*****Midterm 1 Study Guide*****
*****Midterm 1 Study Guide***** 68531
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Minkoff on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 68531 at San Francisco State University taught by Mark Sigmon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 960 views. For similar materials see HIST 120 - History of the U.S. through Reconstruction in History at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/15
Term 1 Midterm Review What is going to be on the exam Day 1 Monday March 2nd 2015 o A list of 10 terms will be given and you will need to pick five of those terms and write a paragraph on what they are and why they are significant 0 Seven Multiple Choice questions taken from the textbook 0 Three questions from the book quotAfter the Fact Day 2 Wednesday March 4th 2015 0 Three to Five page essay on one of the following topics 0 Puritans o IndianWhite Relations 0 Indentured Servants 12815 Christopher Columbus Saint Christopher Genoa Italy Lasteen Sails Island of Hispanola Amerigo Vespucci Taino Indians Conuco Agriculture 0 Born in 1451 in Genoa Italy Wand of Hispanola in 1492 0 Not always a Saint Helps people get across a fast moving river m 0 Actually helped Jesus cross the river 0 Everybody wanted to get rich fast by way of trade 0 Christopher Columbus father was a wool trader 39 He was raised to learn about sailing Used 0 Triangular Sails that were better than the square sails o Moors of North Africa discovered these sails o Controlled trade in North Africa and China 0 Columbus was 25 when he went out on his first voyage but he was sunk by pirates o Ended up in Portugual and learned about sailing techniques 0 Looking at the stars 0 Learned about magnetic North with a needle floating in water 0 While in Portugual Columbus found a washed up boat with two dead people in it He thought they were from China and floated across the Atlantic Ocean 0 Columbus knoew that he could only go about 2400 miles 0 That s when the food runs out and everyone dies 0 That s also the distance Columbus thought was between the Canary Islands and Japan It was actually 10600 miles 0 The royaly of Spain frinally gabe in and gave Columbus three ships to travel with 0 Had to find a crew Went to friends family and even prisoners 0 Finally found a crew comprised of prisoners on death row 0 Set sail on September 9th 1492 0 October 1492 he ran into the 0 After his success he had no problems with getting ships or voluntary crew members 0 Unfortunately some crew became ill on his second voyage Brought this disease quotSwine Flu to the Island of Hispanola o Taino Indians caught it 0 250000 Natives started on the Island and 50 years later only 5000 remained 0 Columbus enslaved 500 of the Indians 0 Columbus went to his grave believing that he discovered the New World of China Of never did arrive there dId In fact quotopen a door to the new world 0 Amerigo Vespucci o Amerigo Vespucci talks with the natives of Hispanola and discovered the two continents near the Islands Present day North and South America o Amerigo s New World gt quotAmericaquot 0 Taino Indians 0 Columbus thought these Indians were quotbackward and childlike The people shared everything Wore very little clothes and wore facepaint 0 Very foreign to the Europeans Simplistic houses made from wood and leafed roofs when hurricanes came through the villages o Planted root vegetables 0 Able to feed everyone and could harvest food all year round Lacked a warlike mentality 0 But knew how to hunt 0 Very vulnerable to the Spanish military skills 13015 El Dorado Potosi Kahl Germany Cochineal Malaria Quinine Countess of Chinchona Scurvy Jacques Cartier Mariana39s Coca Wine Christopher Columbus 0 Treated others horribly Native Americans needed to gather gold for Columbus 0 Cut off hands if they didn39t meet quota o A typical wealthy European Treated people like quotsht Indian Givers to Europeans o Precious metals 0 Conquistadors seeked out El Dorado Spanish searched from the tip of South America to Kansas Francisco Pizzaro vs Atahualpa o Kidnapped Atahualpa and demanded a ransom of a room full of gold 0 Lost a game of chess and stabbed Atahualpa o Incas hid the treasure and still has not been found 0 Incas and Aztecs had gold Used for decoration Spanish looted a whole continent 0 15001650 200 tons of gold was looted from South America 0 Real vs fools jade Much of the precious stone was destroyed 0 Silver changed European society Coins which means money 16000 tons of silver went from South America to Europe Potosi a mountain of silver in Bolivia 0 Spanish brought 16000 slaves from Africa to dig but they all died 0 Spanish started using Indians as slaves 0 45 of the slaves died working 0 Spain would eventually go bankrupt by the time of the American Revolution Kahl Germany 0 A small and boring city for 2000 years 500 BCE 1700 CE 0 Swept up into Industrial revolution Stopped eating and producing bread 0 Grow potatoes 0 Mills close down Mills open back up and starts to produce textiles 0 Cotton 0 Dyes o Cochineal Bugs that eat cactus in Mexico 70000 needed to make one pound of dye Why important 0 The Aztecs figured out that the bug could produce this dye 0 Another contribution the Americas had on the Europeans 0 Shows native technology 2215 Cochineal Malaria Quinine Countess of Chinchona Scurvy Jacques Cartier Mariana s Coca Wine 2415 was a great killer throughout the world 0 Not the New World I Natives had a preventative and cure called quina quina 0 Now called decided to go on a world cruise 0 Stopped off in Peru and the Aztecs cured her I Brought back the Chinchona Bush to Europe is a Vitamin C deficiency 0 Really affected sailors o In 1535 is exploring the St Lawrence River I Starts to trade with the Indians but he notices one of them have scurvy I 100 of his men also had scurvy and 30 Of them even passed away because of it I Indians showed the men that you could cure scurvy by boiling pine cones and drinking the broth 0 All of his men were cured in 8 days It was not until 1850 that a British Doctor discovered that scurvy was a Vitamin C deficiency In Northern California and Oregon the Native Americans discovered Cascara Sagruda a shrub and also a mild laxative Willow Tree Bark to cure headaches Able to remove tumors Casts for broken bones Very much into bathing everyday Coca Leaf o Relieves pain and renews the body 0 Refining it is modern day cocaine 0 I Wine with cocaine I Also used in CocaCola Native Americans used moderation with all of these drugs 0 Sometimes only on special occasions 0 Many were holy and a blessing O American Paradox Sir Francis Drake Cimmarrons Sir Walter Raleigh s Lost Colony Roanoke Island Ralph Lane Wingina Jonathan White 0 Thomas Jefferson wrote about the life liberty and pursuit of happiness 0 Although he owned 204 men women and children as slaves o The Great 0 America was founded on Freedom and Independence AND SLAVERY I Complete polar opposites o Chattel slavery is when the Africans ere enslaved for generations 0 Children children s children etc 0 Americans quotneededquot workers gt particularly FREE workers 0 40 of the slaves in North America were in Virginia 0 Growing mostly Tobacco O O O 0 Was basically a pirate that wanted to become rich Decided to make an alliance with the I Darker skinned people that wanted to hit Spain In 1572 Drake and the Cimmarrons hit and raided the Manilla Galleon I This ship held 250000 pesos I Gave 50 to the Cimmarrons and 10 to the Queen of England Key Point Drake was an Englishman white that made an alliance with dark skinned people Lost Colony on Off the coat of Virginia and North Carolina Raleigh wanted a base where they were out of the way from Spanish attacks but close to where they could intercept Spanish ships if they wanted Englishmen were not able to sustain themselves with food on Roanoke Island I Natives helped through the winter and spring was convinced that was plotting against the Englishmen I He torchers some of the Wingina s men with hot coals I Wingina is tired of Lane s tactics so he decides to stop feeding the Englishmen halted all trading with them Ralph Lane kills Wigina In July 1587 brings 110 real settlers to Roanoke Island farmers men women and children I Too late in the season to plant crops I White decides to go to England to bring supplies to the Island 0 It takes him two and a half years to get back I When White finally arrived no humans were left on the Island 0 No bodies or signs of life 0 Nobody knows what happened to that colony 2615 Jamestown O O 0 Established on May 14 1607 Sort of the first successful English Colony Captain Christopher Newport travels up the James river hammering crops into the ground for three days I Saying the land was for King James While on the river the colony was attacked by Indians By 1609 in Winter 500 people are living in Jamestown and all are going hungry I They had three planting seasons to plant crops but they weren t successful Once spring comes only 50 people have survived the harsh winter In 1611 more men and supplies arrived from England Jamestown Fiasco Indentured Servitude quotSeasoningquot 0 Why did everything in the happen 0 Everybody got their own plot of land to plant on in 1610 but nobody did I People just decided to trade with the Indians 0 A lot of the people that were sent to Virginia were considered quotgentlemenquot I Weren t use to planting food or doing their own work 0 Virginia Company sent over people such as goldsilver makers silk dressers and caviar creators I Only 4 carpenters 2 bricklayers and one blacksmith Needed more of these types of specialists 0 People wanted to get rich quick 0 Why burn up the Indians food when they themselves are starving I The Englishmen wanted to feel superior so they decided to go into Indian villages and kill peopleburn their food 0 In 1617 they decided to plant tobacco from Cuba 0 Not the best tobacco but it would grow in Virginia 0 Literally everywhere was filled with tobacco because they could sell it back to England 0 Very labor intensive crop I Took basically all year to yield the final product of tobacco 0 Who would do the work 0 People who would be sent over from England for free and work off a debt 0 They would usually work off a debt for 7 10 years 0 After that they were able to buy their own land in Virginia 0 Indentured Servants in England had certain rights in the courts 0 But in Virginia they had no rights They had to go through the Colonial Council which were not as lenient as the courts in England 0 From 1620 1645 five out of six people died within a year of coming to Virginia 0 They all lacked I Immunity from all the dangerous diseases and infections I Typhoid from the water 0 After 1645 people began to live longer 0 Began moving away from the coast 0 Started planting apple orchards I Apple juice instead of bad water 0 Ships started dropping people off in the winter instead of the hot summer Slaves start becoming cost effective 0 Indentured servants can get their land after seven years O 2915 Bacon s Rebellion Governor William Berkeley Nathanial Bacon 0 After Indentured servants completed their contract they had three different options 0 Go out of the colony and clear a plot of your own land to plant crops I Particularly for tobacco 0 Work for a wealthy man and pay rent with tobacco 0 Hang around the colony doing absolutely nothing 0 In July of 1675 the Doegs stole some hogs from Thomas Matthews 0 Matthews recovered his pigs I Beat some Indians and even killed a few 0 Doegs reacted and killed a white indentured servant I Matthews asks for a parlay 0 Indians come out to talk but Matthews betrayed them and killed a total of 25 people 0 They killed the wrong village though 0 They killed the Susquehannocks Indians 0 Doegs Susquehannocks and Piscattaways declare war on the colonials o In September 1675 the Virginian s raise an army and surround a Susquehannock fort 0 Killed five chiefs o Indian s escape the fort and attack isolated plantations around the colonies o tells the people that they can t attack any Native American s without his permission 0 Berkeley s cousin rises up and wants to lead a fight against the Indians 0 Berkeley still denies the request 0 Bacon still goes back to Jamestown and rallies people to attack the Indians I But Bacon can t find any of the tribes 0 Finally Bacon finds a tribe the Occaneechees who had not been in war with the white colonials I The Occaneechees had prisoners of the Susquehannocks which they gave to the whites 0 Bacon kills the prisoners of war and then decided to kill the Occaneechees as well 0 Bacon returns to central Jamestown expecting Berkeley to praise him but charges him with treason instead 0 Bacon confessed to his charges and is let out of prison 0 Once out he gathers a 500 man army and is ready to attack the natives once again 0 Berkeley feels threatened so he lets them go attack what they want 0 September 19th 1676 the courthose is burnt down and Bacon declares himself governor 0 Word gets back to England that a revolution is happening in Virginia 0 The King sends troops to attack and control the colony 0 Bacon suddenly dies in October of 1676 of dysentery 0 Berkeley is put back into power by 1677 gt Race hatred is stronger that class hatred 21115 Parish Poor Puritans Ham s Punishment Protestant Reformation Tautology Henry VIII o 1691 Interracial Race is punished by banishment o If a master freed his slaves the master would have to pay for the slave s transportation out of the colony o This would basically mean if a master dies he must have enough money in his estate to send the free slaves away 0 1705 Major year for slave legislation 0 Masters are forbidden to whip an indentured servant 0 Legal to dismember your slave 0 Any property that a slave might acquire it would be given to the poor whites I The property would be sold and that money would be sold and that money would be given to charity or the poor whites 0 Children of a white mother and a black father are enslaved until the age of 30 I The white mother would also be enslaved for 5 years 0 Interracial marriage is now allowed I Both man and woman must go to prison for 6 months I They would be fined heavily I The minister who performed the marriage had to pay a fine 0 Indentured Servants who survived all 7 years would I Get 30 shillings I Get 10 bushels of corn I Get a gun I 50 acres of land 1723 It becomes illegal to free your slaves o This law Stays on the books up until the American Revolution Why did the Englishmen enslave people in Africa 0 gt Rationalizations gt Justifications I People from Africa are evil and God enslaves the evil I So the Africans should be enslaved I Wanted to use the Bible to justify slavery o Noah s Son Noah and the arc 0 Once Noah gets to dry land he plants a vineyard of grapes and makes wine I Noah gets quite drunk one night 0 Ham walks into the tent and makes fun of his father 0 The next morning Noah punishes Ham by enslaving him and all of his descendants to his older brother There was slavery within Africa as well 0 They might be slaves for a certain number of years but then were let go 0 Children of the slaves were free in Africa unlike in Virginia Intro to Massachusetts Puritans 0 quotPeople consumed by the fear that somebody somewhere is enjoying themselves 0 November 1 1517 Martin Luther protested against the Catholic Church o is the king at this time 0 Catholic Born and Raised 0 Married a princess Katheryn of Aragon I Trying to have a son but she keeps bearing daughters 0 1527 Henry wants the pope to dissolve his marriage so that he can marry Anne Boleyne I Pope says no 21315 Purnans Protestant Reformation Henry VIII Tudor SeparatistsPilgrims Thomas Morton City on a Hill Katherine of Aragon Mary Anne Boleyne Elizabeth Jane Seymour Edwar IV 1533 He declares himself full ruler over England and created his own religion Anglican o All so he can divorce his wife and marry Ann Boleyne Instantly becomes pregnant with a daughter named Later Henry is tired with Anne so he falls in love with and finally has a son 0 o Divorces Jane and is married two more times after that 1533 Edward IV passes away Mary takes over England and turns the nation back into a Catholic nation 0 Tries to have children multiple times but is never able to o Dies in 1558 I Elizabeth takes over 1558 1603 0 She was the best monarch in the history of England There were problems in the Anglican church so a group of people broke off and wanted to fix it o In 1603 Elizabeth dies and her second cousin James takes over the throne 0 James does not like the Puritans and he tries to antagonize him I Puritans decide they need power in Parliament and they become so powerful that they can basically tell the king what to do King James dies in 1625 and his son Charles takes over the throne 0 He didn t like the way parliament was being run I In 1628 Charles gets rid of Parliament Puritans decide to go and colonize in Massachusetts Around the time the Puritans were breaking away from the Anglican church the Separatists separated completely in 1620 In 1625 a wealthy group of gentlemen showed up to Plymouth with indentured servants and o Plowed land and built a big plantation for tobacco called Mount Wollaston I Plantation was not successful at all 0 All of the indentured servants are sold to Virginia Thomas Morton decides to lead a tiny rebellion and get a few indentured servants together so they can stay on the plantation 0 Gets together with the local Indians and show them their guns and ammso so they can hunt I Sells all of the mean and furs to England and he gets rich o Renames Mount Wollaston Marymount The Pilgrims were hiking one day and see the Indians at the plantation with guns that Thomas Morton traded them 0 They surround the plantation and send Morton back to England Why is Morton Important 0 He is one of the only ones who interacted properly with the Indians He did not believe he was better than them In 1630 the puritans start coming to Massachusetts in very large numbers nearly 1000 people with 11 ships 0 Expedition was led by John Withrop The Puritans were convinced that God was going to strikesmite England 0 So they decided to colonize the Massachusetts and build a I Just be a good example 21615 Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson Predestination Pequot War John Stone Narragansetts Fort Mystic Quakers aka Friends of God George Fox o wanted a separation between Church and State 0 Williams believed that is was not okay to take land from the Indians 0 The Puritans thought differently I He was kicked out of the colony and forced to live in Rhode Island 0 was a unique woman because she could actually read and write herself 0 Did not believe in I She thought that you could influence whether you go to heaven or hell 0 She was tried in the colony and was also banished to Rhode Island 0 In 1637 the broke out o The Pequot Indians lived just west of the puritans and were in the way of the puritan s expansion I Puritans though the Indians were just servants of Satan 0 was an English settler who was about to be banished from the colony I He went up river to see what was happening with the Pequot s o The Pequot s had bad experiences with white people so they killed him out of fear I Even though the colony was angry at Stone they used this opportunity to blackmail the Pequot Indians 0 The Puritans demanded that the men who murdered Stone wehre handed over pus 6000 feet Wampum currency plus a few Pequot children 0 The Pequot s obviously could not agree to these so the English declared war 0 It was a fairly matched war even though the English had guns and armor while the Indians had bows and spears o The Puritans went to the tribe and said quotyou are either with us or against II us I They agreed and led the Puritans to o This is where the Pequots were keeping their woman and children away from the war 0 Puritans surrounded this village snuck inside and started setting the village inside on fire I When the people inside the village tried to escape the fires the puritans gunned them all down on the outskirts of the fort I 600 people were killed 0 After the Pequot War the Puritans were able to expand and thrive o By the time the American Revolution comes around the standard of living in New England was similar to living in Scotland or London Intro to the Quakers o The religion was founded in the 1650 s over in England by a man named Always told the truth Would not swear oaths on a bible EVERYONE Of all sexes and raced had an inner light There is absolutely no reason for warviolence Refused to serve in the English Army Refused to pay taxes Believed that all people are created equal Always wore black 00000000 21815 Quakers William Penn Sr William Penn Jr Delaware Indians Pennsylvania James Logan The Walking Purchase Paxton Boys Conestoga Indians The king that had the most trouble with the Quaker religion was Charles II o Became the king of England in 1660 0 Had the backing of I Gave a lot of money to the king is born in 1644 o Enters Oxford at the age of sixteen I There were three types of people at Oxford 0 Cavaliers gt Wealthy o Puritans gt quotRan the show 0 Quakers gt Normal People 0 Jr became very studios quiet and shy while he attended school 0 The dean of Oxford was fired for encouraging the use of independent thinking I Jr stood up for the dean saying that is was wrong of him to be fired 0 He gets expelled from Oxford 0 Jr s parents sent him to Paris for 4 years to get some life experience and to grow up a little I While there he does become mature and even serves on the royal court 0 Jr comes home and his father sends him to law school because he is proud of what he has accomplished in the last four years In 1665 a great plague hits England 0 Quakers would go from home to home of the sick people and offer as much help as they could I The British blame the plague on the Quakers In 1666 a fire hits England and killsinjures a whole lot of people 0 Yet again the British blame the tragic event on the Quakers 0 William Penn Jr decides to become a Quaker because he believed it would help all of the bad in his life I His father disowns Jr which means he gets no inheritance and is kicked out of his own home I He decides to go live among the Quakers and they happily accepted him 0 While living among them Jr writes about the Quaker religion and is arrested for publishing without a permit For many years Jr keeps getting put in jail for writing and publishing his writings 0 He would always serve the sentences given to him except for one time I His father bailed him out and tells Jr that he is dying 0 Sr reinstates Jr back into the family estate Once William Penn Sr passes away the king of England owes the Penn family a large sum of money 0 Jr proposes that instead of giving him the money the king just grants him a large plot of land for the Quakers in North America Penn calls it 0 Everybody told Jr that it was impossible to live in peace with the Indians but he really wanted to try 0 Jr decides to learn the language I Wrote the Indians a letter telling them that he comes in peace and he actually wants to give them half of the land that the king gave to him 0 He also pays the Indians for the half of the land that the Quakers will colonize 0 He did live in peace successfully with the Delaware Indians for the following 30 years 0 Everything was in harmony until 1712 I Penn suffered a stroke and returned to England 0 He dies in 1718 o took over power in the colony o Penn s heirs did not handle the estate very well and become in debt to Logan I The heirs told Logan that they were not able to pay him back 0 In 1735 Logan decided to take back the other half of Pennsylvania 0 He made up a bogus deed stating that the Penn family could obtain as much land as people could walk within a day and a half 1737 I Logan hired scouts to create a path through the thick forest and hired professional walkers for this purchase 0 They ended up walking 79 miles to the west 0 The tribe were made up of only 20 people and came to Pennsylvania 70 years earlier 0 Made a treaty with William Penn Jr that stated they could keep 5 acres of land in Pennsylvania forever I In 1763 a group of white men called the decided to surround the Native American town and burn it to the ground 0 Only 6 of the Conestoga Indians were in the village at that time but all six of them were slaughtered by the Paxton Boys I The other 14 Conestoga Indians found refuge in a town called Lancaster 0 The Paxton Boys found them and massacred all of the rest of this tiny Indian tribe 22315 Salem Town vs Salem Village quotWoman Alone Theory HysteriaPanic Attacks War ofJenkins Ear Stono Rebellion South Carolina Security Act of 1739 Jemmy South Carolina Negro Act of 1740 Why were the Salem Witch Trial so important and what could be some of the causes of them 0 Some historians believe that the teenage girls were just faking the witch attacks 0 Others thought there is more to the story than just faking the attacks 0 Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum Salem Villae AA W D Salem Town A D AA ww A DW j 0 Salem Village wanted to break off from the larger town and create their own church 0 The people who wanted it this was where the conservative farmers A s above I The more liberal people thought breaking off from the original church was a bad idea and wanted to go back to the larger town W s and D s The 0 People who are accused of being witches are almost always women I Wealthy Independent women 0 Pretty much up until World War II women needed some kind of male figure in there lives to survive in society 0 Yet throughout history there have always been a small percentage of wemen who could make it on their own I Refused to accept their place in society o Emotions get piled up dramatically and the adrenalin hits I You can do amazing things when adrenalin hits such as throw people across the room and do witchlike acts 0 An English captain who was stopped by a Spanish ship I Jenkins claims the captain had no right to search his ship and asks for the Spanish captain s papers 0 The Spanish captain chops off Jenkin s ear 0 This gives England an excuse to declare war on Spain 0 South Carolina was a large colony with a very large amount of rice plantations o This means a lot of slaved lived in the colony I 50 of the population were slaves 0 Any white man was required by law to carry his gun with him wherever he went including to church on Sundays o This act was supposed to take effect in September of 1739 0 But before the act could take place the slaves decided to rebel against the slave owners 0 September 9th 1739 I Led by a man by the name of 0 Not much is known about this man but historians guessed a few things 0 From the Congo 0 Spoke multiple languages 0 Was able to read and write 0 Well educated 0 When the rebellion began the rebels raided a small store 0 Stole a small amount of guns and ammo 0 Made a banner with the word quotLibertyquot 0 After killing the storekeepers the rebels marched towards Florida and were able to recruit about 80 other slaves o Burnt a total of 7 plantations 0 Killed 2025 Whites 0 Word got back to South Carolina and about 100 white plantation owners got together to fight off the slaves 0 Only 25 whites were killed but in the end the slaves decided to surrender 0 South Carolina learned a few things from this rebellion o I One white man is allowed to look over a maximum of 10 slaves I Slaves could not learn to read and write I Slaves are not allowed to gather in a group I Slaves cannot grow their own food I Tutors were to be hired to teach the slaves how to be good Christians 22515 John Hughson Caesar Varick Prince Auboyneau Christopher Wilson Mary Burton Daniel Horsmanden o In the Great Slave Conspiracy of 1741 thirty four people were sentenced to death 0 Between 17401741 it was rough to be in the colony of New York 0 Harsh winters 0 Bad economy 0 High Unemployment o A great deal of tension between the whites and slaves 0 Times may have been tough but was still in good standings at that time 0 He owned a pub in New York City I Hughson was somebody that would serve everybody 0 Poor Whites Wealthy Whites o Freed Black Slaves 0 Even enslaved blacks if they had the money to buy a drink 0 The police though Hughson might be a quotfencequot I People who sell stolen goods 0 Usually the goods would be stolen by slaves and the fences would share the profit with the slaves 0 Problems had risen in February of 1741 with 0 Wilson overheard some indentured servants who belonged to the quotHoggquot family I The Hoggs had some Spanish silver coins hidden in a drawer 0 Wilson went to the family asking about these coins and Mrs Hogg told him about them and even showed him the drawer o The coins went missing later that week 0 Historians aren t sure what happened from there exactly but somehow the coins ended up in John Hughson s pub 0 Of course Christopher Wilson was the last to see the coins so Mrs Hogg went to the police claiming he must have been the one to steal them 0 Wilson defended himself saying that he had nothing to do with the robbery I But he did say he saw two black slaves with the coins in John Hughson s pub 0 John Hughson also said that he saw the two men with the coins o On March 3rd 1741 became involved in the whole mysterious situation 0 Burton was a sixteenyearold indentured servant owned by John Hughson 0 One day she goes to a candle shop gossiping about how she knew about the silver coins in the pub I The candle shop owner alerts the police and Burton is brought in for questioning 0 At first Burton would not talk to the police about the coins but then she came clean about how she thought she saw Caesar and Prince conspiring together 0 After this Caesar and Prince are put on trial with a judge by the name of o The two men were tried unfairly because of the judge I No lawyers were given to them I Horsmanden influenced the jury and witnesses 0 March 18th 1741 a series of fires break out throughout the colony of New York 0 Including the governor s mansion o A total of thirteen fires break out within the time span of six weeks I Some claimed that slaves were the ones behind the fires In April of 1741 Mary Burton testifies about the coins but during the trial she also mentions knowing something about the mysterious fires 0 Claims 3040 negros were behind the fires I Even Mr and Mrs Hughson were allegedly part of the conspiracy I Thejury believes Burton On May 2nd 1741 Caesar and Prince were found guilty of robbery and sentenced to death 0 Burnt at the stake I Before being killed Caesar confessed to the robbery and even claimed that John Hughson was in fact part of the robbery o The quotring leader John Hughson and his wife were sentenced to death but neither one of them ever confessed anything about the conspiracy Once this was all over 0 13 African American slaves were burnt at the stake o 17 African American slaves were hung o 4 whites were hung I All of these people were convicted by the state
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