most Jewish people living in Germany were wellassimilated did not look or behave any different than other Germans Many German Jews were also veterans of WWI When Hitler took power in 19331934 Christian and Gentile Germans were no more antiSemitic than in any other country Over time in the 193 OS Germans grew accustomed to antiSemitic measures Civil Service Acts 1933 Banned all Jewish people from working for Jewish government at any level Albert Einstein lost his job at a university due to these acts Took other forms through banning Jewish people for working for communications or the media no actors journalists radio broadcasters etc Tried to remove Jewish people from public life in Germany remove them from the ability to possibly in uence others April of 1933 Hitler s government tried to institute a boycott against Jewish businesses encouraged nonJewish Germans to not go to Jewish shops accountants dentists etc Nazis would stand outside shops to intimidate German people from going in Not a law Boycott was a failure most Germans ignored it Nazi government had to call it off after just a few days German business community also protested Nuremburg Laws September 1935 This is when things actually became bad for Jews Nuremburg was a city in southern Germany where an annual rally was held by the Nazis Nuremburg Rally became an opportunity to announce policies such as the Nuremburg Laws By then it was clear that the Nazis believed that Jewish people simply could not t in Hitler wanted to create a German People s Community that was ethnically pure Two laws 1 Reich Citizenship Law simply said that Jewish people could not be citizens of the German state Therefore no longer enjoy police protection passports or any other rights that citizens enjoyed Still expected to pay taxes Turned Jewish people living in Germany into people who were citizens of no country Also de ned from a legal point of view who was Jewish and who was not Basic criteria Jewish if you had at least three Jewish grandparents Law did recognize some people would fall through cracks those people described as Mischlinge or mixed ex If you had two Jewish grandparents and were a very religious Jew If you had two Jewish grandparents but were strongly Christian you were exempt Children of mixed marriages as well De ned J ewishness based on race not on religious belief or behavior 2 Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor made any future mixed marriages illegal Made sexual activity between Jews and nonJews illegal as well Also stated that it would be illegal for a German employer to hire a Jewish woman if that woman was under 45 years old can t make babies Both of these laws created the basis in German law for future measures Over the next few years many more laws would be put in place but these two laws laid the legal foundation Marginalized Jewish people within Germany Jews also banned from taking advantage of any public facilities in Germany city parks playgrounds swimming pools theatres Schools became more and more segregated idea that Jews should be banned from public education Over time Jews also banned from performing many jobs especially jobs where they may have contact with German people such as dentists lawyers etc Most people in Germany assumed Jewish people would become a subject population but not necessarily killed or kicked out analogous to black people in South Africa during apartheid Many Jewish people living in Germany were nding ways to get out and immigrate especially after these laws were passed No real violence yet on J ews at least no largescale violence Changed during the Kristallnacht the night of the broken glass Kristallnacht November 910 1938 Nationwide attacks on Jewish communities Around 300 Jews killed others beaten Thousands of homes and businesses destroyed trashed and looted One of the major targets was Germany s synagogues Both public violence on a huge scale but also planned and carried out by the Nazi state Not random set of attacks most carried out by Nazi police such as SA or SS Very unexpected Emergence of what Nazi of cials began to call the Jewish Question Up until 1938 Nazi of cials had not worried about Jewish people too much but by the summer of 1938 German of cials were beginning to seriously consider the Jewish Question or what are we going to do with the Jewish people Nazi government did not run like a welloiled machine very disorganized and chaotic Hitler governed according to the Fuehrer Principle Fuehrer Principle One aspect is that Hitler s word is above any law or any other consideration Hitler believed that every organization or group could only have a single person in charge no ruling committee discussion votes Leader s responsibility is to set the vision for whatever that organization is supposed to do Once vision is set out leave it to underlings to gure out how to implement it compete with one another to get the job done In summer of 1938 various Nazi of cials competed with each other to try to solve the Jewish Question to get in Hitler s good favor Kristallnacht was attempt to seize control of Jewish Question by Joseph Goebbels leader of Nazi propaganda Ostjuden Goebbels invented a crisis that Kristallnacht was supposed to solve used his PR skills In late summer of 1938 Nazis ordered all old Ostjuden to be deported the Eastern Jews who had immigrated to Germany Put them on trains take them to Polish border and dump them Included the family of Herschel Grynzpan He moved to Paris during this time Received a letter from his sister reporting on the news that his family had been deported So angry he got a gun and shot a man in German embassy in Paris killing him Goebbels used this shooting as the excuse to call for Kristallnacht claimed that this shooting was the last straw and Germans would not put up with Jewish abuse any longer Kristallnacht was according to Goebbel a spontaneous event from the Germans Hitler was unhappy with these attacks made Germany look bad He also wanted Germany to look like an orderly country to outsiders not prone to random violence Goebbels essentially failed to seize control of Jewish Question Hermann Goering was the next of cial to try to solve this issue Tried to use economic methods Goering raised taxes on Jews tried to force Jewish communities to pay for the damage from Kristallnacht German Jews who still owned substantial amounts of property were forced to sell it department stores warehouses etc Jewish people had to sell them for very cheap often to Goering and his colleagues Attempt to completely impoverish Jews Talk about reestablishing ghettos for German Jews to live in but it never happened only in Poland Also in 1939 German Jews began to face requirement to wear the Star of David on their arm whenever they went out in public or face imprisonment From Hitler s point of view Goering s attempt to impoverish Jews still had its aws because he did not want a subject population that was very poor and a problem gtgtgtThe SS came up with another solution through leader Heinrich Himmler In the summer of 1938 an SS off1cer called Adolf Eichmann came up with the idea of the SS Of ce for Jewish Emigration The SS could help Jewish people leave Germany Basically cut through red tape that normally slowed down emigration process One specific problem was the fact that Jews did not have passports because of the Nuremburg Laws Eichmann gave German Jews a temporary passport just to get out SS also worked closely with Jewish organizations around the world to find places for Jews to go If the Jews wanted to use this process they had to sign over whatever remaining wealth or property they had in any form property gold jewelry Seemed to be the best possible answer at the moment get them out make moment Cultural and Racial Cleansing in the Third Reich Jewish people not only victims of the racial cleansing measures First victims were not Jewish but homosexual handicapped gypsies etc The Concentration Camp System Spring of 1933 was when the first one opened Intended for political opponents of the Nazi regime usually Communists and Socialists SS and Himmler ran these camps First major camps known as Dachau and Buchenwauld developed techniques to dehumanize prisoners Make all prisoners look alike shave heads identical uniforms Identify prisoners with numbers not names later began to tattoo the number on inside of left arm Feed you enough to keep you going but not enough to give you energy think independently resist SS came to understand that if you feed people very little they will be reduced to only thinking about food Perfected the method of subjecting prisoners to random events without reason random rollcalls work details beatings SS learned from the beginning that in circumstances like this prisoners try to become invisible to avoid being singled out General practice in 1930s was for prisoners to go to concentration camps for one year that s how long it took to fix someone After they got out political opponents learned not to speak out against the Nazis Over the course of the 1930s network expanded eventually dozens all over the country Became an important Nazi institution By the end of the 193 OS became centers for forced slave labor No killing facilities folks did die but it was not original purpose As the network expanded SS realized they would run out of potential prisoners so they needed to nd prisoners from another resource In 1935 Nazis and SS began de ning asocials and sending them to concentration camps Part of larger effort for cultural hygiene An asocial is somebody who can t or won t fit in to German society in other words working and sacrificing for the German state Categories homeless petty criminals prostitutes pimps Germans who weren t settled down or live in a permanent place workshy etc Categories began to expand later on followers of many religious groups such as Jehovah s Witnesses or Seventh Day Adventists Practicing homosexuals Divide and Rule divide groups of prisoners up and set them against each other Nazis would divide prisoners into groups depending on what they were in the camps for and then each group would wear a specialcolored patch to identify them all other prisoners would know Ex Nazis forced homosexuals to wear a pink triangle on their uniform Eugenics Attempt to purify Germany racially also included eugenics measures or selective breeding breed out undesirable qualities and increase production of racially pure Germans through government policy In early 193 0sl940s Nazis strongly encouraged racially pure Germans to make many babies Especially true within the SS women could not be in the SS if you were a man and wanted to get married your potential bride had to get a certificate of racial purity Himmler opened up a strain of socalled string of Spring of Life homes They were special homes to bring out the children of unmarried SS men receive special education nurturing etc Children brought up in these homes were considered Himmler s godchildren Himmler took this idea of racial purity so seriously that any SS man caught in homosexual activity would be castrated or killed Impulse for racially pure Germans went far beyond SS all over Nazi Society German Mothers Cross Equivalent of a military medal for women and mothers Get this by making babies and raising them in a healthy home Three levels Gold for 8 children silver for 6 bronze for 4 Not many women received the gold medal Sign of great respect and honor Hitler awarded the medals himself Birthrates in Nazi Germany actually went down dramatically in the late 1930s means that German couples were choosing not to have children in huge numbers explanation could be that people did not want to make children to be turned into Hitler Youth robots controlled by the state Hereditary Health Courts Eventually over 200 Started in early 1934 Medical personnel such as doctors and nurses would report to the state on people who were thought to have some sort of hereditary condition such as cerebral palsy mental health issues Then person would need to go to these courts and be proven guilty of these conditions sentenced to forced sterilization Both women and men Did not want these hereditary conditions to be carried out in the future Procedures were legitimate clean and safe still forcibly sterilized Between 1934 and 1942 more than 100000 Germans were sterilized by the state Once the Nazis began to do this they began to think about applying this to other groups and people who they considered problems Example Rhineland Bastards After WWI Rhineland occupied by the French army as part of Treaty sometimes German women married or had children with these troops Some of these French occupation troops came from Asian or African French colonies Rhineland Bastards were the children of white German women and black French occupation troops several hundred In 1938 order was to sterilize these teenagers Euthansia Mercykilling Summer of 1939 high Nazi of cial named Philip Bouhler one of Hitler s chief of staff He was meant to preview Hitler s mail before picking which to give to Hitler Opened one letter from German man who said he had a problem in his family and wanted Hitler to solve it child in the family with severe physical and mental disabilities and the child had become a burden on the family was asking if the state could help family solve the problem by putting the child to sleep Bouhler developed plan known as the T4 Program Hitler assigned Dr Karl Brandt to help out he was one of Hitler s personal doctors Bouhler s argument was that disabled children were a burden on the German state and the German state needed to rid itself of these burdens T4 leaders sent out leaders to medical personnel who ran clinics and hospitals saying that these children with certain kinds of disabilities had to be killed by these doctors Targeted children in the first phase 15000 almost always by the doctors and nurses who had been caring for them Killings usually done with lethal injections or intentional drug overdoses Parents were not informed until afterwards sent a letter saying the child has died from another cause Because this worked they expanded the T4 Program to include mentally and physically disabled adults by 1939 Accompanied by propaganda T4 program also tried to come up with more ef cient killing methods Set up siX T4 centers Victims were singled out and sent Via bus or train Many of the Victims were perfectly aware and alert of what was going on Once sent to one of the centers they were killed using poison gas in special gas chambers carbon monoxide gas Nazis disguised these gas chambers as shower rooms Victims did not know they would be gassed T4 Centers all built in residential areas people knew what was going on By the time the gas chamber was up and running WWII was up and running German civilians did object to it Between 193 91942 around 80000 mentally and physically disabled Germans were killed almost 100000 Victims total Direct connections between the T4 Program and the Holocaust
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