Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide ATM S 111 - Professor Frierson
Popular in Global Warming
ATM S 111 - Professor Frierson
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in General Science
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucas Reller on Wednesday February 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ATM S 111 - Professor Frierson at University of Washington taught by Frierson in Spring2014. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Global Warming in General Science at University of Washington.
Reviews for Final Exam Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/25/15
Global Warming Final Outline 0 Energy from the Sun is quotelectromagnetic radiation AKA radiation 0 Shortwave radiation I Visible light I Near infrared radiation I Small amount of UV radiation 0 Reaches Earth at 1366 Watts per sq meter I Avg radiation is only 342 Wsq meters I Half the planet is dark at all times I High latitudes get less direct radiation 0 Absorption rate I 20 absorbed by atmosphere I 50 absorbed at the surface I 30 reflected back to space 0 20 from clouds o 5 from the surface 0 5 from atmosphere dustair pollution I Total absorbed solar radiation is 70 of the incoming solar radiation 0 Goes through space at the speed of light The Earth s tilt causes seasons 0 Higher tilt more seasonality colder winters warmer summers 0 Higher tilt decrease in likelihood that an ice age will occur Watt unit of power or energy per unit time Radiation is absorbed or reflected once it gets to Earth 0 Shorter wavelengths are more energetic o Classified in terms of its wavelength 0 Types of electromagnetic radiation mostshortest to leastlongest powerful I Gamma rays I Xrays I Ultraviolet UV radiation I Visible light I Infrared radiation I Microwaves I Radio waves Albedo fraction of incident light that s reflected away 0 White high albedo low absorption I Clouds ice snow desert o Blacklow albedo high absorption I Ocean forests Earth s losegain of energy 0 Infrared radiation AKA long wave radiation 0 High tempmore radiationmore energetic radiation shorter wavelengths 0 Sun emits shortwave radiation 0 Earth gains heat from shortwave and loses heat from long wave 0 Energy balance energy inenergy out EinEout Greenhouse effect o Greenhouses gases blockabsorb long wave radiation from escaping o Atmospheric composition 0 78 Nitrogen 21 Oxygen 09 Argon Molecules with 1 or 2 of the same atoms aren t greenhouse gases Natural greenhouse effect I VVatervapor6096 I Carbon dioxide 26 I All others 14 o Unnatural greenhouse effect I Carbon dioxide 63 I Methane 18 I CFCs HFCs 12 I Nitrous oxide 6 o Polyatomic molecules are greenhouse gases I Water vapor 04 AKA humidity 0 Not controlled by humans 0 Feedbacknotfon ng I Carbon dioxide 0 Primary contributor 60 to anthropogenic human caused greenhouse effect 0 Increases due to o Fosstuelbun ng809Q I Coal and oil 80 I Natural Gas 15 I Cement production 5 o Deforestation 20 0 Extremely long lived 0 Carbon emission sources 0 O O 0 Global Carbon Emissions US Carbon Emissions OtrZTgtiudel Residential Commercial emissions 6 I 74 14 397 Agricultu e 14Ir r J 1 0 Natural sources marsheswetlands 0 Increase anthropogenically due to 0 Fossil fuel burning Farm animals Landfills Coal mining Gas leakage 0 Rice farming I Methane is stronger than Carbon dioxide but short lived o Comes from o Livestock I Nitrous Oxide laughing gas 0 Comes from 0 Agriculture 0 Chemical industry 0 Deforestation I Ozone ozone layer has nothing to do with global warming 0 Good ozone ozone layer 0 Bad ozone air pollutiongreenhouse gases I CFC chlorofluorocarbons are ozone depleting chemicals 0 Strong greenhouse gases 0 Global warming potential how much greenhouse effect emissions of a given gas causes over a fixed amount of time usually 100 years 0 Climate forcings 0 Examples Aerosols I Volcanoes I Air pollution I Surface albedo not ice coverage I Sunspots o Aerosols Indirect Effect I Aerosols causing cloud droplets to be smaller making precipitation more inefficient and thus making clouds last longer are an example of aerosol indirect effect 0 Positive forcing increases temperature I C02 forcing has the greatest positive radiative forcing on the Earth system 0 Negative forcing decreases temperature 0 Climate feedbacks 0 Positive feedback amplifies forcing I Lots of positive feedback means sensitive climate 0 Negative feedback constricts forcing I Clouds are the most uncertain feedback 0 Global warming theory 0 ATA A F I A common symbol indicating change in a quantity I AT change in temperature in degrees C I AF radiative forcing in Wm sq I A climate sensitivity 0 Water vapor feedback positive because warmer air can hold more moisture O O O O O O Icealbedo feedback positive Cloud feedbacks uncertain than water vapor or ice feedbacks I Have albedo effect and greenhouse effect 0 Who s responsible O O 0 Carbon dioxide emission affect everyone Carbon blanket increases about one foot per decade Carbon dioxide emissions I 50 goes into atmosphere I 25 goes into the ocean I 30 goes into land ecosystems I USA has 4 times per capita the emissions than anybody else I China has 21 of total I USA has 19 of total ranked 11th per capita 0 Extreme heat 0 Temperature change 0 O 0000 O I 5 degrees in the Celsius scale 9 degrees in the Fahrenheit scale Evaporation effective way to stay cool Humidity makes it feel a lot hotter I Humiditymoisturewatervapor I Higher humiditymore evaporation Heat index takes into account how humidity makes it feel hotter Nighttime heat waves are stronger than daytime heat waves Humidity makes waves even stronger Most mortality in heat waves comes from nighttime temperatures which are strongly affected by the greenhouse effect Dry climates have high varying temperatures Urban heat island effect buildings act like clouds to return long wave back towards surface North Atlantic Oscillation explains the natural climate variability Global warming causes overall average temperature to rise not seasonal temperature changes Global warming also causes moisture content humidity as a whole to rise 0 Droughts and floods O O 0 Extreme precipitation I More rain on windward side of mountains Rain I Water vapor rising motion rain I Condensation water vapor turning to liquid water happens when moist air cools I Rainiest spots on global scale are near the equator Hadley Circulation air rises above the warmest ocean surface hot air rises I The circulation takes water vapor away from deserts and brings it into the tropical rainy regions Convergence zones where winds come together Intertropical convergence zone ITCZ tropical band Climate projections I Wet gets wetter tropical regions monsoons storm tracks high latitudes I Dry regions expand subtropical regions midlatitudes I As atmosphere warms water vapor concentrations increase I Global increase in heavy rain days 0 Ice and Snow Forests prevent flooding o Drought monthsyears with below normal water supply usually from below average precipitation o A rural area in a desert is most likely to have the largest temperature range 0 Sea ice frozen ocean water Grows over winter melts over summer Pressure ridges when sea ice hits other sea ice Sea ice is getting younger and thinner nothing older than 2 years old More snowfall in winter in the future but shorterlived sea ice leads to less snow depth on ice Sea ice melting doesn t lead to sea level rise 0 Land ice ice sheets Cause sea level rise Greenland 7 meters sea level equivalent Antarctica 61 meters sea level equivalent Glacier calving breaking of ice to form icebergs o Erosion 0 Ocean Effects 0 Icebergs 0 Rise in sea level Greenland contributes less than 10 of sea level rise The melting of land ice decreases the salinity of sea water around it 0 Mountain glacier Contributing more to sea level rise than Greenland and Antarctica combined 0 Permafrost Ground that s frozen year round quotActive layer melts in summer and returns in winter Lose of permafrost effects Damage to roads and buildings Methane is liberated Vegetation increases usually drunkenly Increase in sea level rise Increases when sea ice decreases o Methane Hydrates Water ice cages enclosing methane Release would possible cause a positive feedback 0 Acidification Higher atmospheric C02 means more C02 dissolves in seawater Carbon dissolves to create carbonic acid which increase salinity Acidification impairs shell formation 0 Coral bleaching Coral bleaching is caused by the increase of temperature Global warming will make it worse Values of coral reefs Provide medicine 0 Provide billions of dollars in tourism 0 Sea level changes I Thermal expansion water expands when warmed o Contributes 60 of sea level rise I Melting of 0 Mountain glaciers 0 Contribute 25 of sea level rise 0 Ice sheets 0 Antarctica Greenland contribute 15 of sea level rise 0 Permafrost slight change 0 Snow cover slight change 0 Possible ocean changes due to temperature rise I Increase in diseased fish I Poleward movement of some species 0 Tuna marlin cod I Increase in mortality of winter flounder eggs and larvae I Marine mammals birds seals sea lions and Walruses will have less to eat I Nesting of sea turtles 0 Ocean circulation I The Gulf Stream 0 Transports heat 0 Driven by winds 0 Not subject to stopping I Thermohaline circulation 0 Driven by heavy water sinking 0 Moves heat North Atlantic Drift 0 Part of thermohaline circulation 0 Driven by sinking of dense water near Greenland o Keeps Europe warmer than suggested latitude area Will slow due to global warming 0 Decrease in salinity of water reduces thermohaline circulation I El Nino Southern Oscillation 0 Causes warming of tropical Pacific 0 Causes rain shifts along warmer waters Ex Peru 0 Impacts o Drought in India 0 Flooding in South America The rising motion will shift towards the mideastern Pacific Ocean The atmosphere over the mideastern Pacific Ocean will be heated by condensation o Uncertain how global warming will impact this I La Nina opposite effects of El Nino o Winds keep warm water to the west during La Nina 0 Hurricanes 0 Structure I Eye center of hurricane 00000 O 0 Low pressure 0 Clear area I Eyewall wall surrounding center of hurricane 0 Highest winds and rain Spiral rain bands hurricane wind surges Hurricanes occur over the warmest waters Condensation is the energy source Evaporation provides water vapor which provides fuel Requirements I Sea surface temperature must be above 260 C 790 F I Must be at least 5 degrees off the equator o Coriolis force is required 0 Coriolis force why storms rotate opposite in N and S Hemispheres I Not much wind shear 0 Wind shear when winds change height I Can t be too cold below the surface either Global warming means fewer storms but more intense storms 0 Agriculture 0 O O 95 of malnourished people live in tropicssubtropics Late onset of monsoon season delays crop planting I Mainly due to El Nino Monsoons I Rainfall will increase during monsoon season I Monsoons will end abruptly I Dry season will be drier Adaptations I Methods for water storage and water management I Crop breeding for drought tolerance I Crop diversification I Early warning systems Increase in temperature will cause I Decrease in grain filling I Decrease in spikelet fertility not as many seeds formed I Increased water stress I Increased respiration I Reduced nutritional content I Reduced yield of corn and soybeans in the tropicssubtropics 30 of GHG emissions come from agriculture in one way or another 40 of Earth s land is used for agriculture Global use of crops I 60 to feed people I 35 to feed livestock I 5 for biofuels How to feed the world in the future I Improve efficiency in developing countries I Shifts in diet away from meat I Less food waste I Reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions I Adaptation to climate change 0 Deforestation 0 Potential Effects I Less moisture availability at the surface meaning local precipitation now isn t enhanced as easily I Carbon emission increase 0 Measurements O O O O 0 Carbon dioxide measurement curves I Seasonal variability in measuring carbon dioxide due to plants Disadvantages of temperature measurements I Incomplete spatial sampling I Short and quotgappyquot records I Instrument changes I Changes in station site sometimes undocumented I Changes in exposure of station site I Changes in observing protocol I Transcription errors I Invalid data faulty instruments unreliable observers I quotUrban heat island effect Advantages of temperature measurements I Redundancy I Many different stations I Three different data sets land ocean upper air I Multiple analysis methods by different groups Detection determine the change is above the natural variability Attribution determine the cause of the change I Human anthropogenic I Volcanoes 0 Local changes Pacific North West 0 O O 0 Lots of variability in temperature due to Pacific Decadal Oscillation Temperature will increase Precipitation is uncertain because North West is on the border Snowpack changes I Warmer temperature leads to more snow falls as rain and earlier melt I Earlier snow melt leads to water stress in the summer I Less water in summer leads to less power generation Sealevelnse I Olympic Peninsula is unaffected due to rising caused by plate tectonics I Puget Sound will have slight sinking so sea level rise will affect it I Increased storm surges and flooding I Coastal erosion Salmon I PDO affects location of salmon 0 Salmon are located in Alaska during warm phase of PDQ o Ecosystem changes 0 NonClimate effects on ecosystems more influence than climate change effects I Invasive species I Natural disturbances ex wildfires I Pests I Diseases I Pollution I Agriculture intensification I Habitat fragmentation 0 Climate effects example I Rising temperatures shifting the vegetation types in a given area causing dairy cows which graze there to produce different flavored cheese 0 Many species move upward and poleward 0 American Pika I Lives in mountains in western USCanada I Can t live in temperature over 78 F 0 Time changes I Some seasonal biological activity is happening 515 days earlier 0 Disrupted synchrony when things used to happen at the same time but are shifting I Examples 0 Caterpillars hatch later which cause birds to be hungrier o Plantains are dying off and caterpillarsbutterflies can use them as food 0 Warming effects I Higher latitudes receives largest change but well adjusted to temperature changes I Tropics receives less change but is less adapted to temperature swings o Amphibians are particularly vulnerable o Paleoclimate o quotFaint Young Sun Paradox the Sun was initially around 75 as strong as it is now 0 Volcanoes I On short timescales cause cooling I Over very long timescales can add significant C02 to the atmosphere 0 Proxy data estimates of temperature and precipitation based on indirect data I Tree rings I Pollen I Corals I Fossils I ce core data air bubbles in ice 0 Isotopes in ocean sediments records glacial ice volume 0 Isotopes in icecores indicates local temperature I Rock shapessediment I Carbon dating 0 Snowball Earth occurred several times in the last billion years when icealbedo feedback spiraled out of control I Cause solar radiation due to changes in Earth s orbit around the Sun 0 Carbon dioxide was a positive feedback I Extremely high greenhouse gas concentrations would be required to melt snowball Earth effect I Once the ice gets down to a certain latitude a runaway icealbedo feedback cools the planet way down I Once icecovered solar radiation is reflected and it takes something dramatic to thaw the ice I Timing of ice ages has been related to cold northern hemisphere summers Immediately after Snowball Earth thaws carbon dioxide concentrations would have been tremendously high I Likely the hottest period in Earth s history right after the coldest Carbon dioxide removal over long periods of time I Land masses are key in a process called chemical weathering 0 Chemical weathering removal of atmospheric C02 by reaction with rocks I Rainsnow falls on silicate rocks it reacts and takes C02 out of the atmosphere I Chemical weathering is a negative feedback Young Dryas I Probably caused by ice sheet breakup and flooding in the northern North Atlantic I The glacial meltwater poured into the North Atlantic causing sinking waters to become less salty which cause the thermohaline circulation to shutdown I Reducing heat transport into northern North Atlantic 0 Climate Models 0 O 0 Weather models and climate models use similar mathematical equations Climate models are more accurate than daily forecast models Chaos Theory Butterfly Effect when small changes make a big and unpredictable difference Components of global warming models I Use fluid motion equations 0 Mass is neither created nor destroyed Heatingcooling changes temperature Forces change momentum 0 Heat sources shortlong wave radiation and condensation Parameterization approximation I Parameterize small scale models 0 Clouds large uncertainty 0 Moist convection 0 Plant processing moisture 0 Scientific Community 0 0 Peer review anonymous scientists review published results PCC summarizes the current climate research every 57 years 0 Think tanks I Type A o Builds knowledge formulates policy scenarios and evaluates their implications based on scientific knowledge 0 Examples 0 Universities 0 National Academy of Sciences 0 Exist to help entities achieve a desired social financial or political outcome based on a perceived threat or opportunity 0 May use disinformation andor scare tactics to achieve their ends 0 Examples Both liberal and conservative examples of this Heartland Institute Global Climate Coalition Competitive Enterprise Institute Cato Institute George C Marshall Institute etc o Often funded by oil amp coal companies 0 Tactics 0 Talk up uncertainty Talk about climate change sources not humancaused natural Models are uncertain Projected changes are insignificant Climate scientists just want more money Too expensive to solve Other problems are more important 00000 000000 Political Community 0 Adaptation prevent harm deal with symptoms I Alter human structures and practices in order to reduce the harmful effects of climate change I Examples 0 Improved health care policies for heatstress 0 Switch to heatresistant crops 0 Build barriers to deal with sealevel rise Mitigation prevent climate change deal with cause I Reduce emissions of GHGs in order to reduce the amount of climate change that takes place I Examples 0 Energy conservation 0 Carbonfree energy wind solar nuclear 0 Carbon sequestration Marketbased systems I Capandtrade system 0 Polluting permits I Grandfathering permits are distributed for free based on past emissions so past polluters benefit I Carbon tax Failed Bills I WaxmanMarkey cap amp trade passed the House I KerryLieberman cap amp trade never voted on in Senate I CantwellCollins cap amp dividend never voted on in Senate Current Programs I Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RGGI 0 Goal reduce emissions by 10 by 2018 0 States sell carbon allowances during quarterly auctions o Proceeds invested in energy efficiency projects and renewable energy I Mayors Climate Protection Agreement 0 Over 1000 mayors have signed 0 Started in Seattle I California Cap and Trade I EPA currently regulates emission in the US 0 IPAT equation for analyzing carbon emissions I IPxAxT I Impacts population x affluence x technology I C02 emission rate population x per capita income x emissions per unit 0 Earth Summit Rio I Behavior to reduce emissions is encouraged but not binding I Signed by all 160 countries including US 0 Kyoto Protocol I Mandatory to reduce emissions I Decrease emissions by 5 on average I Not signed by US 0 Copenhagen Accord I Statement of intent to reduce emissions I Not binding I Negotiated by US China Brazil India and South Africa 0 Carbon Footprint 0 Reducing individual emissions I Compact fluorescent or LED light bulbs I Inflating tires to the suggested pressure I Buying less I Eating locally I Eating less beef I Insulation in home I Energy efficient appliances I Fuel efficient vehiclesdrive lessuse public transportation 0 Alternative energy 0 Wind power I Advantages o Produces no greenhouse gases after windmill is constructed 0 Decentralized production 0 Moderately priced in the long term compared to fossil fuel 0 Can use land underneath I Disadvantages o Intermittency 0 Not available everywhere 0 Obstructs viewsnoise paranoia 0 Hazard to birds probably not if placed away from migration zones 0 Requires large area 0 Solar power I Types 0 Passive solar 0 Doesn t use mechanical or electrical equipment 0 Uses sunlight to reduce heatinglightingventilation costs 0 Ex Southfacing windows in Northern Hemisphere for more winter suanht 0 Solar thermal collection 0 Produces steam for electricity or hot waterwarm air for homes industry 0 Solar photovoltaic o Generates electricity directly from sunlight I Advantages o Produces no greenhouse gases after panel is installed 0 Unlimited 0 Long lasting low maintenance cost 0 Peak production insync with demand we don t need as much power at night 0 Decentralized production I Disadvantages o Expensive now 0 Somewhat limited by location deserts are gold mines for solar energy but storingtransporting the power is expensiveinefficient 0 Geothermal power I Taps into hot rocks under the surface of the Earth I Advantages o Reliable supply Relatively simple facilities 0 Inexpensive Small land footprint compared to wind and solar I Disadvantages o Regionally limited 0 Releases a little C02 and other more harmful gases from ground 0 Enhanced geothermal systems have caused seismic activity during construction 0 Nuclear power I 80 of France s electricity I Advantages o Produces no greenhouse gases 0 Available 24 hrsday o Plenty of Uranium in US I Disadvantages o Expensive to build facilities 0 Storage of extremely hazardous radioactive wastes o Requires lots of water 0 Relationship to weapons concerns about proliferation 0 Carbon capture and storage CCS I Pump carbon into the ground 0 Transportation I Hybrid electric vehicles 0 Internal combustion Toyota Prius 0 Electric Chevy Volt I Ethanol o Produced from carbohydrates and yeast I Biodiesel Formed by transesterfication Oil source soybean oil canola oil restaurant grease I Advantages Reduces NET C02 emissions C02 is emitted but it came from plants which recently took that C02 from the air Better for human health reduced carbon monoxide and particulate emissions Less unburned hydrocarbon emissions Reduced acid rain potential no sulfate emissions Energy independence I Disadvantages May be worse for human health in some ways via NOX emissions a key bad ozone creator Expensive Less land for food production people compete with machines for food Purehigh ethanol is not approved for most cars okay as an additive 0 Carbon emission offenders 0 Coal I Problems with coal and the coal industry 0 Tar Sands Carbon emissions Coal mining disasters Black lung disease in miners Respiratory concerns with air quality Haze Acid rain from the sulfate emissions Biggest mercury source into the air Mountaintop removalaesthetic concerns Water usage in mines Water quality near mining areas Impacts on forestswildlifefish I Mixtures of sand water amp a dense form of petroleum 0 Oil Shale I Carbonate rock rich in quotkerogenquot which is usually refined to convert to fuel I Problems with oil vary hugely with region Carbon emissions Oil spills Benzene amp other hydrocarbons in crude amp gasoline are highly carcinogenic Contamination of runoffsoils Carbon monoxide pollution Uncombusted fuel air quality issues Bad ozone pollution from NOx Smogparticulate matter pollution Respiratory problems asthma irritation etc associated with the above 4 In the US mostly comes from foreign sources 0 Connection to totalitarian regimes 0 Could hit quotpeak oil soon which would greatly increase prices
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'