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Comp Phys- Transport of Solutes and Water

by: De Vs

Comp Phys- Transport of Solutes and Water BIL360

Marketplace > University of Miami > BIL360 > Comp Phys Transport of Solutes and Water
De Vs
GPA 3.6
Comparative Physiology
Dr. DuBois

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About this Document

This study guide covers the material from Transport of Solutes and Water chapter for Dr. Dubois' comparative physiology class. The vocabulary terms are defined and the study questions are answered.
Comparative Physiology
Dr. DuBois
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by De Vs on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIL360 at University of Miami taught by Dr. DuBois in Spring2014. Since its upload, it has received 98 views.

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Date Created: 02/25/15
Chapter 5 Transport of Solutes and Water Solute dissolved materials that move across cell membranes and epithelia Solvent what solute dissolves in Transport movement of solutes water gases or other materials Equilibrium the state to which a system moves assiv tra s ortcan onl movet w rde uilibrium se otentialener of glectroc emircanradient H O and 03 a ways1 move passivefyp gy active trans ort CAN carry material opposite equilibrium not necessarily requires metabo ic en rgy sbmple Esol te diffusion transport from molecular agitation existing in all systems a ove a so ute zero Carry molecules from high to low concentrations gofncent ation rac ient hog much concentration changes per unit of distance ected y tem an permea ility 15 Ul girty molar concentration of a solution Number of moles of solute per liter of ulk s utio 39 s lution a a fro co tact with a membrane Neutral char e Char es gon39t a ject diffusion JUSt s ilm3ble diffusion occurs 9 g 390 ch I in e r m mbrane roteins that ermit assive trans ort of inor anic y drop ni ceions Bygd USleOl l p p p p 9 through a membrane They are selective at d ch nn I t eof ion channel an 0 en and lose b the r teins un er 0 gon ormatona ChgR e Volta e g ted unct on based on vo t e Fdifference gtrgtch gated 0 en In res 0 se to fo es t at ch n e the ten5ion o t mem ranF gaggglgpr rl1ation ated open depen ing 0 annel proteins are phosp ory ated Ligand when receptor sites bind to speci c ligands i Sion membra es ar se ectively permeable Since cert In solutes can pas more a meabgkiety39 the ease with which the solute can move through the membrane b ea5i y and ave more c anne s elec rical r dien ifferen e in volt or electrical otential btwn two sides of cell mem ranegA ects ElfPUSIOl l of chargedagglutes p electrochemic I e uigbrium hep a solute does not move in either direction bc the concentration e ect n e ectrica e ect are equa ut opp05ite acilit ted diffusion alwgcys in direction of electrochemical e uilibriumtherefore it is a or o ggsgive trans grt lu s carhrgovce faster Wit Hans o tertproteins 5f its ac itat olutes bi rever5i y Wit in mg Sites 0 t e tr nspor er For po ar organic i so utes carrier ed39ated tF ansgort active transgort and facilitate diffusion are tyges Feqw es in mg of t e iii ngporte swolute t a transporter pErotegn non cova The ian s are e o utes t at in t t e tr ns orter drotein Xhl its saturation netics s e oneal transporter are on ed wit 5 a transrportingnthe rate is maXImum an cant increase even i more so ute is availa e et ene gy ro A P active transport metabolic energy is used to drive it away from equilibrium Electro eutr I mechani that do not enerate char e imbalance H and K pumpednin ang out 11 raton 9 9 Emigrcr1 rleenic active transport mechanism that make charge imbalance across rimar active trans rt dra s ener immediatel from h drol sis of ATP The Banspo ter is an ATPasgnakcaVh gy y y y secondar ac ive trans rt ra 5 en r f om an electrochemi al radient fa solute Alemakes 31rant gwt l uses the transporter Usually o ganic soutes are actively transporte t 5 way cotransporter a transporter that moves 2 solutes in a linked fashion in one direction g leigttgr gransporter when a transporter moves 2 solutes in a linked fasion in opposite coui gra ve Jo ror eriiies depend on the 1number of dissolved entities per unit ofvolum rat t an e ica n ture ransport 0 so vent O mgtic ressure f eezmg 0int a isivoatjeurovepor pressure 0 a solution How many disso ve en ities per unit 0 o ume o osTnoticOpressure propert ofa solution that allows orig to redicthwher the solution Wil ain r lose wa e by 0 OSIS w en it ggts eXc ange Iywt anot er so utionKnowmg gargnttliccglpressure 0 two so utions lets u pr ict directi n o osm05is It is proportional to osmolrit urgts folros oticdpressure 1 0 molar osm solution behaves as if it has 1 avo a ros um er 0 In pgn ent dissolvel entities per liter 1 osm has same osmotic pre sure as 1M so ution o i eal none ectro ye Osmo is the a sive trans o t of water across a Imembrane toyvard e ili rium When two so utions E c a ge wat r y osm05is wat r a vgays moves drom L E osmotic pressure to HI HER c the water is more abun ant dissolve matter is less abundant osm tic grgdient the ratio of osmotic pressure on either sides of the mem ran istance lsosmotic two solutes have same osmotic pressure equilibrium Hyposmotic solution is hypo if it has lower osmotic pressure than the other Hyperosmotic solution is higher osmotic pressure Water moves from hyper to hypo A ua orin 5 ed 05 o i acros membr nes assiv Water channel r tein that only a ow HZODteProu Csefl membranes with a uaporieng have channel e iatea water tra sport Used or u ine sweat tears Eassiiiatei siaila ee iii C39angrg nb39909aia ite0n d 2 litters grideiagasngeuatiai b39 d comes ingw e it secretes lg ad 8 omes in w ii le HCO3 9 es out y39 Just like enzyme proteins channeltransporter proteins exist in multiple molecular forms 1 What is simple solute diffusion and what factors in uence the diffusion of solutes across a membrane 0 Transport from agitation to move molecules from high to low conc Each solute diffuses by its own concentration gradient 0 Concentration gradient and distance btwn regions affect diffusion Also uid currents decrease boundary layer which increases diffusion out of cell 2 Consider the following 02 Cl39 glucose In what ways may each of these molecules be transported across the membrane Why aren39t they all transported in the same way Lipids like steroids are hydrophobic and pass thru hydrophobic tails by dissolving and simple diffusion 02 is small and nonpolar and passes with simple diffusion Hydrophilic inorganic move thru ion channels 0 Polar organic solutes like glucose sugars and aa cant diffuse since they are hydrophilic and there are no channels for them They are transported by facilitated diffusion Cl ions go through channels depending on number of channels available 3 Describe the effects of concentration and electrical gradient on the transport of ions What is electrochemical equilibrium 0 If electrical effect is weaker than concentration effect then concentration is favored but moves slower than usual since electrical effect is still there 0 Usually cells are outside inside Equilibrium is when electrical and concentration effects are equal and oppos e 4 Understand the basic mechanism of the sodiumpotassium pump and its molecular quotplayersquot Na is higher outside and is pulled in by charge favoring diffusion It is far from equilibrium and always comes in by resting channels Cl is near equilibrium since concentration and electrical effects balance each other K is less far from equilibrium than Na concentration gt electrical effect diffuses out Concentration gradients can create electrical gradients making voltage differences membrane potential that can affect diffusion of other ions For an uncharged solute the electrochemical equli is same as the concentration equil Na K um o 3 Na out and 2 K in making char eimbaance Found in basolater m mbra es of all Ithelial cell The IS never an orpen channel all Ehe wa t roqrgh n It opens on orma Ional c an es Th oteIn hlas two In Inimtes r T and first ndrs to re u ator lte or con 0 matlona fqange an th n atalcytlc site where It IS y ro 92e bth e enzymatic actIVIty o t e protein e ectr genlc Understand the distinction between primary and secondary active transport Describe the basic mechanism of glucose transport across the intestinal epithelium NaKATPase transports Na out making an NA gradient in apical membrane Na is less concentrated inside the apical membrane than the outside and the inside is NEG hydrolysis of ATP by the pump adds energy to the system that is stored as potential energy in the gradient Na tends to diffuse inward and this movement can be used to pump glucose into the cell The cotransporter protein carries 1 glucose with every 2Na So as the Na diffuses in the glucose comes too The transporter can even move glucose against equilibrium Active transport converts energy from catabolism of food into energy to transport against gradients Solutes bind to transporter as a carrier mediated transport Primary when ATPase draws energy directly from ATP but secondary gets energy from solute electrochemical gradient and depend on cocountertransporters Secondary is for organic solutesions Understand the nature and signi cance of colligative properties of aqueous solutions Freezing point depression difference btwn freezing point of solution and water more lowers the freezing point Water vapor pressure depression difference btwn solutions water vapor pressure and water vapor pressure of the pure water All properties are proportional to each other Only dissolved materials affect colligative properties of solutions and suspended materials do not Nonelectrolyte solutions with equal concentrations are identical in properties BUT electrolytes dissociate in solution Describe the process of osmosis What is the importance of osmotic pressure Aquapo ns Osmosis is the passive transport of water across a membrane from low osmotic pressure high water to high pressure low water toward equilibrium until both sides are equal A solution exerts no hydrostatic pressure from osmotic pressure but can be sometimes generated 0 Some cells use simple diffusion for osmosis but others use aquaporins for mediated transport like in red blood cells kidney tubules at 550X higher rates


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