Final Exam SG (FAD2230)
Final Exam SG (FAD2230) FAD2230
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Date Created: 04/23/16
FAD2230 1/8/15 Ch. 1—Why study families and other close relationships? Why study families? o Families are a central institution Social institution—sphere of public life with a set of beliefs and rules organized meet human needs Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological theory US Census bureau o Family- 2+ people living together related by Birth Marriage Adoption o Does not include unmarried homosexuals/heterosexuals Social science definition o Family- relationship by blood, marriage, or affection o Members may Cooperate economically Care for children Consider identity to be connected Definition of stepfamilies has been adapted Types of families o Family of orientation/origin—family you are born into o Family of procreation—family created when you marry (does not necessarily need children) o Fictive kin—nonrelatives, bonds of affection (person not biologically related to you that you consider family) Why define family? o Legal reasons o Policy implications Taxes, health insurance/benefits o Social implications (DTR-define the relationship) o Shared meaning Purpose of family? o Economic cooperation Help provide food, shelter, etc. o Care, warmth, protection, intimacy o Reproduce and socialize children Socialization- teach healthy relationships, proper interactions, acceptable behavior Teaching children the rules/expectations of society Modeling the rules/expectations of society o Regulate sexual behavior Intercourse within family is socially unacceptable o Social placement, status, and roles o Property and inheritance Determining heirs Themes of this class o Theme 1- linking micro/macro level perspectives on families o Theme 2- families are always changing o Theme 3- the importance of social science theory and research Our relationships are inextricably related to the social structure found in our society o Social structure- stable framework of social relationships that guides our reactions with others Theme 1- linking micro/macro level perspectives on families o Micro level factors Focused on individual and his/hers interactions We have human agency—we are not passive participants in society o Macro level factors Focused on how marriage, families, and close relationships are interconnected with society and social structure o Micro components Personal choices, behaviors, feelings, communication, decisions, constraints, values, interactions o Macro components Culture, history, power and inequality, social institutions, social status, social movements o Micro/macro factors that impact dating Macro Stereotypical forces- homosexual relationships Religion- certain things are acceptable in relationships Micro Opposite values of partner Previous relationships Communication- stonewalling, passive aggressive o Micro/macro factors that impact divorce Macro Economic/money issues Culture- older generations vs. current Micro Different parenting styles- co-parenting Time/money management 1/11/16 Theme 2- families are always changing o Marriage- institutional arrangement b/n persons to publically recognize social and intimate bonds Why important? Benefits, privileges, shared meaning(ceremony, typical wear, etc.), commitment o William Stephens (1963) definition of marriage Socially legit sexual union Begun with a public announcement Undertaken with some idea of permanence Assumed with a more or less explicit marriage contract that spells out reciprocal obligations of spouses Ex- monogamy, procreation, good parenting, economic stability, respect, love o Family patterns across cultures (macro) Marriage patterns Monogamy-marriage b/n one woman and one man Polygamy- system that allows for more than one spouse at a time (illegal in US- still practiced) o Polygyny- pattern in which husbands have more than one wife o Polyandry- system allows for women to have more than one spouse at a time Ex- places where female children suffer from infanticide leading to a lower female population Patterns of authority Patriarchy- norms/expectation that men have natural right to be in positions of authority over women Matriarchy- “ “ power and authority vested in women Egalitarian- expectation that power and authority are equally vested in both men and women Patterns of descent Bilateral- descent traced through both male and female sides of the family Patrilineal- descent traced through only mans family line Matrilineal- descent exclusively traced through women’s families (more rare) o Ex- native American cultures Patterns of residence Neolocal- expectation that newly married couple establishes a residence and lives there independently Patrilocal- expectation that newly married couple lives with husbands family Matrilocal- expectation that newly married couple live with family of the wife o Colonial America Nuclear family (immediate family- mom, dad, kids- 6+) Families were primary social institution (work, school, health care, etc.) Family composition (6+ children in each family, no divorce/remarriage) Marriages and divorce Arranged marriages Remarried when widowed Connecticut’s Divorce law: o “Adultery, fraudulent contract, or willful desertion for 3 years with total neglect of duty, or seven years provisional absence being not heard of after due enquiry made and certified” Massachusetts b/n 1639-1692: 27 divorces granted o b/n 1692-1796: Governor of Mass. Heard all 115 divorce petitions Children as property of their fathers Seen as mini adults Experience for indentured servants and slaves Slave families were frequently broken up and sold off Many slave owners fathered children with their slaves o Industrialization, Urbanization, and immigration Large urban industry Children and families Social stratification Poor and working class Middle and upper class o 20 century families WWI, WWII, Great Depression (macro) Women in the workplace Men overseas, women take over jobs in the homeland Increased technology—automobiles allowed families to choose were they want to live not based on where they work Companionate family—no more arranged marriages American theme—criticism for men taking paternity leaver o Profile of US families Marry later (25-27 yrs) Smaller families (1/5 couple wont have children) More working moms (2/3 work) Elderly pop. Increased (1900-4% Now- fastest growing population) More single parent households and binuclear— multiple families interacting 1/13/16 Theme 3- the importance of social science research o Different goals or research Describe phenomenon (prevalence) Examine factors associated with phenomenon (correlation) Explain cause and effect (causation) Examine meanings and experiences o Types of research Quantitative Research Responses= quantifiable/numeric; choose from a pre-determined group of possible answers o “Check the appropriate response..” Qualitative research Reponses= open-ended/not restricted to a pre- determined group of possible answers o “Tell me about your experience with..” Methods of research Survey- form of research that gather info about attitudes or behaviors through the answer that people give to questions o Limitations- response participation varies, bias o Typically quantitative, but can be qualitative In depth interview- method that allows an interviewer to obtain responses to questions o Qualitative Experiment- controlled method for determining cause and effect o Quantitative Focus group- small group of people who are brought together to discuss a particular topic o Qualitative Observational study- research method that goes into the natural setting and observes people in action o Role of researcher- active participant, discussion, teaching, passive observer o Qualitative Secondary analysis- method in which the data was collected for some other purpose but still is useful to the researcher o Can be both qualitative and quantitative o How do we study families? Research question theory hypothesis Research methodology Theory- general framework, explanation, or tool used to understand and describe the real world (Smith and Hamon, 2012) table on page 22 Research question describes What you want to know (IV and DV variables) The population you want to study Research example Research question: Do FSU students who have experienced a parental divorce have less favorable views of marriage? Goal: Describe phenomenon (prevalence IV- whether their parents were divorced DV- their views on marriage Hypothesis: If the students parents were divorced, they would have a negative view of marriage o What do we know about the class of 2013? Out of 100 members of a HS class, roughly 71 have experience physical assault 64 have had sexual intercourse 32 have experienced some form of child maltreatment 28 victimized sexually 23 smoked marijuana is the past 30 days 22 living in poverty 21 had an STI in the past year 3-4 females have been/are pregnant; 1 had abortion 1-2 in foster care FAD2230 1/15/16 Ch 2- Social status: Sex and gender, race and ethnicity, social class Our choices, even personal ones, do not exist in a vacuum o Society impacts us Social stratification o Hierarchal ranking of categories of people within society o All groups are NOT treated equally o More, less, or different opportunities Can’t change race, gander, etc. Sociological Imagination o Personal experiences are shaped by forces within our society o Society empowers and constrains us Women expected to be stay at home mothers Basics—What is the difference between the terms sex and gender? o Sex- biological differences o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences o Androgyny- having both masculine and feminine traits Related to gender Are men and women really from different planets? (no) o Biological differences o Some cognitive differences No difference in intelligence—processing skills can differ Examined 46 meta-analyses related to o Cognitive abilities, Communication, Social an personality variable, Psychological well-being o Findings Very few differences 78% of “gender differences” were small except in motor performance measures of sexuality o Why does everyone talk about the differences? Gender socialization- taught the cultural norms associated with being male/female Who teaches us?—agents of socialization Parents, teachers, toys, peers, the media, schools Agents of socialization o Parents- girls will receive more nurture/help than boys, communication varies with baby, nursery/bedroom decorations, activities child is enrolled in, rough house (boys) vs. play house(girls) o Schools- hidden curriculum (enforcing girls to learn compliance), description of men and women roles(egg and sperm) o Toys- dolls vs. trucks, video games (women not seen as protagonists, instead highly sexualized) o Peers- girls who play outside with the boys are tomboys, boys who aren’t super tough are seen as sissies o Mass Media- women seen as damsel in distress while men are the super strong, tough, manly, heroes who deserve whatever woman they set their mind on (Gaston in Beauty and the Beast) How does gender influence family an close relationships? o Woman do 2/3 times domestic labor than men 1/20/16 Refresh my memory o Sex- biological o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences Race vs. Ethnicity o What’s the difference? Race- real or perceived physical traits deemed important by society Ethnicity- shared cultural characteristics o Ethnicity is the more useful term because race is almost entirely socially constructed o Minority group What makes them minority? A category of people who have less power than the dominant group, and who are subject to unequal treatment o Social capital- social networking connections, which can be a valuable resource o Different experiences based on skin color race Prejudice (attitude)- stereotypes Discrimination (behavior) Individual discrimination- one or small group engaging in discriminatory actions Institutional discrimination- macro level (ex. Columbus, Brown vs. board of education), more engrained in mainstream society White privilege o By Peggy McIntosh o “White privilege is like an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions…” Racial/Ethnic family groups o Cultural equivalent- emphasizes similarities to mainstream white families o Cultural deviant- views distinguishing qualities of minority groups as negative or pathological o Cultural variant- emphasizes cultural and contextual factors when understanding minority family groups Cultural trends on families o Fastest growing minority group? Why? Hispanics- because of their high birth rates and high immigration rates o The “model minority”? Asians- because they are seen as genius families have higher education availability, born into stable married family, etc.) o The highest infant mortality rate and lowest life expectancy? Native Americans- because of high violence and suicide rates as well as substance use, much bigger emphasis on extended family (3/4 homes consist of extended families) 1/22/16 Social class o Socioeconomic status Occupational prestige(job/rank—doctor is seen more prestigious than teacher), education, income Classes in the US- Open class system o Gilbert and Kahl(1993) identified 6 social classes in US. Upper class- 3% (old money) Upper middle- 20% (doctors, etc) Middle class- 40% (average income- work stability) Working class-20% (lower average income- lots of blue collar) Working poor-15% (just above poverty line- many single parent families) Underclass-3% (unemployed) American dream: social mobility o Upward movement from one class to another Most will stay in the same social class they were born into Caste system in India o Supreme court of India ruled that social organization based on caste is inherited and cannot be changed o BUT discrimination against lower castes is illegal 46.2 million people live in Poverty in US o 1/6 Americans o Divorce can put a lot of strain on a family that had been just over the poverty line. One income then has to support two households instead of two incomes for one household. How do you move out of poverty? o Education FSU(in state): $21,065 Poverty line of family of 4- $23,000 ish Influence of poverty on kids o Poor health/nutrition- cheaper to get a McDonalds cheeseburger than fresh food o “Lower quality” home environment- inconsistent parenting o Parental stress and mental health problems- higher prevalence of mental health issues in lower classes can spill over to effect child o Child behavior problems and mental health- higher levels of anxiety, acting out, violence o Fewer resources for learning o Housing problems- unstable, constant transitions o Poor quality neighborhood- high levels of crime FAD2230 1/25/2016 Social exchange theory Social exchange theory o Theory(Our “lens” of families) Provide basic assumptions about nature and society Range from macro to micro perspective Based in utilitarian thinking Rational choice and social exchange framework o Utility: ability of something got satisfy needs or wants, the quality or stats of being useful/profitable/beneficial o Rooted on utilitarianism- philosophical perspective that suggests that individuals rationally weigh the rewards and costs associated with behavioral choices o Utilitarian thinking Social exchange theory and rationale choice theory Share many of the same core concepts, assumptions, and propositions (both rooted in utilitarian thinking) F. Ivan Nye’s (1979) application of Exchange Theory is rooted in these theories For our purposes we will work from this interpretation and discuss the application of “Exchange Theory” The organization of a theory o Assumption A premise that must be accepted o Concept Perceived pattern or regularity that exists within a theory o Proposition A mechanism which links concepts Exchange theory o Examines motivation (e.g.- what propels a person to act?) Why would you… ask someone on a date/get a divorce/go out/go to family reunion/etc.? o Assumptions Methodological individualism- (the individual is real) individual actions reflect society and social structure Prediction and understanding come about by understanding the individual actors motivation Why did you do that? Actors are motivated by self-interests Which option has the most benefit to me personally? Actors are rational Assumes we can calculate the ratio of costs to the rewards o Concepts Rewards and costs Profit or maximizing utility Comparison level (CL) and comparison level for alternatives (CL+) Comparing your situation/goal to another’s situation Rationality (value of rewards changes) Exchanges and equity- decisions are not made in isolation Human capital and social capital- what is gained from interaction Generalizable sources of rewards o Propositions Actors will choose whichever behavior maximizes profit Actors in a situation in which there are no rewards seek to minimize costs- run red light or be more late to work What does exchange theory tell us about family? o Voluntaristic notion- we have choices, so when we engage in a relationship or a family, it was because we wanted to or that was our best option o Thus families and having kids must in some way be rewarding Applying exchange theory to families and intimate relationships o How can exchange theory be used to understand/interpret actors behavior? o What assumptions, concepts, or propositions can you identify? o Based on exchange theory, make a prediction about what the individual/couple/family might do next 1/27/16 Symbolic interactionism framework o Symbolic interaction Key word: symbol Symbols can be anything that carry shared meaning Pay attention to how events and things are interpreted Foundation- George Herbert Mead o It is all about signs, symbols, and meaning Not static- does not stay the same, it will change over time Ex. “Groovy” then, “on fleek” now o Symbol- any sign agreed upon by convention The symbol system must be relatively stable to achieve agreement o By sharing common symbols, humans can adapt to and survive their environment Assumptions o Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of the actor When looking at a specific behavior, we must understand the situation as perceived by actor o Actors define the meaning of context and situation Ex- actor is running from stampede. The situation is perceived as dangerous o Individuals have minds that perceive, reason, sense, and imagine o Society precedes the individual Concepts o The self is made up of the “I” (how I see myself) and “me” (how others might see me) Looking glass self- the notion that the individual is capable of perceiving how their behaviors are viewed and that this information informs the self o Feedback loop 1- action 2- reaction (actual outcome) 3- Notice reaction 4- Internal change (as a result of noticing reaction to own action in comparison with a pre-set criteria or desired income EX- Anthony is lecturing (1) half the class is on FB (2) Anthony notices they are bored (3) so he uses a personal example to get their attention (4) o Socialization is the process by which we acquire the symbols, beliefs, and attitudes of our culture o Role- the place of an individual, that he/she take within a situation, group or society To participate in a role means it is expected that one must follow the rules of that role Roles should be clear Role strain is when individuals do not have enough resources to enact a role or roles Ex- juggling many roles or having a strain on just one o Identity is formed upon the multiple roles an individual plays Society defines your identity based on the meaning placed on roles Individuals organize roles into a hierarchy in each situation Enacting role of student while in class Propositions that tell us something about families o Proposition is a mechanism that links concepts o Quality of role enactment (behavior) in a relationship affects satisfaction with that relationship Quality of behavior affects satisfaction in relationship o The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the higher the quality of role enactment (behavior) The clearer the expectations the better the behavior o The more individuals perceive consensus in their expectations about a role, the less their role strain Consistency Applying symbolic interactionism to families and intimate relationships o How can symbolic interaction theory be used to understand/interpret their behavior? She perceives his roles very differently than he sees himself Her perception: school teacher with cancer His perception: independent, dangerous He’s trying to balance the husband/father role with the role of provider o What assumptions, concepts, or, propositions can you identify? Feedback loop The self 1/29/16 Life course developmental theory Life course developmental framework o 3 complimentary theories Individual life span theory- individual development within context, how an individual is shaped Family developmental theory- patterns and changes within family, dynamic Life course theory- specific stages o It is about STAGE not age Assumptions o Developmental processes are inevitable and important in understanding family o The family group is affected by ALL the levels of analysis o Time is multidimensional Always moving forward through time, cant go back in time Social process time- specific markers used to define stages Marker- specific events that occur that impact the family (marriage, birth, death) Concepts o Family changes and development o Positions (mother, sister, aunt etc.), norms (don’t have incest!), and roles (norms attached to a kinship position, the place that an individual takes within a family, mother, nurturer) Stage graded o Events- any significant occurrence that has meaning to a family (birth, death, marriage) o Family stages - what goes on within a family over a period of time (beginning duration ending) o Transitions- the points of beginning or end (occurs through an event) On or off time Off time ex- having a child before graduating high school o Developmental tasks Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Preoperational (2-6 yrs.) Concrete operational (7-12yrs) Formal operational (12-adult yrs.) o Period, age, cohort 9/11(terrorism) and tech are important in our generation o Family life course- progression of steps (start to end point) Family life course stages o Married couple without children o Child bearing families (oldest birth to 30 months) o Families with preschool children (oldest child 30 months to 6 years) o Families with school age children (oldest child 6-13yrs) o Families with teens (oldest child 13-20 years) o Families with launching centers(first child gone to last child leaving home) o Middle-aged parents (empty nest to retirement) o Aging family members (retirement to death) Propositions o Families are more likely to experience disruptions when internal family norms deviate from institutional family norms o When societal timing and sequencing norms are out of sync with family development, more likely disruption will occur (generally bad outcomes) o Transitions from one stage to another are predicted by the current stage and duration of time spent in that stage Determined by age of oldest child Application o Couple from up- their course through life 2/1/16 IClicker Q- Grandma Jane says TV will rot child’s brain. Mom disagrees (a period effect) IClicker Q- social process time refers to an understanding of the passage of time based upon (specific family markers)- birth, death, etc. IClicker Q- Which is macro level? (NOT social exchange, symbolic interaction, development theory) Systems Framework o General systems theory (1930s-40s) o First application to the family Toward a theory of Schizophrenia (1956) Notion that the schizophrenic individual is a symptom of the family system pathology rather than an individual pathology Double bind o Root of the term “dysfunctional family” o Whole is greater than the sum of its parts Members influence the family system Assumptions o All parts of the system are interconnected o Understanding is only possible by viewing the whole o A systems behavior affects its environment and in turn the environment affects the systems o “Systems” are not reality (heuristics) Practical application to the study of families. Not saying there is a specific system that exists Concepts o System- a set of elements in interaction with each other so that what affects one element affects all other elements o Boundaries- Two types 1.) System and environment 2.) Between members of the system Degree of permeability- refers to how open or closed the boundaries may be o Rules of transformation- rules about how information is exchanged o Feedback Ex.- child gets a bad grade on a test, mom and dad help him (input) and child gets better grade (output) o Equilibrium Homeostasis (Ex- air conditioner) o Subsystems Sibling relationship within family system Don’t appear in isolation- can impact other subsystems and system o System levels First order- basic processes Second order- very complex processes that occur within a system and can affect first order Comparator Propositions that tell us about families o The adaptability of the family system is… Positively related to resources of the system Negatively related to conflict and tension in the system o Second-order goals define the priorities among first-order goals, BUT they are less likely to be revised and abandoned Second order process(being a good parent), first order process (specific parenting behavior) Applying family systems example 1 o Everybody loves Raymond o Mom and dad are mad at each other. Mom and Dad are both mad at grandpa o Naming specific subsystem exchanges in the whole family system o Input and output effects Output- Michael’s story Input- shocked/embarrassed reaction of parents/family Applying family systems example 2 o Debra explains subsystem dynamics between family members Very negative o Degree of Permeability- nuclear family and grandparents is very open o Homeostasis- interactions (venting) o Comparator- mismatch between first and second level processes FAD2230 2/3/16 Ch. 7- Building Relationships Purpose of friendship? o Give support o Outlet o Teach us about ourselves and others o Live longer o Better health (physical and mental) o Enhance self-esteem Friendships (Same sex) o Do friendships operate he same way for men and women? Jonson 2004- females do not have a greater number of friends o Different types of connection Men- focus on activity Women- verbal and self-disclosing Cross sex friendships o Does friendship lead to romantic feeling of dating? OR can men and women be “just friends”? Women view cross sex relationships differently (can be friends) If not attracted to the other person friendship can occur You’re able to see what the other person is like in a relationship and you can see how they act Just friends? (Harvey 2003) o 65% received/sent mixed messages about attraction o 47% were initially attracted (friend was not); struggled to remain friends o 32% reported friend was attracted to them o 30% don’t discuss romantic feelings because it has caused discomfort in the past o 26% included some romantic/sexual behavior (“extension of friendship”) o 9% had been romantically involved, and now struggling to be friends Why date? o Desire for marriage/family/mate selection o Desire for intimacy is a common thread o Fun o Social status o Expectations of others? How do you define… o Dating? o Getting to know each other? o Hooking up? o Hanging out? o Just talking? o Shared meaning is needed!! o How we define our dating patterns differs every generation Where do you start? o Pool of eligible The group of individual who, by virtue of background or birth, are considered most likely to make compatible marriage partners Homogamy- we tend to form relationships with those that are very similar to ourselves Propinquity (geographic closeness) 2/5/16 Read chapters 1, 2, and 7 for exam Marriage squeeze o China and India face crisis for ratio of men versus women There are more men than women o US- African American males are being incarcerated and women are left with pool of eligible Incarceration, unemployment, lower wages, morbidity/illnesses African American men are not able to provide adequate pool of eligible for AA women Factors that shape dating o Macro level factors Cultural norms surrounding mate selection (do you/parents choose?) Technology Urbanization Social and political movements Dating scripts based on sex (guy pays/asks girl out/chivalry) Racial/ethic cultural differences Economic considerations o Micro level factors Personal whims Friends, connection, and ways to meet new people Propinquity Size of pool of eligible people o How do these factors impact dating? Technology widens pool Less frequent to date outside religion Having a job shows responsibility o What do you consider when deciding on a date? What is important to you? Dating may be focused more on looks, advantages to being with that person, adventures Marriage focuses on a person with a drive Assortative mating o Ex: consider for dating- attraction, values, personality o Consider for marriage- conflict, freedom o People are willing to date a wider variety of people than they would consider marrying o Same sex have a much smaller pool to choose from How has dating changed? o Colonial times Courtship= family centered process o Industrialization Emergence of dating and adolescence Mandatory education, new labor laws o Today Dating “rules” aren’t as strict Less limitations (mixed race couples, same sex) Technology helps Many relationships are for fun and not such an emphasis on a checklist for marriage Hooking up- an event in which two people are physically intimate outside a committed relationship without the expectation of future encounters Hooking up o No differences in rate of hooking up for Guys or girls Different religious groups Family environment o More likely to Be white/Caucasian Report higher parental income Use more alcohol Have more favorable attitudes towards hooking up o Women more likely to have a negative reaction to hooking up Post sexual revolution: cohabitation o Cohabitation What does it mean to cohabit? Attitude vs. action Why do people cohabit? Used as a test/substitute for marriage Who? Many different ages o Couples will be happier in marriage if they live together first o It’s a good idea for couples to live together before getting married as a way to “try out” the relationship o Is cohabitation a good “test” for marriage? Cohabiting relationships do not last very long People who cohabit are MORE likely to have an unhappy marriage and subsequent divorce Selection effort- certain characteristics Causal link o How do you define single? Voluntary temporary singles Voluntary stable singles Involuntary temporary singles Involuntary stable singles Exam 1 50 multiple choice o half content(ch. 1-2) o half theory o FAD2230 2/10/16 Ch. 8- Love and Loving Relationships Love languages (Gary Chapman) o Words of affirmation o Acts of service o Receiving gifts o Quality time o Physical touch o Do partners always speak the same love language? No but that doesn’t mean they don’t love each other Love is….(definition) o Strong affection for one another arising out of kinship or personal ties o Attraction based on sexual desire o Affection based on admiration, benevolence, or common interests Love is… (Components) o An enduring bond between two or more people (longevity) o Based on affection and emotion (feelings) o Includes a feeling of obligation toward another (element of responsibility) Does relational conflict impact the… o Sustainability of relationships? o Quality of relationships? o Commitment to relationships? Learn about love early in life may be the first thing we learn Attachment Theory o John Bowlby o Mary Ainsworth o How does childhood attachment style develop into a working model of adult romantic relationships? Working models can be thought of as “cognitive maps that permit successful navigation of an organisms environment; unlike maps, however, working models are not static representation but can grow and change. Working models guide an individuals behavior…” o Secure attachment—70% securely attached o Insecure attachment Anxious ambivalent—15% Avoidant—15% Disorganized/fearful—form in abusive relationships Attachment in romantic relationships o Secure attachment “I find it easy to get close to others” Generally don’t worry about being abandoned o Anxious attachment Other people don’t seem to want to get as close as I do o Avoidant attachment I’m not comfortable being close to others o Disorganized/fearful I sometimes worry I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others 2/12/16 Biological Sociobiological—instinct to pass on genes Biochemical perspective Humans are attracted to certain people Then, the brain releases natural chemicals Gives a rush as we experience attraction Dopamine: Naturally produced in our brains; acts upon the pleasure center When people are newly in love, they tend to have higher brain levels of dopamine Oxytocin: the “love” or the “cuddle” hormone Related to feelings of deep friendship, trust, sexuality, love, bonding, and commitment Facilitates nurturing behaviors 3 Micro-level Approaches Triangular Theory of Love (Sternberg) Passion + Intimacy + Commitment Passion—Physical attraction, romance, sexual arousal o Quickest to develop and quickest to fade Intimacy—Closeness and bonding (self-disclosure, respect, trust, warmth) o Develops more slowly Commitment—Determination to develop the relationship (expecting the “good” and the “bad”) o Develops gradually Styles of Love (Lee) Eros—passionate, strong physical attraction Storge—companionate, mutual love, respect and trust Pragma—practical, sensible Ludus—playful carefree, casual Agape—altruistic, kind, patient—theoretical style made by Lee— not seen often because it is completely selfless love Mania—obsessive, possessive, intense Wheel Theory of Love Development (Reiss) Rapport—sharing interests and activities Self-revelation—sharing intimate information Mutual dependency—depend on partner Personality need fulfillment—lives intertwined Macro-Level Approaches Do Americans generally marry their cousins? NO—not culturally acceptable Does your family prepare (or receive) a dowry for (or from) your future in-laws? —No not common in our culture or time period Love: Men vs. Women Who is more likely to o Be looking for a relationship? o Report falling in love sooner? 2/15/16 Love: Men vs. Women o Men are most likely to be looking to relationship/fall in love sooner o Feminization of love- thinking that its all women Women are always trying to find love Do men and women care differently? o Not really, but.. o When we consider Lee’s Styles of love we see that.. Men tend to be more ludus(carefree) Women lean toward storge and pragma(more practical) (Henrick and Hendrick 2009) o Both men and women value psychic and sexual intimacy Do men and women have different attitudes about sex? o The gender similarities hypothesis Only differ in motor skills and elements of sexuality(attitudes- like casual sex and masturbation) o Views on sex Women are looked down on for having more sexual partners and men are encouraged Sex may carry a lot more meaning for women Women are hyper sexualized with very little clothing (bikini, lingerie) and men are sexualized with more clothing (suits) Lingerie football league vs NFL (double standard gender issue) Dress code is not enforced equally (girls must follow dress code in order to not distract guys) o Sexual script- the norms or rules regarding sexual behavior that govern who, what, where, when, how, and why we have sex Lets apply our research plan o Research question theory hypothesis research methodology o RQ- Are there differences in sexual attitudes between undergraduate men and women? o Theory- Symbolic interactionism Feedback loop Roles- women believe they have to be a mother, make their husband happy through sex, looking sexy o Hypothesis- There will be differences between the two o Research Methodology- quantitative/qualitative Quantitative approach Do you and your grandparents have different attitudes about sex? Data analysis and interpretation assignment! FAD2230 2/22/16 Ch.10- communication, conflict and power What do we mean by communication? o What is communication? An interactive process that uses symbols like words and gestures to both send and receive messages o Concepts of communication (West and Turner 2006) Communication is a transaction Communication is a process Communication includes co-construction of meanings Communication uses symbols What theory does this sound like—symbolic interactionism Communication and meaning o Symbolic interactionism Communication is symbolic- words, gestures, and actions have meaningi o Assumptions of symbolic interactionism Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of the actor Actors define the meaning of context and situation Individuals have minds that perceive, reason, sense, and imagine Society precedes the individual Types of communication o Listening Active listening- extremely attentive listening, there the listener has good eye contact and body language and encourages the other person to continue talking Modern day has many distractions o Verbal communication Spoken exchanges of thoughts, feelings, etc. Different languages can cause obstacles o Nonverbal communication Communication without words Gestures, expressions and body language o Written electronic communication NO CLASS 2/24/16 2/26/16 Do men and women communicate differently? o Type of speech Women may verbalize more Women may be more likely to make accurate assumptions on nonverbal communication Self disclosure- sharing private info about yourself that the other person would not know o Quantity Who talks more? Society assumes women. Research says… o Sample of 396 college students aged 17- 29 recorded over a few days. The ave. number of words a day for Men was 15,669 Women was 16,215 o Connection vs. Content Women- much more personal/private convos Men- more about the content of conversation What shapes our communication? o Race and ethnicity Ebonics (African American English) vs. Standard American English o Social class Politician speeches based on the crowd The way you speak to your mother is different than how you speak to your professor o Cultural differences Barriers of communication o Bypassing- Something said can have multiple meanings Hooking up, love you o Biased language- bias against another group “That’s so gay” o Lack of precision- mistake a word for another “I literally died” o Overgeneralization- sweeping generalizations without enough evidence to back up May emphasize never/always o Polarization- specific extremes, no gray area “This is all your fault” o Static evaluation- judge on a single event that may not be relevant anymore “I’m never going to get married” ten years later get married and somebody brings up the old statement Huge Gator fan and talked trash about FSU didn’t get into UF huge FSU fan o Do’s and Don’ts Do describe your feelings. Don’t evaluate behavior of others. Do solve problems. Don’t try to control others. Do be genuine. Don’t be manipulative. Do empathize. Don’t remain detached. Do be flexible. Don’t be rigid. Do present self as an equal. Don’t present self as superior. What makes communication in romantic relationships different? o Self disclosure- sharing private info about yourself that the other person would not know o Wheel Theory o Conflict Disagree over— Decision making, problem solving, or achieving goals Unavoidable Not inherently negative Types of conflict (easiest to manage) Pseudo conflictcontent conflictvalue conflictego conflict (most difficult to manage) 2/29/16 How do we communicate and deal with conflict? o Regulating couples- use intimacy, closeness, and constructive statements o Nonregulated couples- far more negative interactions Four horsemen of the apocalypse Criticism o Making disapproving judgments or evaluations of ones partner o How is it demonstrated? Pointing out flaws and imperfections o The antidote- focus on what’s working, what’s right work on “I” statements and away from “You/we” Defensiveness o Defending ones self against a presumed attack o How is it demonstrated? Point fingers, blame, counter attack o The antidote- accepting or entertaining the perspective of ones partner without counter attacking Contempt o An attitude of superiority o How is it demonstrated? Talking down to the partner Rolling ones eyes o The antidote- create culture of appreciation in the relationship Stonewalling o Resistance or refusing to listen to ones partner, especially their complaints o How is it demonstrated? Flat affect, non-use of non-verbal cues of listening o The antidote- engaging in the relationship Fifth horsemen? Belligerence o A provocative behavior that challenges the spouses power and authority o How is it demonstrated? “What are you going to do about it?” “So what, what if I do huh? What can you do?” o The antidote- try to make a repair attempt, make it known that the relationship is getting off track FAD2230 2/29/16 Ch. 11- Marriage Marriage: All over the world o Find marriage in every human society o In the US we marry for Benefits Love/soul mate (88% of reason for marrying today) Financial reasons o Other countries marry for Extended family Creating and raising children Continuing family lineage Restricting love o Child marriage- betrothed to marry (or married) prior to puberty o Kinship rules- defining who can be married (caste system in India) o Segregation- diminishing cross-sex interaction o Close supervision- supervising/monitoring children o Relative freedom- managing the social environment 3/2/16 What is happening in marriage today? o Two perspectives Marital decline Marriage is being threatened by hedonistic pursuit of personal happiness “Evidence”- collapse of values in marriage, which has lead to societal problems Marital resilience Marriages are no weaker than in the past People are more cautious about entering marriage Problems with family instability are driven by other social problems (lack of resources, etc.) Marriage is changing in the US o Decline in marriage rates Decline in marriage rates particularly among blacks— high unemployment, skewed sex rate, higher dropout rate, assumption in black community is that marriage is not important to life, this causes a much smaller pool of eligible o Delaying marriage If you delay marriage there is more opportunity for Singlehood Cohabitation Nonmarital sex Nonmarital childbearing o Homogenous vs. heterogamous marriages Homogenous- share certain social characteristics with spouse (race, age, ethnicity, education, and class) Heterogamous- don’t share those social characteristics Interracial marriage o Anti-miscegenation Laws- forbid interracial marriages Marriage across social classes Interfaith marriages- on average those with similar belief systems last longer and are typically happier o Same sex marriages May shift marriage rates up o Changing attitudes about marriage Nonmarital sex Cohabitation Nonmarital childbearing Shared bread winning Division of household labor Even though we see these shifts people still HIGHLY value marriage, want to marry, and view a “good marriage” as important Most people believe nonmarital sex and childbearing as well as cohabitation is more widely accepted 3/4/16 What is a genogram?--> Genogram Project o Graphical representation of a family tree that displays detail data on relationships between individuals o Commonly includes Basic family data- name, sex, dates of birth, dates of death Relationship data- marriages, divorces, separations, emotional connections 3/14/16 Does marriage benefit everyone equally? Marriage premium o Married people are happier, healthier, financially better off than those who are not married o Selection effect hypothesis- people who marry are different from those who do not marry Married couples look out for one another How would you define marital satisfaction and success? o Communication, trust, financial stability, commitment, strong relationship with their children, intimacy, acceptance of differences, compromise, proper expectations o Over arching concepts- stability and quality 3/16/16 Types of long term marriages o Conflict- habituated Verbal conflict, high levels of tension, partners don’t necessarily think there’s anything wrong o Devitalized No passion, empty love, commitment only, engage in marriage out of sense of obligation o Passive-congenial Don’t expect much intimacy in relationship, very little conflict, very little excitement, did not expect to go into marriage o Vital High level physical/emotional intimacy, communication, compromise o Total Very much like “Vital” but very few independent interests, always together and completely dependent on each other How do you measure marital satisfaction? o Survey questions o Look into specific traits o Case study o Daily diary method o 75% of people say they are happy with marriage at least ¾ of the time o About 60% of people say they are “very happy” in their marriage Marital satisfaction- other factors o Relationship with parents o Quality and stability of parents’ marriage If parents are divorced, it is more likely you will get divorced o Shared values, goals, and characteristics o Religious faith and practice o Frequency and satisfaction of sex o Satisfaction with gender roles and shared tasks FAD2230 3/16/16 Ch. 12- Thinking about Parenthood Three emerging options/trends o Remaining child free
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