EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE HD FS 129
Popular in Human Development and Family Studies
Popular in Physiology
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachael McDonald on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD FS 129 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Molly Countermine in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 777 views. For similar materials see Human Development and Family Studies in Physiology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/15
Lecture Topics Temperament I Temperament an innate style of responding to the environment 0 It is internal 0 Initially independent of parenting 0 Pretty quickly parents will have a care and the child will show her temperament I Aspects of temperament 0 Activity level I Does the child have a high to low ratio of active periods to inactive ones 0 Rhythmicityl I Does the child have regular body functions such as sleep and hunger O Distractibilityl I Does some type of stimulation from the environment easily create a change in the child s behavior 0 ApproachWithdrawal I I Does the child move toward a new person or object or does he or she hesitate 0 Novelty O Adaptability I Does the child handle changes in his or her routine and environment with ease or difficulty 0 Attention span and persistence I Does the child play with a particular toy for a long period of time or a short period of time 0 Intensity of Reactionl I Does the child have a high or low energy level when exhibiting emotions such as crying or laughing 0 Threshold of Responsivenessl I Does the child require a great deal of stimulation in order to respond 0 Quality of Moodl I Is the child generally happy irritable calm or frightened 0 Categories of Temperament 0 Easy 40 not upset by novelty regular in sleeping eating and elimination usually cheerful 0 Slow to warm up 15 slow to accept novelty lower activity levels adjusts slowly to new experience 0 Difficult 10 irritable hard to soothe irregular in eating sleeping and elimination O 35 cannot be classified a mixture of temperamental responses I A child s temperament and the parents responses to that temperament interact to produce particular outcomes Erikson39s Psychosocial Theory of Development 0 Erikson s Psychosocial Theory of Development 0 Includes notions of the lifespan perspective I Contextualism I Life Long development I Plasticity I You have the capacity to change at any time I Multidimensionality I In uenced by our temperament and our environment 0 Parenting and friends I Multidirectionality 0 Development can take many paths of life 0 There are specific periods of life during which we are confronted with a unique problem I Psychosocial Crisis 0 Once a resolution of that crisis is reached the individual develops a particular orientation toward life 0 Stages I Trust v Mistrust Birth18mos I Suckling breast pacifier thumb I Crying fussing I You are teaching care of me I can trust the world is safe I If a baby is maltreated abused neglected left to cry I the world is not a place that a baby thinks is good they will take care of themselves I Autonomy v Shame and Doubt 18 mos 3 yrs 0 Kids wanting to do everything themselves I The knowledge the child is separate and they are an individual 0 Has an effect on the environment 0 Real question Can I do it 0 Parents encourage kids and praise 0 Most parents are angryshame and doubt I Initiative v Guilt 45 I Start something by yourself 0 Dress themselves feed themselves etc 0 Potty trained O No guilt placed on kids when they wear something funny or try to do something wrong I Industry v Inferiority 610yrs Problem solver 0 Swimming riding a bike wo training wheels reading writing math 0 More predictive to be industrious to not quit I life time success rather than IQ I Longitudinal Study I Identity v Identity confusion 1122 yrs Right at the beginning of puberty continuing into emerging adulthood I who am i Younger I more superficial Further along I involves more As you move through adolescence you question who you are 0 Sexuality O Spirituality I Once you move out wo parental in uence you can decide 0 Vocational Decisions 0 Who are you fundamentally What kind of person What kind of friends do I want to have I Intimacy v Isolation 2235 yrs Intimacy has been developing since an infant Long term What do I want from love 0 How 0 Who 0 Friendships Strong social connection 0 Very strong link between trust and intimacy I Generativity v SelfAbsorptionstagnation middle adulthood What am I leaving behind 0 Children 0 You don t have to have children and if you do it doesn t necessarily have to be them I Ideas inventions products contributions I In any career you can feel generative 0 More volunteering I Integrity v Despair late adulthood old age How did I live my life It doesn t mean you do not have any regrets You felt that you lived an honest life and were true to yourself You find meaning in it 0 Grab life by the horns live the way you want to live it I Hope and Faith v Despair Old age old old age 8090 0 Don t fear death 0 Embracing everything I Not everyone gets to this stage 0 Transcendence 0 Being ready 0 Characteristics of Psychosocial Crisis 0 Our attention is focused on a speci c task I At any particular age the task at hand is where you are focused O The way in which a task is resolved will have an effect on subsequent tasks I Becoming trusting I easier to be more autonomous I Industriousl helps figure out who you are I When you know who you are you understand how you love and what you want from love I When you are generativel look back on life and see how cool it was I When you see how cool it was I you are ready 0 Resolution is NOT all or nothing I You shouldn t trust everyone I Don t do everything yourself I You may know exactly who you are with spirituality but not know vocationally I May be intimate with friends but not with significant others 0 Crisis is not a time of disaster I Just what you are thinking about 0 The attitude we have acquired can be challenged at a later time I Resolved something positivity I Best parents and then your sig other burns you I Can shake trust I Awful boss 0 Makes you question Autonomy I Not sensitive parents 0 May develop better relationships with other people 0 The attitudes we acquire form a basic orientation toward the interpretation of life experiences I If you are trusting and you trust your boyfriend and he doesn t text you right back 0 Busy 0 He s mad at me 0 Doesn t love me etc Friendship categories Friendships in early school years are the Key Building Block for relationships in later life and for the level of one s selfesteem Robert Selman Harvard 0 Grow up together stay together 0 High Selfesteem fosters I Confidence I Competence I Willingness to take chances I Ability to stick up for oneself I Healthy respect for others I Sense of responsibility 0 Low Selfesteem is associated with I Depression I Anxiety I Hostility 0 Neutral events with hostility I Difficulty adapting to new circumstances I Mistrust of others I Feeling like a victim I Not feeling good about your self is just over all not good Possessing Social Competence helps in developing the skills for having long term relationships 0 Childhood friendships are a continuum of attachment and a key building block for relationships in later life I Facilitate separation from family I Ease transition to adulthood I Validate selfconcept through consensual validation I Safeguard against feelings of rejection and loneliness I Hone skills for future relationships I Learn importance of emotional commitment I When you find your people you validate each other and how you are I If they do not do that for you they don t stay close friends 0 Family v Friends 0 Fight with friend I not guaranteed they will still be your friend 0 Fight with fam always stuck 0 By age 8 or 9 children become selective in their friendships 0 Children in middle and late childhood 811 yrs spend 40 of the day with peers 0 Children establish a Social Hierarchy that determines treatment by peers 0 Most children are well liked 75 I Researchers have kids rank their class in popularity I Kids are aware of it I All very similar 0 Popularprosocial 60 I Preforming well in school I Communicating with peers in positive friendly way 0 Popularanitsocial 15 I Defy authority I Aggressive kids who enhance popularity by manipulation and exclusion 0 Conduct disorder I diagnosable clinically recognized mental disorder aggressive behavior kids fighting when they defy authority manipulation and exclusion 0 Girls are way more likely to be relationally aggressive 0 Boys not until later in life 0 Girls are more bullied then guys emotionally and even physically o RejectedAggressive 6 I Disliked by peers I Lack ability to take perspective of others 0 Rejectedwithdrawn 6 I Socially anxious I Expect to be treated poorly and are often bullied o Neglected 5 I Ignored by others I Socially skilled but are loners I Do not report being unhappy or lonely not at risk 0 Controversial 8 I Display a blend of positive and negative social behaviors I Do have at least one friend 0 What makes a kid popular I Listens to others I Showing enthusiasm I Happy cheerful disposition I Communicating clearly I Maintaining a conversation with an even ow of exchange I Physical Attractiveness What are risk factors for kids 0 Poverty I More likely to have 0 Poor physical health 0 Deficits in cognitive development amp academic achievement 0 Mental illness amp antisocial behavior 0 Hostile family interactions 0 Yet some people can raise up and conquer poverty 0 Neighborhood and school violence 0 Parental Absence O Familial instability I These are typically cumulative What makes a child resilient in the face of adversity O Temperament Physical Attractiveness Oldest child with no siblings until at least 2 years of age Recruitment of surrogate parents and adult mentors By high school evidence of an internal locus of control I They attribute the things that happen to them as something they can control I Or at least how you react to it 0 Androgynyl possessing characteristic of both genders O O O O Af uenzal don t understand the difference between right and wrong because grew up wealthy 0 Children of af uence are more likely to experience I Less emotional closeness with parents I Less supervision by parents I Being over scheduled in activities I Parents who are less available I Excessive demands for achievement I Fewer family activities amp interaction Goodness of fit Goodnessoffit creating child rearing environments that recognize each child s temperament and encourage adaptive functioning 0 Push a little but not too much not too young either Highstrung parents would be a poor fit for a difficult challenging baby they might become very punitive and critical of the infant which would only serve to aggravate an already difficult temperament Parents of difficult babies should be patient consistent nonpunitive Dif cult babies are at risk for an insecure attachment Easy babies are easy to parent consistent sensitivity not hard Difficult babies it is hard to be consistent 0 Trickl call it challenging don t refer to as difficult Reciprocal In uencel The individual in uences and is in uenced by his or her environment TEMPERAMENT O The relationship between spouses can affect the way a parent relates to the child 0 Marital relationshipltgt Parenting ltgt child behaViorgt a circle 0 Difficult babies put stress on the relationships 0 Impatience needs patience I Even though it is frustrating I Attunement I Attunement O A parent s recognition acceptance and reciprocation of an infant s emotions 0 When an adult either overresponds or underresponds to an infant s emotional expression the infant will become disturbed I This hurts little boys more in general than girls 0 Girls have a different way of coping with it Emotional intelligence I Emotional Intelligence is 0 Knowing your emotions selfawareness I People respond to happy people uncomfortable with con ict I Some parents foster happy and ignore other emotions I Feelings are not right or wrong they are just feelings I Emotions thoughts behaVior 0 Managing your emotions I Thoughts and behaVior I When your angry 0 Dance 0 Call someone I Go to the gym I Punching someone is not emotionally intelligent 0 Recognizing emotions in others empathy I Babies have facial recognition I And can understand tones 0 Difference between empathy and sympathy 0 Empathy fuels connects feeling with people I Rarely happens you open up and show your vulnerable I Rarely can a response make something better what makes something better is connection 0 Sympathy fuels disconnection I At least I Empathy O Recognizing accepting and responding to another s emotions I You can have empathy and not necessarily act in a helpful way I Doing something about it is compassion I Selfawareness O Recognizing accepting and expressing one s emotions I A lot of times when you re angry you might actually feel something else I Jealousy fear second best etc I Feelings are just feelings they are not right or wrong I Feelings can get out of control 0 Depression I Don t beat yourself up when your sadness is overwhelming Robert Rosenthal Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity PONS O Twosecond view of Facial expression body position voice 0 Those who score accurately receive higher ratings on job performance Those who are able to read nonverbal cues and recognize others emotions tend to Be more popular Be more outgoing Have more successful romantic relationships 0 Have better mental health Three most commons inept parenting styles 0 Ignoring feelings altogether I Treating the upset person as trivial I Tantrums don t give in 0 Showing contempt for child s emotions I Snarky or angry the child just feels ashamed and pushes the child away 0 Being too laissezfaire I Passive not caring handsoff parenting OOO Empathy comes from being empathized with it is fostered and supported by the environment Discipline should help a child regulate his emotions to calm him down rather than become more agitated The more emotionally agitated the adult the more agitated the child Explain to child how his behavior affects other Grow yourself up and calm yourself down Authenticity 0 To feel and know I am being real genuine and honest in relationships Empathy 0 To be attuned to other s feelings and thoughts How do we foster healthy relationships 0 Mutual empathy 0 Mutual authenticity Epidemic of Facelessness I harder to be empathic online 0 Things you would not say to their face How to foster empathy Role play Model empathy 00000000 1 Responsive parenting Validate the full range of emotions Give names to feelings Point out similarities and differences Reading and gameplaying Volunteer work Cosleeping babies sleep in same bed as mother 0 Shorter nightw akings 0 Lighter sleep for mom and baby I Babies sleep on back better for no SIDS and sleep apnea I 66 of the world cosleeps I We push independence at such an early age and we create less independence Increased cogni 0000 Higher levels of independence in preschool tive competence Greater selfesteem James McKenna I If you have a baby sleep with it I Just because we have evolved our systems are not physiologically endorse independence 1 Done by parents lSuggestion for when you are angry how to deal ready to 1 Modeling with it 2 The Strange Situation 0 How do we measure it Episode Events Attachment behavior observed 1 Researcher introduces parent and baby to playroom and then leaves 2 Parent is seated while baby Parent as secure base plays with toys 3 Stranger enter is seated and Reaction unfamiliar adult talks to parent 4 Parent leaves room Separation anxiety stranger responds to baby and offers comfort if baby is upset 5 Parent returns offers Reaction Reunion comfort stranger leaves 6 Parent leaves room Separation anxiety 7 Stranger enters room and Ability to soothed by offers comfort stranger 8 Parent returns greets baby Reaction to reunion offers comfort and plays again Empathy O Recognizing accepting and responding to another s emotions I You can have empathy and not necessarily act in a helpful way I Doing something about it is compassion 1 Attachment Theory 0 Attachment Theory states that 0 Security of infant attachment will be determined by quality of early caregiving 0 Security of early attachment will affect the child s later relationships 50 of Americans let their children Cry it out 0 Four Phases of Attachment 0 Phase 1 Birth 2months I Infants instinctually attach to any adult whether it be parents siblings or grandparents 0 Phase 2 36 months I I Infants begin to direct their attachment to their primary caregivers 0 This is often when mothers have to go back to work I So this could produce a child loving a day care worker 0 Phase 3724 months I This is the key stage for attachment to occur toward an individuals Infants begin to specifically seek contact with their caregivers such as mother and father Mothers are preferred primary caregiver 0 Beginning to recognize that they are separate and their actions cause consequences 0 Phase 4 24 months on I Children become comfortable with receiving care from familiar others I Not just limited to caregiver and child 0 Le friends significant others I Based on your first phases your ability to attach to people will vary I Older the easier it is to trust people I Delaying gratification 1 Measure attachment between 1224 months the reunion Attachment categories 0 O O Securely Attachedl use mother as secure base exhibit distress at mother leaving and stop exploration and seek contact during reunion about 60 of children I Key is I does the baby seek comfort from mom and is the baby comforted by mom when she returns I Consistently sensitive Insecurely attached avoidant I rarely cry during separation and avoid mother at reunion indifferent to or dislike physical contact about 20 I Might lean away from closeness I Consistently insensitive attachment Insecurely attached ambivalent intensely distressed by separation yet during reunion they seemed to be ambivalent toward mother Sought contact and pushed mother away about 10 Resistant I Have had inconsistent caregiving 0 Depressed mothers Insecurely attached disorganized I show confusion as main response to actions I Not frequent I Most likely linked to severe neglect or maltreatment I Abuse I Baby that froze bizarre behavior I Because of technology parents on phone when infants and toddlers are around 0 Parents are too involved with technology while around their children 0 This pattern of parenting is not adaptive for children Secure kids less dependent on teachers in preschool more cooperative and peaceful responsive to friends requests Insecure kids more dependent more aggressive with peers more withdrawn High investment parenting I the more sensitive in the first couple years they better the child in the future Can infant form multiple attachments O O 0 They are highly selective in their choices of attachment figures Not all social relationships can be identified as attachments Not all attachment figures are created equal Atricial v Precocial WHY do we parent 0 Altricial born in a helpless condition requiring prolonged parental care O Precocial active and able to move freely from birth requiring little parental care 0 Physical needs I Every child needs the same basic physical needs across cultures 0 Socialization I Very different among cultures Textbook Topics Factors related to delinquency I page 237 in text Difficult temperament Low intelligence 0 Poor school performance 0 Peer rejection in childhood 0 Association With antisocial peers Ineffective parenting Poverty Inconsistent parenting AdoleSQMFUJ g WA W l i l l t i i Cur JV 1 I il lit 0 Early Childhood l l i 39 l temperament scsgc 1 home lax and inconsistent Attention j discipline deficit f hyperactivity disorder l ngmtlve j Conflict ridden l l l gl l l E l Attributions I p 263 in text Attributions are our common every day explanations for the causes of behavior 0 Why did I do that 0 Those in high esteem make Mastery oriented attributions 1 I crediting their successes to ability a characteristic they can improve through trying hard and can count on When facing new challenges They attribute failures to factors that can be changed or controlled such as insufficient effort or a very difficult task 2 Learned helplessness I attribute their failures not their success to ability When they succeed they conclude that external factors such as luck are responsible Unlike their masteryoriented counterparts they believe that ability is fixed and cannot be improved by trying hard 3 In uencesl adult communication and parental beliefs Cumulative Information Correlation Correlational Research the goal is to describe the strength and Direction of the relationship between two variables o Is there a relationship between the amount of con ict in a marriage and the marriage ending in divorce No it is the way the con ict is handled Con ict in every relationship 0 Result a correlation coefficient that ranges in value from 100 to 100 0 Strength the size of the correlation o 2 Weak o 4 Moderate o 9 Strong 0 Direction the sign of the correlation Positive as one variable increases the other variable increases 0 64 class attendance and grades 0 Negative as one variable increases the other variable decreases o 64 having a pet and blood pressure 0 In correlational research we can predict one variable from the other BUT 0 Correlation does NOT equal Causation 0 There may be a third variable which causes the correlation between two variables 1 Id Ego Superego 0 ID present at birth our basic instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain to express the self 0 Superegol in place by 36 years old Constraints placed upon the child by parents and the demands of society The rules 0 No hitting 0 Don t take other people s things 0 Sharing is caring o Bedtime Healthy food Parenting makes a huge difference Telling someone the rules and enforcing the rules are two different things 0 Children learn rules by them being enforced Grows over time o Egol begins to form in infancy the way in which we cope with our lnstinctual Drives ID and the demands made by parents and society Superego Tempertantrums l parents either give in or give up parents play superego Ego mediates the super ego and the ID Ego in the middle ID urges drive Superegol parents said no not going to give in 0 Set by parents caregivers teacher Ego decides what to do 0 Behavior what actually happens
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