AFRCNA 0031 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
AFRCNA 0031 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE 0031
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Date Created: 02/26/15
AFRCNA 0031 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Black HistoryAfrican Background What happened in the formation period 0 The idea that history is more important to Africana people to some degree than other people Colonialism it excluded the contributions of Africana 0 History is disproportionately important to African people because of the 6 epochs o Authentic histiography vs politicized histiography I Politicizedthe idea of a colonial education What is Sankofa 0 An Akan word from West Africa which means to return and recover it I Itideas and contribution of Africans o Idea depicted as a bird reaching back into its feathers 0 Response to the colonial project 0 AHSA works in a Sankofan way What is the subject area of Black history 0 Places the subject areas in perspective establishes their origins and development and thus aids in critical discussion and understanding of them What is history 0 The record of humans in the process of humanizing the world What is African Black History 0 The struggle and record of Africans in the process of Africanizing the world What are the Five Basic Characteristic of History 1 It is human 2 It is social 3 It is con ictual 4 It is uid and changeable 5 It is manageable and subject to controlled and directed change What are Four Major Oppositions to the Development of Authentic Historiography 1 Nature 2 Society 3 Other humans 4 Their immediate selves to cast one as better than the other 0 What are the Three Primary Challenges to studying the history of Africa 1 Vastness of the subject 2nd largest continent of the world 2 The predominance of oral history GRIOTS 3 European invasion and conquest the attempt to record African achievement through the lens of European standards The Colonizers Voice What are GRIOTS o A stratum or group of professional oral historians It was their task to act as the collective memory of an ethnic group nation or empire and pass on from generation to generation the history of its people What are the Two Voices of Africa O O Uncommon voice shows an objective historical understanding of African s contribution to the human story Africana studies supports this I AHSA used this to challenge the ASA Common voice shows a Eurocentric bias about the African continent ASA is comfortable with this though I How Europe Underdeveloped Africa by Walter Rodney What are the Origins of Humanity in East Africa 0 The first humans What is the genetic classification 0 Australopithecus Africanus Fundamental Question Who is the African before arrival of colonial interest precolonial Africa What is the Cosmology stars and Worldview life principles and practices 0 O O O 0 Peace and harmony with nature Communalism Spirituality Respect for the elders WEUS individual is always last in the African cosmology worldview I The Preliminary Challenge by Dr John Henrik Clarke Africa Geography and Climate Zones What are the bodies of water surrounding Africa 0 O O 0 North Mediterranean Sea Northeast Red Sea Southeast Indian Ocean West South Atlantic Ocean 0 What is the size and comparisons O O O O 0 Africa is the second largest continent in the world Only broken up in 50 states because of the Berlin Conference Africa 12000000 square miles only Asia is larger 3x size of US 6x larger than Europe What is the surface area of Africa 0 1 4 5 Tropical Rain Forest runs along the west cost and on both sides of the Africa covers 20 of the earth s surface and contains E major climatic zones Mediterranean located in N African on the Mediterranean Sea and in S African on the Cape of Good Hope Subdesert contains dry grassland and sparse vegetation borders the desert zone amp savanna Desert consist of three deserts The Sahara N Africa and the Namib and Kalahari SW Africa Savanna at wet grasslands which make up the largest part of Africa equator in Central Africa and encompasses the island of Madagascar 0 What are The Nile Valley Civilizations brought about by ASCAC 0 Features of the Nile Valley o Extends over 4000 miles from the highlands on the east coast of central Africa to the delta region in the extreme North 0 Traced to the twin sources of the Nile River Which are called the Blue Nile and the White Nile o The worlds longest waterway 4160 miles and it irrigates 0 Approximately 2800000 acres of land in Sudan and 7600000 acres in Egypt What is The Nile 0 One of two major rivers which ows from south to north What is Nubia o The name originated from the Egyptian word for gold NUB What are the Nomenclatures of Chronology o BCE references events which occurred Before the Qommon Christian Era o ACE references events which occurred After the Qommon Era What are Nubia s 4 Main Periods o The PreKerma the Kerma the Napata and the Meriotic o Organized around the capital cities of Kerma Napata and Meroe 1 PreKerma Period a 39002500 BCE b In this period Nubia had developed a royal dynasty 2 Kerma Period a 25001500 BCE b Distinctive for its ability to unite the various peoples into a strong political system c Involved in complex trade network at that time 3 Napata Period a Napata 900270 BCE 4 Meriotic Period a 270 BCE350 CE What is the Nubian Organizational Social Structure 0 The emergence of the office of the High Priestess of Amen and the strengthening of the role of the Queen Mother What are the Titles of the High Priestess o The Divine Wide the Adorer of God and the Hand of God What does Queen Mother mean 0 This title transforms from queen mother with power to the office of queen in the second century BCE What was Meroe 270 BCE to Common Era o A city with palaces an observatory temples pools foundation arts and crafts and large industrial complexes Egypt s Chronology Early Dynastic Period 0 This is the first period of Egyptian history c 31002 686 BCE The Old Kingdom Period 0 26862182 BCE o The Books of Wise Instruction by Ptah Hotep The Legacy of Egypt 0 The concepts of resurrection and judgment after death 0 The immorality of the soulimmortality through righteous living and humans as the image of god 0 The equality of men and women 0 The treatment of the poor as the fundamental measure of the moral quality of a society 0 The moral obligation to constantly repair and heal the world What is EthiopiaAksum 0 Western Sudan and the Moorish Empire Where does Ethiopian history evolve from o Ethiopian history evolves from the formation of the state of Aksum which had its origins in the economic and cultural exchanges between Africans and people in southwestern Arabia beginning 500 BCE Who led Aksum o Aksum s most wellknown king and emperor was Ezana 320 CE who converted to Christianity and established it as the state religion 0 This led to Christianity being the religion of choice in modern day Ethiopia What is the history of Ghana 0 Emerged as a state in approximately 300 CE and came into an effective end in 1240 o Called the Land of the Goldquot 0 Wealth was a result of the control of trade in two key items salt and gold What is the history of Mali 0 The first emperor of Mali was Sundiata who ruled from 1230 until 1255 0 During his reign he took control of the transSaharan trade and set up Niani his capital as a key trading and financial center Who is Mansa Musa o Conquered large areas of the major Berber cities and extended Mali into what is now Mauritania and southern Algeria in the north and as far as south as northern Nigeria 0 Mansa Musa had made Mali twice the size of Ghana with a population of approximately ten million people 0 Built the University of Sankore and Timbuktu which became an intellectual center which attracted students and professors from all over the world What is Songhai o Largest and most developed of the Western Sudan civilizations Who is Sunni Ali Ber o Came to the throne in 1464 and recaptures Timbuktu in 1468 from Mali Who is Muhammad Toure o A general who served in Sunni Ali s army Ruling from 1493 until 1529 o Built an effective army out of Prisoner s of War and men formerly enslaved that he freed and put into service to the empire What is the Moor Empire 0 Represents not only a golden age in Islamic civilization but also a golden age of civilization for Africa Europe and ultimately the world The Golden Age of the Moor by Ivan Van Setima Who are The Moors o The Moorish conquest and cultural transformation of Spain began in 711 o The Moors brought Spain and Europe several gifts from African creativity including I Expanded commerce I Skilled architecture I Education I Scholarship o The Moors contribution to Spain I Introduced rice strawberries cotton sugar cane ginger lemons and dates I Built Spain s aqueduct system for irrigation reservoirs for water underground silos for grain tunnels through mountains raised sidewalks lighted streets and dams Who is Basil Davidson 0 Represents the uncommon voice 0 Born on Nov 9 1914 in Bristol England 0 He developed a school of modern African history in which the biases and presumptions against African civilization and its inhabitants were abandoned and archaeological anthropological and historical evidence was embraced I The African Genius I The Lost Cities ofAfrica I African Slave Trade I The Black Man s Burden Africa and the Curse of the Nationstate 0 What is the Uncommon Voice of History 0 Shows an objective historical understanding of Africa s contribution to the human story 0 CLIP I Reason was Greek but emotion was AfricanAfricana people were limited I Effort to take Africans out of Egypt I Wellrounded scholars I See the different kingdoms of Nubia Meroe Napata Kush What did Africans in Early America The Enslavement of Africans do 0 In 120 BCE Africans thought to come to America on their own ships What is Important Text 0 The African Presence in Ancient America They Came Before Columbus by Ivan Van Sertima I Looking at the possibility of Africans coming before Columbus and helping to build other societies The African Presence in Early America by Ivan Van Sertima Unexpected Faces in AncientAmerica by Alexander Von Wilthenal Early America Revisited by Ivan Van Sertima Great Sculpture ofAncient Mexico by Ignacio Reno I Mesoamerica holds the jaguar to high esteem I Known for hieroglyphics represents an advanced intellectual history I Astronomy Mathematics notion of zero 0 Thesis an idea for exploration 0 Art Before Columbus by Andr Emmerich What is the Van Sertima Thesis Part 1 o Maintains that they came to ancient America as Nubians from the 25th dynasty of Egypt 751656 BCE to the Olmec heartland According to Van Sertima would put them here in time to be at the founding of the Olmec civilization Part 2 o Contends that Africans came to America from the Mali Empire In 1310 Malian Emperor Abubakari 11 sent a eet of 200 master ships and 200 supply ships into the Atlantic Ocean toward America I Many of these ships did not return I Argued that it was primarily for religious motives that the Nubian Egyptians came to early America as a pilgrimage to the West 0000 0 Part 3 o Postulates that the step pyramid or ziggurat is a distinctive religious structure and that it is significant that the very first American pyramid or stepped temple appears at La Venta the site of the colossal Africanoid heads What are The Findings 1 Examines the similarities of plants in Africa and Mexico Among those he listed as transplanted are banana bottle gourd cotton jack bean yams and tobacco 2 Linguistic evidence is offered as well showing similarities in Egyptian and Mexican words respectively 3 Examined the observations and reports by European travelers as well as documents of East and West African reporting voyages to the West 4 Presents skeletal evidence from studies by craniologist Andrzej Weircinski which reveal a clear presence of Africanoid skulls from Olmec BCE sites 5 Cites Thor Heyerdals Atlantic crossing to demonstrate the possibility of Egyptians crossing the Atlantic and argues that both East and West Africans has the capacity for transAtlantic travel and makes the point that Africans navigated the Atlantic before the Christian Era 6 Dr Clarke from the AHSA supported Van Sertima 7 ASCAC also supported Van Sertima and continues to support his work 0 What makes America great 0 Freedom documents from the Founders constitution bill of rights declaration of independence 0 Diversity 0 Independence Free speech right to bear arms etc 0 Political system not perfect but one of the better attempts at a political democracy The Enslavement of Africans The Cognitive Transitions and The Founding of America and the development of the Racialized Worldview What is the New World Enslavement as Racial Slavery The First Laws 0 1661 Virginia recognizes African enslavement as legal 0 1662 Children follow the condition of their mother 0 1667 Conferring Baptism dos not alter slave status 0 1667 English Parliament passes an act to regulate enslaved Africans on plantations which called for them to be controlled with strict severity o 1680 declared that 30 lashed be given to any enslaved African who lifted his hand in opposition to chastisement by an overseer o The Constitution of the Carolinas decreed every European and his American offspringdescendants male was to have absolute authority over enslaved African in public and private 0 What are Enslavement s 3 Levels of Facilitation o Facilitates the dehumanization process in a logical manner by the contradiction that a human being is simultaneously both a piece of propertyl a thing and a person 0 Permits emphasis on the property element and the prioritization of the rights of owners to their property 0 It also allows gross subjugation and brutality on a large scale while reducing the possibility of guilt o Idea that the agricultural group owners group were deeply invested in legal history traditions regarding two things importance of property and its connection to individual liberty What is An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States 0 Constitution guaranteed the right to own property 0 What is The New Labor Force 0 1 The new labor force happened to be not only culturally different but physically distinct and not easily mistaken for any of the other populations in the new colonies o 2 The AfricanAtlantic trade provided an unlimited supply of this labor I The will be no enslavement of whites in Americaquot What is Cognitive Transition 0 Focus on the obvious physical and behavioral differences between Africans and Europeans 0 To reach the conclusion that Africans were somehow not quite human like themselves o All moral and ethical problems receded and there remained only the pragmatic ones of selective perceptionquot o The obliteration from one s daily experience of any consciousness of the enslaved human qualities What is Public Demeanor 0 Every act symbolically had to remind both masters and enslaved whites and free blacks of the subhuman status of the blacks 0 Gave colonists individually and collectively the power to create their own idea of a savage o Developed and imposed their image of savagery over a distinguishable category of human beings What did enslavement and the creation of race in North America do 0 FIRST gave the colonists individually and collectively the unrestrained power to create their own savage o SECOND they developed and imposed their ancient image of savagery over an easily distinguishable category of human beings making it possible to view them as subhuman o THIRD enabled the colonists to maintain The enslaved Africanquot as a separate and discrete social category regardless of slavery imposing laws that preserved their distinctiveness o FOURTH because of its unequivocal linkage of social identity to physical characteristics all people could easily be continued to such inequality 0 What are The Physiocrats o A group of European thinkers who believed in an economic theory which considered that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture 0 What are the Topographies of Resistance 0 African resistance of slavery began in Africa 0 Resistance 0 Smaller population size 1 The existence of less nearby unsettled regions for Maroon or independent societies of escaped Africans 2 The isolated character of the US populations which hampered organized unified efforts 3 The harsh winters which made survival in Maroon societies more difficult to maintain as opposed to tropical areas where food and shelter were less a priority 4 The drastic decline of importation of large numbers of new Africans after 1807 with the deferral prohibition of trafficking in enslaved persons thus depriving enslaved Africans of a vital source of revitalization and rebellion 5 The greater balance between the sexes and division into family units in the US which often dampened male rebellion and fight in consideration for the family 6 The pervasive severity of the system which was not content to dominate physically but engaged in a very aggressive form of deculturalization and psychological dislocations SEASONING 0 What is The Seasoning Process 0 Formation period did not exist in human history 0 Transition from African to Negro o Idea of seasoning is one of the most successful ideas in the history of colonial idea in British America 0 Not without challenges but took a significant toll because historical records among Africans were strong and continuous What are the 4 steps of resistance 1 To deny support to challenge or overturn the established order 2 Deny diminish or eliminate its hold 3 To force changes in its structure and functioning order 4 To escape its control and jurisdiction What are the Five Basic Forms of Enslaved African Resistance 1 Cultural 2 Day to day 3 Abolition 4 Emigration 5 Armed struggle What is The Slave Community by John Blassingame o Maintains that personality of enslavement was determined by the interaction of certain universal elements of culture 1 Cultural Resistance 0 Cultural retention and synthesis I Dances moral narratives music language patterns and spiritual beliefs 0 Cultural creations 0 Maintenance and development of a family against all odds Synthesis 0 Religion and music where in the process of acculturation enslaved Africans made European forms serve African interests Maintenance of the Family Against All Odds 0 Systematic sexual abuse of African Women 0 The division and selling of family 0 The denial and restriction of the African man s ability to protect provide for and exercise authority in his family 2 DaytoDay Resistance 0 Sabotage such as breaking tools and destroying crops shamming illness or ignorance taking property spontaneous and planned strikes work slow downs selfmutilation arson attacks on overseers and poisoning of slave holders and their families as well as running way 3 Abolition Resistance 0 All efforts dedicated to abolishing enslavement conducted by both free Africans and formerly enslaved Africans such as Frederick Douglas Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth Diversity in Abolition Efforts 1 Fundraising efforts for the purchase aid and legal defense of enslaved Africans and antienslavement literature 2 Provided security forces for defense and antienslavement rallied to prevent kidnappings of fugitive and free Africans by former holders and catchers of enslaved Africans A massive publication 4 Established a speakers bureau of both formerly enslaved African and free Africans to disseminate information and call for support in the struggle in the US Canada and throughout Europe 5 The building and maintenance of the Underground Railroad a system of freeing transporting and placing formerly enslaved Africans in the North or Canada and throughout Europe Harriet Tubman hero of the Underground Railroad 4 Emigrationism o The push to emigrate back to Africa or go elsewhere Africans could be free and selfdetermined The American Colonization Society 0 It was essentially antiegalitarian supported by slavery supporting Americans who supported the founding of Liberia and advocated that all blacks including free blacks return to Africa 9
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