Partiel 2 Study Guide
Partiel 2 Study Guide
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Chapter 5 Personal Pronouns I Object Pronouns a Direct Object Pronouns Me Me Nous Us Te You Vous You Le Him Les Them it La Her it b Indirect Object Pronouns Me TO me Nous TO us Te TO you Vous TO you Lui TO Leur TO himhe them r c La adv vs Ypace pronoun to say there i Y place has already been mentioned ii La points out where Usually place has not been mentioned d le la les vs en pronoun object i En replaces inde nite noun objects Roughly quotsomequot quotof itquot quotof themquot l Inde nite noun objects nouns that have been modi ed by 0 A partative construction 0 A numeral 0 Adverbs of quantity Notez re exive pronoun se 0 May be direct or indirect Means quotto himselfherselfoneselfquot As a reciprocal pronoun means quotto each otherquot ll Position of Object Pronouns a 1verb sentences most often they come before the verb EX je e donne a jean b 2verb sentences auxiliary verb in nitive they precede the in nitive EX jaques veut vous voin c lmperatif sentences follow the verb and are attached via a hyphen EX Donnez le a Marc d Order of pronoun objects 1 Lform pronouns le lea les lui leur 2 Me te nous vous 3 Yand en Notez when there are multiple Lform pronouns they come alphabetically in the sentence Ill Disjunctive Pronouns Singular Plural Moi Me Nous Us Toi You Vous You Lui Him Eux Them m Elle Her EIes Them 0 Sci Oneself a 7 Common Uses i After prepositions EX Nous sommes ale s en France avec eux ii As part of a compound subjectobject EX jean et ui sont parts ce matn iii To emphasize the subject of the sentencewhen the subject is separated from the verb EX Moi je vais y alen Eux seus peuvent le faire iv After que meaning quotasquotquotthanquot in comparisons EX Vous pare2 mieux que lui v After ce tre EX C est moi vi Alone in answer to questions EX Qui est la Lui vii When compounded with meme self EX Luim me Moim me b Soi is used 1 after a preposition in a sentence in which an inde nite subject onchacun or an impersonal expression is the antecedent Or 2 in the xed expressions en soi de soi EX Chacun tra vaile pour soi La on ne pense qu a 50 IV Replacing Nouns with Pronouns a De noun l pronoun i Noun person de disjunctive pronoun EX je pare de ma seour je pare d ele Noun inde nite person en EX j ai besoin d amis j en ai besoin Noun thing en EX je pare de mon travail j en pare b A noun l pronoun Noun person after nonre exive verbs that take an indirect object dire raconter demonader ob ir a etc EX jaques a raconte son accident a agent jaques lui a raconte son accident Noun person after re exive verbs EX je m inte resse a cet enfant je m inte resse a lui Noun person after certain nonre exive verbs that are followed by a but do not take an indirect object Noun thing l y EX je re pond a la lettre j y re ponds Chapter 6 Past Tenses in Narration Compound past pass compose 1 Used in conversationinformal narrative to expresses a series of successive actions each of which serves to push forward the plot of the narrative 2 Mental state analogy used to express a change of mental state Imperfect imparfait 1 Describes a past state of beingaction that was going on when another action took placeinterrupted The background of the principal action 0 Imperfect actions have no time frame in reference to the principal action nor do they take place successively These actions just quotgo onquot 0 Rule of thumb if the verb ends in ing in English use the imperfect 0 Mental state analogy used to indicate a mental state in the past there is no beginning or end to a mental state in terms of immediate actions 2 May also express habitualrepeated actions In English subject used towoud verb Which to use ShoudIusethepass compos Checklist a Does the action make the plot move forward quotadvance the narrativequot This can be to the smallest degree so long as it does it a Does the action have a speci c time frame Whether the time frame be long or short is irrelevant as long as it is de ned a Is the action a past face and not background used to set up the narrative ShoudIusetheimparfait Checklist a Is the action describing a state in order to set up the background for the main plot a Is it a continuing action that is then interrupted by the main action a Can the past action be expressed in English by subject waswere ing a Is the action repeated regularly and can be expressed in English by subject used towoud verb a Is it a question of state of mind rather than a change of state of mind Pass Compos vs lmparfait Graphically If we represented time graphically the imperfect would be the straight line that indicates the passing ow of time Actions hovering above the line are going one while something else is going on The pass comps notez also the pass simple may be represented by points Xs on the line Each X indicates an interrupting action which collectively take place successively on the time line Simple Past pass simple 1 Used to express a series of successive actions It is used in literary writing as opposed to casual writing like letters It is not used in spoke French except for very formal lecturesorations 2 Sometimes states a past fact 3 Why use it over the pass compose It is a single form smoother effect Notez using the pass simple instead of the pass compos does not change how the imparfait is used in any way Chapter 7 Possessives I Possessive Adjectives Singular Plural Singular Plural Mas Fem Mas Fem Mon Ma Mes Notre Notre Nos Ton Ta Tes Votre Votre Vos Son sa Ses eur eur leurs Notez these are used with feminine nouns when the next immediate word in the sentence begins with a vowel sound 0 Possessive adjectives agree in gender and number with the thing they possess not the possessor Each noun in a sentence gets its own possessive adjective Cannot use one possessive adjective for a list of nouns even if the same possessive adjective would be used 0 Ex Son pe re et sa mere sont parts ce matn Vs Son pe re et fre re parts ce matn ll Possessive Adjectives the body a Possession body parts in general Typically the French use the de nite article IeIaIes where English uses a possessive article to talk about body parts i Circumstances where French uses the possessive 1 Ambiguity would result from use of the de nite article 2 The part of the body is modi ed 3 The part of the body is the subject of the sentence see b ii Possession action with a part of one39s own body French uses the de nite article not the possessive Formation Subject Verb De nite Article Noun part of body iii Possession action on part of one39s own body French uses the de nite article a re exive pronoun here Formation Subject re exive pronoun verb de nite article noun body part iv Possession action on someone else s body The noun is modi ed by the de nite article and an indirect object pronoun is placed before the verb 1 Ex Marie lave la gure dejean L in rmie re frotte le dos du malade 2 v Attitudestate of being of part of the body Use the de nite article here rather than the possessive b Possession body part when it is the subject of the sentence French generally avoids having a body part as the subject of the sentence Pair with avoirto make it the object of the sentence His hair is dark l a les cheveux bruns Ill Possessive Pronouns Singular Plural Mas Fem Mas Fem Le mien La Les Les Mine mienne miens miennes Le tien La tienne Les tiens Les Yours Uennes Le sien La Les siens Les His sienne siennes hers its Le notre La notre Les Les Ours notres notres Le votre La votre Les Les Yours votres votres Le leur La leur Les leurs Les laurs Theirs Possessive pronouns agree in gender and number with the thing they possess not the possessor Just like possessive adjectives They take the place of nouns modi ed by a possessive adjective They contract with a and de Ex V05 econs sont facies les miennes sont plus dif cies mien Elle expiquera cea a son pe re je eXpiquerai au Possessive pronoun vs a disjunctive pronoun vs appartenir 0 Possessive pronoun stresses the idea of the possesson 0 A disjunctive pronoun most common Chapter 8 Participles PAST PARTICIPLE a What auxiliaries are used in French Avoir most common ii Etre intransitive motion verbs amp re exive verbs b Agreement i I Common transitive verbs of motion 0 Aler o Arriver Descendre De venir 0 En trer o Monter Mourir o Na tre Oartir Passer o Ren trer Rester o Retourner Re venir 50rtir Tomber o Venir Notez 1 When these verbs are used transitively they are conjugated with avoirand the meaning is changed 2 Verbs that describe a kind of motion nager marcher courir are conjugated with avoir Avoir usually the past participle used with avoiris invariable 1 Etre 1 Exception when a direct object except for en precedes the verb does not follow In this case the past participle agrees with the direct object in gender and number Intransitive verbs of motion the past participle always agrees in gender and number with the subiect of the clause Reciprocal amp Re exive verbs agrees in number and gender with the re exive object unless it is an indirect object in which case it remains invariable PRESENT PARTICIPLE a What is it It takes on the nature of both verbs indicates action or state of being and is followed by normal after verb constructions and adjectives modi es a noun or pronoun Formation take of the 0ns of the nous form of the verb Add ant i lrregulars 1 Etre e tant 2 Avoir ayant 3 5a voir sachant Agreement i As only an adjective has no qualities of being a verb agrees in gender and number with modi ed noun ii As a present participle adj identi ed with a speci c nounpronoun AND verb tes what someone is doing can take on an adverb governs a nounpronoun invariable When used wen or tout en Action regularly refers to the subject of the sentence ii The action it refers to happens simultaneously with another action iii En quotinonbywhilequot present participle quotwhile when asquot clause iv Tout en quotwhilestill present participle quotall the whileeven thoughquot clause When used wout an i Generally the present participle refers to the nearest nounpronoun ii The action it refers to is followed by another action Speci c uses in place of the present participle i quotIn the act ofquotquotbusy doing somethingquot en train de in nitive ii After verbs of perception voir entendre sentr trouver in nitivea quiclause en train de in nitive iii Manner of passing time a in nitive Problem Words 1 Expect a b c d 2 Fail 3 Feel To expect a personmaterial thing attendre direct object person or material thing To expect an eventimmaterial thing s attendre a To expect that clause s attendre a ce que subjonctif Expect to intend to compter in nitive avoir l intention de in nitive What do you expect What do you expect me to implying inevitability a question with a shrug of the shoulders vouloir Example que voulez vous il est sijeune What do you expect he is so young 00 veuti quej aille Where does he expect me to go Fail to do something negative form of the main verb no speci c phrase for this Not to fail to do something negative of manquerde in nitive Notez the af rmative of manquer has alternative meanings Fail an examcourse e chouer un examen o rater un exame e chouer a un cours ne pas re ussir ne pas tre recu tre cole a un examen Fail someone in a course Colloquially coler quequ un Formally refuser quequ un ne pas recevoir quequ un faire e chouer quequ un Notez do not say e chouer quequ un To feel that clause Sentir que clause 5e sentiris used to express feel in terms of the state of one s health Used with adverbs bien mal mieux etc Notez Trouveralso expresses feel Sentir sometimes mean to smell How do you feel How are you Comment ca va Ca va OR use aller Ex comment aez vous 4 Get a Get obtain obtenir 5e procurer trouver only certain contexts b Get receive Recevoir Avoirin the pass compos or pass simple Get go and get chercher aer chercher Get catch a disease attraper disease e Get become ex get tired get hot H 0 Simply implied for many re exive and nonre exive verbs in all tenses Pass compos pass simple or idiomatic expressions wavoirand faire Ex ee est devenue furieuse o Devenir adj only when there is no verb equivalent to express the idea an 1 Go a I m going I went etc AIer place that one is going If the place has already been mentioned then use the adverb yto refer to it DO NOT used allerwithout indication of destinationadverb y l m going is often expressed as je m en vais which translates to I m going away b English go prepositiongo adverb French separate verbs Go back retourner Go back home rentrer Go by passer Go down descendre Go in entrer Go out sortir Go through across tra verser Go to ward se diriger vers Go up monter Go With accompagner c Go to attendbe present at l Assisterl assistera only with certain places and occasions l Allera generally safe to express the same idea 2Happen a 5e passer i Use when happen take place and 1 there is no personal indirect object 2 the subject is impersonal and somewhat inde nite Ex Qu est ce qui s est passe Notez if the subject is de nite do not use 5e passer do not use 5e passerto say something happens to someone b Arriver i Can be used in same circumstances as 5e passer ii Additionally it may be used when 1 there is a personal indirect object something happens to someone and 2 when the subject is personal and de n e Ex Qu est ce qui est arrive Quand estce que cet accident est arrive c Someone happened to do something happen to verb happen by chance i verb par hazard tout a fait far hazard Ex j e tais la par hazard Nous avons rencontre jean dans la rue tout a fait par hazard d Happen it happens that someone happens to i Ilse trouve i 5e trouve justement que main part of the sentence Ex Ilse trouve que j habitais dans le meme immeube que Monsieur Martin I happen to live in the same building as Mr Martin e How does it happen that i Comments faitii que Can be followed by the indicative or the subjunctive Ex Comment se faitil que vous avezayez achet une nouvelle voiture 3 Hear a Entendre to hear someonesomething b Entendre parer de to hear of someonesomething c Entendre dire que to hear m d Avoir des nouveles derece voir des nouveles de to hear from someone 1 lntend a Penser in nitive b Compter in nitive c Avoir intenti0n de in nitive 2 Introduce a Introduce a person presenter Notez lntroduire most often means insert 3 Knock a There is no direct translation for a knock at the door One may use frapper a la porte or entrendre frapper a la porte 4 Know a b know be acquainted with l conna tre know meetget acquainted with l compound past amp simple past of conna tre c know be familiar with works places etc conna tre d know know from memory l savoir e know know from study l savoir f know be aware of l savoir g know know how to l savoir in nitive 5 Lack a To ack subject manquer de what is lacking inde nite noun b Lack wthe impersonal i manque begins a sentence what is lacking is partative the person who lacks it he indirect object i Ex I lui manque de la farine pour faire son gateau c When what is lacking is the subject Manquer 6 Last night a Last night last evening l hiersoir b Last night late in the night cette nuitla nuit dernie re 7 Late a Late not early l tard b Late not on time en retard 8Leave a Leave someone or something somewhere direct object l laisser b Leave someone or something direct object l quitter c To eavenot usually followed by a place go away go off leaving leave l s en aler d To leave for more than just a moment l partr I Leave without indicating a place partr ii Leave a place partir de iii Leave for a place partirpourpartir preposition of a place e Leave go out sortr Leaving a place sortr de place Sortirvs Partr sortirimplies leaving for shorter periods of time partirimplied leaving for long periods of time Other uses of sortr 1 Leaving wout indication of place or people usually means leaving a place where one habitually is at at a given time 2 Sortravec go out withdating
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