Social Psychology and Human Development
Social Psychology and Human Development Psych 101 Voorhies - Intro to Psychology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Josef Mechure on Thursday February 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 101 Voorhies - Intro to Psychology at University of Washington taught by Dr. Voorhies in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 198 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/26/15
Social Psychology After studying Chapter 12 you should be able to 1 Distinguish among social behavior social In uence and social cognition Social behavior how people interact with one another and how social behavior solves a problem that every living creature faces 0 Social in uence how people Change one another the three basic motivations that make people susceptible to in uence 0 Social cognition how people understand one another how people use information about another person s affiliations and actions to make judgments including mistakes 2 Discuss how being social is evolutionarily advantageous and compare our level of sociality with that of other species 0 Only four species are considered as ultrasocial forming societies in which large numbers of individuals divide labor and cooperate for mutual bene t hymenoptera termites naked mole rats and humans 3 De ne aggression illustrate the frustrationaggression hypothesis with an example and discuss some biological and cultural factors that contribute to levels of aggression Aggression behavior whose purpose is to harm another Frustrationaggression hypothesis a principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted o A chimp wants a banana goal a pelican takes it frustration so the Chimp threatens the pelican with its st aggression Biological factors that contribute to aggression 0 Gender crimes perpetrated by young men higher testosterone than women 0 Testosterone promote aggression by making people feel concerned with their status 4 Discuss some of the bene ts and pitfalls of cooperation focusing on issues of risk and trust and describe ways in which cooperation has been scienti cally studied Cooperation behavior by two or more individuals that lead to mutual bene t 0 Risk and Trust 0 The prisoner dilemma you and a friend are arrested for a crime you are interrogated separately both confess and get 10 yrs in prison neither confess and get 1 yr but if one confesses and the other doesn t then the one that doesn t confess gets 30 yrs while the other goes free You can trust that you and your friend have an equal understanding and will get a light sentence Or you will get double crossed by your friend and get a long sentence Contrast prejudice and discrimination and discuss how these processes affect cooperation and decision making Prejudice A positive or negative evaluation of another person based on that person s group membership Discrimination Positive or negative behavior toward another person based on that person s group membership Explain why the often dreadful behavior of groups would rarely be shown by individual members acting alone using the concepts of deindividuation and diffusion of responsibility 0 Deindividuation A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values Diffusion of Responsibility The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way De ne altruism and distinguish it from kin selection and reciprocal altruism Altruism Behavior that bene ts another without bene ting oneself Kin selection The process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate their relatives Reciprocal altruism Behavior that bene ts another with the expectation that those bene ts will be returned in the future Explain how women and men differ in their criteria for the selection of a mate and describe what those differences are 0 Men produce billions of sperm men as playboys lower risk 0 Women small number of eggs women as sluts higher risk 0 But both genders can be more selective and the risks can change based on the social factors of relationships long and short Identify the situational physical and psychological factors that contribute to attraction Situational Physical proximity of the people involved being more motivated when knowing that there will be interaction 0 Physical Appearance in uences attraction beautiful people have more friends more opportunities for social interaction Psychological Physical attraction draws attention interaction allows people to notice a person s inner qualities and determines their sustained interest in this person 10Provide one reason why humans have evolved to form longlasting romantic relationships distinguish between passionate love and companionate love and explain the role of social exchange in maintaining or ending relationships Evolved to form longlasting romantic relationships reproduction based on the notion that infants are essentially helpless when born so humans form committed longterm relationships Passionate love An experience involving feelings of euphoria intimacy and intense sexual attraction Companionate love An experience involving affection trust and concern for a partner s wellbeing Social Exchange The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to bene ts 1 1 Explain the hedonic motive of social In uence Hedonic motive pleasure seeking motive presence of rewards threats of punishments Social in uence the ability to control another person s behavior 12Illustrate the approval motive of social in uence by describing normative in uence and noting how the norm of reciprocityis involved in the doorintheface technique 0 Approval motive other people stand between us and starvation predation loneliness and all the other ideas that make getting shipwrecked a bad idea as we depend on others for safety sustenance and solidarity Normative in uence A phenomenon that occurs when another person s behavior provides information about what is appropriate 0 Norm of Reciprocity The unwritten rule that people should bene t those who have bene ted them Doorin theface technique A strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to in uence behavior 13Compare conformity and obedience and describe a classic experiment in each area Conformity The tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it 0 Participants sat in a room with seven other people who appeared to be ordinary participants but who were actually actors an experimenter explained that the participants would be shown cards with three printed lines and that their job was to say which of the three lines matched a quotstandard line that was printed on another card 0 Obedience The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do 0 Participants listened to directions from an experimenter about administrating questions to an individual that was really an actor when the actor got an answer wrong the participant was meant to shock the actor but not knowing that the shocks aren t real the participant only administering the shocks because they are told by the experimenter that would quottake the fall for any consequences 14Illustrate the accuracy motive of social in uence by describing the role of informational influence in shaping our attitudes and beliefs 0 Accuracy motive Right is better than wrong Informational in uence A phenomenon that occurs when a person s behavior provides information about what is good or right Attitudes An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event Beliefs An enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event 15Compare systematic persuasion and heuristic persuasion and give an example of each 0 Systematic Persuasion The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason 0 Students motivated to analyze evidence that is presented Heuristic Persuasion The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion 0 Students not motivated to analyze evidence that is unappeahng 16Describe the desire for consistency most people feel noting how the footintlIedoor technique and cognitive dissonance each stem from this desire Footinthedoor technique A technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request 0 Cognitive dissonance An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions attitudes or beliefs 17Describe four ways in which stereotypes while useful sometimes produce harmful consequences Stereotypes The process by which we draw inferences about others based on knowledge of the categories to which they belong 18Explain the attribution process distinguish between situational attributions and dispositional attributions and explain the correspondence bias and the actorobserver effect Attribution process An inference about the cause of a person s behavior Situational Attributions when we decide that a person s behavior was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation in which it happened Dispositional attributions when we decide that a person s behavior was caused by his or her relatively enduring tendency to think feel or act in a particular way 0 Correspondence bias The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person s behavior was caused by the situation Actorobserver effect The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behaviors of others Human Development After studying chapter 10 you should be able to 1 Offer a de nition of developmental psychology that encompasses the notions of continuity and change 0 Developmental psychology the study of continuity and change across the life span 2 Outline the stages of development that take place prenatally including the zygote germinal stage embryonic stage and fetal stage Zygote fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg Germinal stage 2week period that begins at conception Embryonic stage a period that lasts from the second week until about the eighth week 0 Fetal stage a period that lasts from the ninth week until birth 3 Discuss how teratogens in particular alcohol can affect a developing fetus Teratogens Agents that damage the process of development such as drugs and viruses 0 Fetal alcohol syndrome a developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy distinctive facial features brain abnormalities and cognitive de cits 4 Discuss the perceptual and motor development that occurs in infancy describe how habituation often is used in assessing visual perception list several innate motor re exes and explain the ceplialocaudal and proximodistal rules of motor development Infancy the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months Habituation the tendency for organisms to respond less intensely to a stimulus as the frequency of exposure to that stimulus increases and babies habituate just like the rest of us do Re exes Speci c patterns of motor responses that are triggered by speci c patterns of sensory stimulation Cephalocaudal rule The quottoptobottom rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet Proximodistal rules The quotinsidetooutside rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery 5 Outline Jean Piaget s four stages of cognitive development noting the major milestones that characterize each stage and recent quali cations of his theory 0 Cognitive development The emergence of the ability to think and understand 0 Preoperational stage The stage of development that begins at about age 2 and ends at about age 6 during which children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world 0 Concrete operational stage The stage of development that begins at about age 6 and ends at about age 1 1 during which children learn how various actions or quotoperatorsquot can affect or transform quotconcretequot objects 0 Formal operational stage The stage of development that begins at about age 1 1 and lasts through adulthood during which children can solve nonphysical problems 0 Sensorimotor stage begins at birth and lasts through infancy in which infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it 6 Compare the processes of assimilation and accommodation and describe how they relate to object permanence Assimilation The process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations 0 Accommodation The process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information 0 Object Permanence The idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible 7 Explain the principle of conservation and provide two examples of how a child in the preoperationa stage might fail to grasp this principle 0 Conservation The notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object s appearance Preoperational stage having minds and these minds containing mental representations of the world Describe how children make the cognitive journey from egocentrism to developing a theory of mind How is the process the same or different for children with autism or deafness Theory of Mind the idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations AutismDeafness difficulty understanding the inner life of other people cannot understand that other people can have false beliefs beliefbased emotions or selfconscious emotions such as embarrassment and shame do not have ready access to any form of conventional language restriction slows the development of their understanding of other minds 9 Discuss how culture in uences cognitive development and describe three fundamental skills that allow the ability to learn from others 0 Culture in uence 0 Joint attention ability to focus on what another person is focused on 0 Social referencing ability to use another person s reactions as information o Imitation the ability to do what another person does or meant to do 10Describe Harry Harlow s research on raising rhesus monkeys in social isolation for the rst six months of life 0 Raising rhesus monkeys preferred the comfort and warmth of a soft cloth mother to the wire mother even when the wire mother was associated with food 1 1 Describe the four different attachment styles that can develop between an infant and a primary caregiver how these styles correspond to different internal working models of relationships and how this internal model is a product of both infant temperament and caregiver behavior 0 Attachment the emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers Internal working models of relationships A set of beliefs about the self the primary caregiver and the relationship between them 0 Infant Temperament characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity 12Discuss Jean Piaget s view of moral development and describe Lawrence Kohlberg s three stages of moral development Piaget moral thinking changed systematically over time o Shift from realism to relativism o Shift from prescriptions to principles 0 Shift from outcomes to intentions Kohlberg people s responses to a series of moral dilemmas o Preconventional stage stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor 0 Conventional stage stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms o Postconventional stage stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by a set of general principles that re ect core values such as the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness 13According to the moral intuitionist perspective do moral judgments come before or after emotional experiences Discuss how some moral intuitions develop early in childhood Moral intuitionist perspective we have evolved to react emotionally to a small family of events that are particularly relevant to reproduction and survival and we have developed the distinction between right and wrong as a way of labeling and explaining these emotional reactions 14Discuss the primary and secondary seX characteristics that girls and boys evidence during adolescence and describe changes in brain synaptic density that occur during this period 0 Primary sex characteristics bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction Secondary sex characteristics bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction Adolescence the period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity between 1 1 to 14 years of age and last until the beginning of adulthood about 18 to 21 years of age 15Consider some of the realities and myths associated with protracted adolescence such as the early onset of puberty moody teenagers and raging hormones Protracted adolescence Variation of puberty based on the individuals across cultures as well as across generations Puberty the bodily changes associated with sexual maturity Adolescence is not a terribly troubled time for most people and adolescents typically quotage out of the troubles they get themselves into 16Describe some of the issues surrounding sexuality among adolescents including the determinants of sexual orientation and discuss the role that sex education can play in informing adolescents about the causes and consequences of sexual activity 0 Boys that reach puberty later feel less athletic and less quotmanlyquot Girls that reach puberty later get negative effects from peers Timing of puberty has a greater in uence on emotional and behavioral problems than does the occurrence of puberty itself 0 The environment and in uences of sexuality determine the child s views on sexual orientation 0 Sexual education educates adolescents on the causes and consequences of seX by not directing the talk at the consequences but by talking about seX in a way that references that act the effect on a person knowing the relationship with the person that they choose to have seX with and mentioning the possible consequences of unsafe seX 17Comment on the relative in uence of parents and peers on adolescent development and the formation of an adult identity Adolescents cannot choose their parents but can choose their peers Shaping themselves based around the groups that will lead them to develop new values beliefs and perspectives Adolescents and parents often have different ideas about who should control the adolescents behavior 18List the physical and psychological abilities that decline during adulthood and comment on how adults compensate for these declining abilities Adulthood the stage of development that begins around age 18 to 21 and ends at death 0 Peak years of health stamina vigor and prowess as well as cognitive abilities being the sharpest Compensating by anticipation compensation of declining abilities of one neural structure by calling on other neural structures to help out 19EXplain why orientation shifts from useful information to information that produces emotional satisfaction as we age and how this shift impacts life satisfaction Younger adults are more oriented towards information that will be useful to them in the future whereas older adults are generally oriented toward information that brings emotional satisfaction in the present 0 Going from having long futures and remembering potentially useful information to shorter futures and remembering positive information that serves will in the moment 20Consider whether events that most people think will make them happy as adults such as marriage and having children actually contribute to psychological wellbeing The idea that goals change in order to satisfy a more psychological need to feel needed and sense of worth
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