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Purpose of family?

Purpose of family?


School: Florida State University
Department: Child and Family Studies
Course: Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach
Professor: Mallory greer
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam SG (FAD2230)
Description: This study guide is a bundle of all the previous study guides made. It covers all the chapters we have been tested on.Includes Ch1-17 Notes
Uploaded: 04/23/2016
55 Pages 7 Views 10 Unlocks

Brendan Price (Rating: )

Loved these! I'm a horrible notetaker so I'll be your #1 fan in this class

FAD2230 1/8/15 Ch. 1—Why study families and other close  relationships?

Purpose of family?

∙ Why study families?

o Families are a central institution

 Social institution—sphere of public life with a set of  beliefs and rules organized meet human needs

 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological theory

∙ US Census bureau

o Family- 2+ people living together related by

 Birth

 Marriage

 Adoption

o Does not include unmarried homosexuals/heterosexuals ∙ Social science definition

o Family- relationship by blood, marriage, or affection o Members may

 Cooperate economically

 Care for children

 Consider identity to be connected

∙ Definition of stepfamilies has been adapted

∙ Types of families

o Family of orientation/origin—family you are born into o Family of procreation—family created when you marry  (does not necessarily need children)

o Fictive kin—nonrelatives, bonds of affection (person not  biologically related to you that you consider family)

Stable framework of social relationships that guides our reactions with others.

∙ Why define family?

o Legal reasons

o Policy implications

 Taxes, health insurance/benefits

o Social implications (DTR-define the relationship)

o Shared meaning

∙ Purpose of family?

o Economic cooperation

 Help provide food, shelter, etc.

o Care, warmth, protection, intimacy

o Reproduce and socialize children

 Socialization- teach healthy relationships, proper  interactions, acceptable behavior  

∙ Teaching children the rules/expectations of  


∙ Modeling the rules/expectations of society

o Regulate sexual behavior

 Intercourse within family is socially unacceptable o Social placement, status, and roles

o Property and inheritance

 Determining heirs We also discuss several other topics like edpsy 14 psu

∙ Themes of this class

o Theme 1- linking micro/macro level perspectives on  families

Why marriage is important?

o Theme 2- families are always changing

o Theme 3- the importance of social science theory and  research

∙ Our relationships are inextricably related to the social structure  found in our society

o Social structure- stable framework of social relationships  that guides our reactions with others

∙ Theme 1- linking micro/macro level perspectives on families o Micro level factors

 Focused on individual and his/hers interactions

 We have human agency—we are not passive  

participants in society

o Macro level factors

 Focused on how marriage, families, and close  

relationships are interconnected with society and  

social structure

o Micro components

 Personal choices, behaviors, feelings,  

communication, decisions, constraints, values,  


o Macro components

 Culture, history, power and inequality, social  

institutions, social status, social movements

o Micro/macro factors that impact dating

 Macro

∙ Stereotypical forces- homosexual relationships

∙ Religion- certain things are acceptable in  Don't forget about the age old question of infer the process by which early autotrophic prokaryotes produce oxygen


 Micro

∙ Opposite values of partner

∙ Previous relationships

∙ Communication- stonewalling, passive  


o Micro/macro factors that impact divorce

 Macro

∙ Economic/money issues

∙ Culture- older generations vs. current

 Micro

∙ Different parenting styles- co-parenting

∙ Time/money management


∙ Theme 2- families are always changing

o Marriage- institutional arrangement b/n persons to  publically recognize social and intimate bonds

 Why important?

∙ Benefits, privileges, shared  

meaning(ceremony, typical wear, etc.),  


o William Stephens (1963) definition of marriage If you want to learn more check out uncw environmental studies

 Socially legit sexual union

 Begun with a public announcement

 Undertaken with some idea of permanence

 Assumed with a more or less explicit marriage  

contract that spells out reciprocal obligations of  


∙ Ex- monogamy, procreation, good parenting,  

economic stability, respect, love

o Family patterns across cultures (macro)

 Marriage patterns

∙ Monogamy-marriage b/n one woman and one  


∙ Polygamy- system that allows for more than  

one spouse at a time (illegal in US- still  


o Polygyny- pattern in which husbands  

have more than one wife

o Polyandry- system allows for women to  

have more than one spouse at a time

 Ex- places where female children  

suffer from infanticide leading to a  We also discuss several other topics like What are land resources?

lower female population

 Patterns of authority

∙ Patriarchy- norms/expectation that men have  

natural right to be in positions of authority over


∙ Matriarchy- “ “ power and authority vested

in women

∙ Egalitarian- expectation that power and  

authority are equally vested in both men and  


 Patterns of descent

∙ Bilateral- descent traced through both male  and female sides of the family

∙ Patrilineal- descent traced through only mans  family line We also discuss several other topics like the results of harlow’s experiment were overwhelming with an average infant monkey spending _____blank hour(s) per day on the cloth mother and _____blank hour(s) per day on the wire mother.

∙ Matrilineal- descent exclusively traced through  women’s families (more rare)

o Ex- native American cultures

 Patterns of residence

∙ Neolocal- expectation that newly married  

couple establishes a residence and lives there  


∙ Patrilocal- expectation that newly married  

couple lives with husbands family

∙ Matrilocal- expectation that newly married  

couple live with family of the wife

o Colonial America

 Nuclear family (immediate family- mom, dad, kids 6+)

 Families were primary social institution (work, school, health care, etc.) Don't forget about the age old question of psych 410 class notes

 Family composition (6+ children in each family, no  divorce/remarriage)

 Marriages and divorce

∙ Arranged marriages

∙ Remarried when widowed

∙ Connecticut’s Divorce law:

o “Adultery, fraudulent contract, or willful  

desertion for 3 years with total neglect of

duty, or seven years provisional absence  

being not heard of after due enquiry  

made and certified”

∙ Massachusetts b/n 1639-1692: 27 divorces  


o b/n 1692-1796: Governor of Mass. Heard  

all 115 divorce petitions

 Children as property of their fathers

∙ Seen as mini adults

 Experience for indentured servants and slaves ∙ Slave families were frequently broken up and  sold off

∙ Many slave owners fathered children with their  slaves

o Industrialization, Urbanization, and immigration  Large urban industry

 Children and families

 Social stratification

∙ Poor and working class

∙ Middle and upper class

o 20th century families

 WWI, WWII, Great Depression (macro)

 Women in the workplace

∙ Men overseas, women take over jobs in the  


 Increased technology—automobiles allowed families  to choose were they want to live not based on where  they work

 Companionate family—no more arranged marriages  American theme—criticism for men taking paternity  leaver

o Profile of US families

 Marry later (25-27 yrs)

 Smaller families (1/5 couple wont have children)

 More working moms (2/3 work)

 Elderly pop. Increased (1900-4% Now- fastest  

growing population)

 More single parent households and binuclear—

multiple families interacting


∙ Theme 3- the importance of social science research o Different goals or research

 Describe phenomenon (prevalence)

 Examine factors associated with phenomenon  


 Explain cause and effect (causation)

 Examine meanings and experiences

o Types of research

 Quantitative Research

∙ Responses= quantifiable/numeric; choose from

a pre-determined group of possible answers

o “Check the appropriate response..”

 Qualitative research

∙ Reponses= open-ended/not restricted to a pre

determined group of possible answers

o “Tell me about your experience with..”

 Methods of research

∙ Survey- form of research that gather info about

attitudes or behaviors through the answer that  

people give to questions

o Limitations- response participation  

varies, bias

o Typically quantitative, but can be  


∙ In depth interview- method that allows an  

interviewer to obtain responses to questions

o Qualitative

∙ Experiment- controlled method for determining cause and effect

o Quantitative

∙ Focus group- small group of people who are  brought together to discuss a particular topic

o Qualitative

∙ Observational study- research method that  

goes into the natural setting and observes  

people in action

o Role of researcher- active participant,  

discussion, teaching, passive observer

o Qualitative

∙ Secondary analysis- method in which the data  was collected for some other purpose but still  

is useful to the researcher

o Can be both qualitative and quantitative

o How do we study families?

 Research question  theory  hypothesis Research  methodology

 Theory- general framework, explanation, or tool used to understand and describe the real world (Smith and Hamon, 2012) table on page 22

 Research question describes

∙ What you want to know (IV and DV variables) ∙ The population you want to study

 Research example

∙ Research question: Do FSU students who have  experienced a parental divorce have less  

favorable views of marriage?

∙ Goal: Describe phenomenon (prevalence

∙ IV- whether their parents were divorced

∙ DV- their views on marriage

∙ Hypothesis: If the students parents were  

divorced, they would have a negative view of  


o What do we know about the class of 2013?

 Out of 100 members of a HS class, roughly

∙ 71 have experience physical assault ∙ 64 have had sexual intercourse

∙ 32 have experienced some form of child  maltreatment

∙ 28 victimized sexually

∙ 23 smoked marijuana is the past 30 days ∙ 22 living in poverty

∙ 21 had an STI in the past year

∙ 3-4 females have been/are pregnant; 1 had  abortion

∙ 1-2 in foster care

FAD2230 1/15/16 Ch 2- Social status: Sex and gender, race and ethnicity, social class

∙ Our choices, even personal ones, do not exist in a vacuum o Society impacts us

∙ Social stratification

o Hierarchal ranking of categories of people within society o All groups are NOT treated equally

o More, less, or different opportunities

 Can’t change race, gander, etc.

∙ Sociological Imagination

o Personal experiences are shaped by forces within our  society

o Society empowers and constrains us

 Women expected to be stay at home mothers

∙ Basics—What is the difference between the terms sex and  gender?

o Sex- biological differences

o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences o Androgyny- having both masculine and feminine traits  Related to gender

∙ Are men and women really from different planets? (no) o Biological differences

o Some cognitive differences

 No difference in intelligence—processing skills can  differ

∙ Examined 46 meta-analyses related to  

o Cognitive abilities, Communication, Social an personality  variable, Psychological well-being

o Findings

 Very few differences

 78% of “gender differences” were small except in  ∙ motor performance

∙ measures of sexuality

o Why does everyone talk about the differences?

 Gender socialization- taught the cultural norms  

associated with being male/female

 Who teaches us?—agents of socialization

∙ Parents, teachers, toys, peers, the media,  


∙ Agents of socialization

o Parents- girls will receive more nurture/help than boys,  communication varies with baby, nursery/bedroom

decorations, activities child is enrolled in, rough house  (boys) vs. play house(girls)

o Schools- hidden curriculum (enforcing girls to learn  compliance), description of men and women roles(egg and  sperm)

o Toys- dolls vs. trucks, video games (women not seen as  protagonists, instead highly sexualized)

o Peers- girls who play outside with the boys are tomboys,  boys who aren’t super tough are seen as sissies

o Mass Media- women seen as damsel in distress while men  are the super strong, tough, manly, heroes who deserve  whatever woman they set their mind on (Gaston in Beauty  and the Beast)

∙ How does gender influence family an close relationships? o Woman do 2/3 times domestic labor than men


∙ Refresh my memory

o Sex- biological

o Gender- culturally and socially constructed differences ∙ Race vs. Ethnicity

o What’s the difference?

 Race- real or perceived physical traits deemed  important by society

 Ethnicity- shared cultural characteristics

o Ethnicity is the more useful term because race is almost  entirely socially constructed

o Minority group

 What makes them minority?

∙ A category of people who have less power than

the dominant group, and who are subject to  

unequal treatment

o Social capital- social networking connections, which can be  a valuable resource

o Different experiences based on skin color race

 Prejudice (attitude)- stereotypes

 Discrimination (behavior)

∙ Individual discrimination- one or small group  

engaging in discriminatory actions

∙ Institutional discrimination- macro level (ex.  

Columbus, Brown vs. board of education), more

engrained in mainstream society

∙ White privilege

o By Peggy McIntosh

o “White privilege is like an invisible weightless knapsack of  special provisions…”

∙ Racial/Ethnic family groups

o Cultural equivalent- emphasizes similarities to mainstream  white families

o Cultural deviant- views distinguishing qualities of minority  groups as negative or pathological  

o Cultural variant- emphasizes cultural and contextual  factors when understanding minority family groups  ∙ Cultural trends on families

o Fastest growing minority group? Why?

 Hispanics- because of their high birth rates and high  immigration rates

o The “model minority”?

 Asians- because they are seen as genius families  have higher education availability, born into stable  

married family, etc.)

o The highest infant mortality rate and lowest life  


 Native Americans- because of high violence and  suicide rates as well as substance use, much bigger  emphasis on extended family (3/4 homes consist of  extended families)


∙ Social class

o Socioeconomic status

 Occupational prestige(job/rank—doctor is seen more  prestigious than teacher), education, income

∙ Classes in the US- Open class system

o Gilbert and Kahl(1993) identified 6 social classes in US.  Upper class- 3% (old money)

 Upper middle- 20% (doctors, etc)

 Middle class- 40% (average income- work stability)  Working class-20% (lower average income- lots of  blue collar)

 Working poor-15% (just above poverty line- many  single parent families)

 Underclass-3% (unemployed)

∙ American dream: social mobility

o Upward movement from one class to


 Most will stay in the same social

class they were born into

∙ Caste system in India 

o Supreme court of India ruled that

social organization based on caste is

inherited and cannot be changed

o BUT discrimination against lower

castes is illegal

∙ 46.2 million people live in Poverty in US

o 1/6 Americans

o Divorce can put a lot of strain on a

family that had been just over the poverty line. One  income then has to support two households instead of two  incomes for one household.

∙ How do you move out of poverty?

o Education

 FSU(in state): $21,065

 Poverty line of family of 4- $23,000 ish

∙ Influence of poverty on kids

o Poor health/nutrition- cheaper to get a McDonalds  cheeseburger than fresh food

o “Lower quality” home environment- inconsistent parenting o Parental stress and mental health problems- higher  prevalence of mental health issues in lower classes can  spill over to effect child

o Child behavior problems and mental health- higher levels  of anxiety, acting out, violence

o Fewer resources for learning

o Housing problems- unstable, constant transitions o Poor quality neighborhood- high levels of crime

FAD2230 1/25/2016 Social exchange theory

∙ Social exchange theory

o Theory(Our “lens” of families)

 Provide basic assumptions about nature and society  Range from macro to micro perspective

 Based in utilitarian thinking

∙ Rational choice and social exchange framework

o Utility: ability of something got satisfy needs or wants, the  quality or stats of being useful/profitable/beneficial

o Rooted on utilitarianism- philosophical perspective that  suggests that individuals rationally weigh the rewards and  costs associated with behavioral choices

o Utilitarian thinking

 Social exchange theory and rationale choice theory ∙ Share many of the same core concepts,  

assumptions, and propositions (both rooted in  

utilitarian thinking)

∙ F. Ivan Nye’s (1979) application of Exchange  

Theory is rooted in these theories

∙ For our purposes we will work from this  

interpretation and discuss the application of  

“Exchange Theory”

∙ The organization of a theory

o Assumption

 A premise that must be accepted

o Concept

 Perceived pattern or regularity that exists within a  theory

o Proposition

 A mechanism which links concepts

∙ Exchange theory

o Examines motivation (e.g.- what propels a person to act?)  Why would you… ask someone on a date/get a  

divorce/go out/go to family reunion/etc.?

o Assumptions

 Methodological individualism- (the individual is real)  individual actions reflect society and social structure

 Prediction and understanding come about by  

understanding the individual actors motivation  

∙ Why did you do that?

 Actors are motivated by self-interests

∙ Which option has the most benefit to me  


 Actors are rational

∙ Assumes we can calculate the ratio of costs to  

the rewards

o Concepts

 Rewards and costs

 Profit or maximizing utility

 Comparison level (CL) and comparison level for  

alternatives (CL+)

∙ Comparing your situation/goal to another’s  


 Rationality (value of rewards changes)

 Exchanges and equity- decisions are not made in  isolation

 Human capital and social capital- what is gained from interaction

 Generalizable sources of rewards

o Propositions

 Actors will choose whichever behavior maximizes  profit

 Actors in a situation in which there are no rewards  seek to minimize costs- run red light or be more late  to work

∙ What does exchange theory tell us about family? o Voluntaristic notion- we have choices, so when we engage  in a relationship or a family, it was because we wanted to  or that was our best option

o Thus families and having kids must in some way be  rewarding

∙ Applying exchange theory to families and intimate relationships o How can exchange theory be used to understand/interpret  actors behavior?

o What assumptions, concepts, or propositions can you  identify?

o Based on exchange theory, make a prediction about what  the individual/couple/family might do next


∙ Symbolic interactionism framework

o Symbolic interaction

 Key word: symbol

 Symbols can be anything that carry shared meaning  Pay attention to how events and things are  


∙ Foundation- George Herbert Mead

o It is all about signs, symbols, and meaning

 Not static- does not stay the same, it will change  over time

∙ Ex. “Groovy” then, “on fleek” now

o Symbol- any sign agreed upon by convention

 The symbol system must be relatively stable to  

achieve agreement

o By sharing common symbols, humans can adapt to and  survive their environment

∙ Assumptions

o Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of  the actor

 When looking at a specific behavior, we must  

understand the situation as perceived by actor

o Actors define the meaning of context and situation  Ex- actor is running from stampede. The situation is  perceived as dangerous

o Individuals have minds that perceive, reason, sense, and  imagine

o Society precedes the individual

∙ Concepts

o The self is made up of the “I” (how I see myself) and “me”  (how others might see me)

 Looking glass self- the notion that the individual is  capable of perceiving how their behaviors are viewed and that this information informs the self

o Feedback loop

 1- action

 2- reaction (actual outcome)

 3- Notice reaction

 4- Internal change (as a result of noticing reaction to  own action in comparison with a pre-set criteria or  

desired income

 EX- Anthony is lecturing (1) half the class is on FB (2)  Anthony notices they are bored (3) so he uses a  

personal example to get their attention (4)

o Socialization is the process by which we acquire the  symbols, beliefs, and attitudes of our culture

o Role- the place of an individual, that he/she take within a  situation, group or society

 To participate in a role means it is expected that one  must follow the rules of that role

 Roles should be clear

 Role strain is when individuals do not have enough  resources to enact a role or roles

∙ Ex- juggling many roles or having a strain on  

just one

o Identity is formed upon the multiple roles an individual  plays

 Society defines your identity based on the meaning  placed on roles

 Individuals organize roles into a hierarchy in each  situation

∙ Enacting role of student while in class

∙ Propositions that tell us something about families o Proposition is a mechanism that links concepts

o Quality of role enactment (behavior) in a relationship  affects satisfaction with that relationship

 Quality of behavior affects satisfaction in relationship o The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the  higher the quality of role enactment (behavior)

 The clearer the expectations the better the behavior o The more individuals perceive consensus in their  expectations about a role, the less their role strain

 Consistency  

∙ Applying symbolic interactionism to families and intimate  relationships

o How can symbolic interaction theory be used to  

understand/interpret their behavior?

 She perceives his roles very differently than he sees  himself

∙ Her perception: school teacher with cancer

∙ His perception: independent, dangerous

 He’s trying to balance the husband/father role with  the role of provider

o What assumptions, concepts, or, propositions can you  identify?

 Feedback loop

 The self


∙ Life course developmental theory

∙ Life course developmental framework

o 3 complimentary theories

 Individual life span theory- individual development  within context, how an individual is shaped

 Family developmental theory- patterns and changes  within family, dynamic

 Life course theory- specific stages

o It is about STAGE not age

∙ Assumptions

o Developmental processes are inevitable and important in  understanding family

o The family group is affected by ALL the levels of analysis o Time is multidimensional

 Always moving forward through time, cant go back in time

 Social process time- specific markers used to define  stages

∙ Marker- specific events that occur that impact  

the family (marriage, birth, death)

∙ Concepts

o Family changes and development

o Positions (mother, sister, aunt etc.), norms (don’t have  incest!), and roles (norms attached to a kinship position,  the place that an individual takes within a family, mother,  nurturer)

 Stage graded

o Events- any significant occurrence that has meaning to a  family (birth, death, marriage)

o Family stages - what goes on within a family over a period  of time (beginning duration ending)  

o Transitions- the points of beginning or end (occurs through  an event)

 On or off time

∙ Off time ex- having a child before graduating  

high school

o Developmental tasks

 Sensorimotor (0-2 years)

 Preoperational (2-6 yrs.)

 Concrete operational (7-12yrs)

 Formal operational (12-adult yrs.)

o Period, age, cohort

 9/11(terrorism) and tech are important in our  


o Family life course- progression of steps (start to end point) ∙ Family life course stages

o Married couple without children

o Child bearing families (oldest birth to 30 months) o Families with preschool children (oldest child 30 months to  6 years)

o Families with school age children (oldest child 6-13yrs) o Families with teens (oldest child 13-20 years)

o Families with launching centers(first child gone to last child leaving home)

o Middle-aged parents (empty nest to retirement)

o Aging family members (retirement to death)

∙ Propositions

o Families are more likely to experience disruptions when  internal family norms deviate from institutional family  norms

o When societal timing and sequencing norms are out of  sync with family development, more likely disruption will  occur (generally bad outcomes)

o Transitions from one stage to another are predicted by the  current stage and duration of time spent in that stage   Determined by age of oldest child

∙ Application

o Couple from up- their course through life


IClicker Q- Grandma Jane says TV will rot child’s brain. Mom disagrees  (a period effect)

IClicker Q- social process time refers to an understanding of the  passage of time based upon (specific family markers)- birth, death, etc. IClicker Q- Which is macro level? (NOT social exchange, symbolic  interaction, development theory)

∙ Systems Framework

o General systems theory (1930s-40s)

o First application to the family

 Toward a theory of Schizophrenia (1956)

∙ Notion that the schizophrenic individual is a  

symptom of the family system pathology rather

than an individual pathology

∙ Double bind

o Root of the term “dysfunctional family”

o Whole is greater than the sum of its parts

 Members influence the family system

∙ Assumptions

o All parts of the system are interconnected

o Understanding is only possible by viewing the whole o A systems behavior affects its environment and in turn the  environment affects the systems

o “Systems” are not reality (heuristics)

 Practical application to the study of families. Not  

saying there is a specific system that exists

∙ Concepts

o System- a set of elements in interaction with each other so  that what affects one element affects all other elements o Boundaries- Two types

 1.) System and environment

 2.) Between members of the system

 Degree of permeability- refers to how open or closed  the boundaries may be

o Rules of transformation- rules about how information is  exchanged

o Feedback

 Ex.- child gets a bad grade on a test, mom and dad  help him (input) and child gets better grade (output) o Equilibrium

 Homeostasis (Ex- air conditioner)

o Subsystems  

 Sibling relationship within family system

 Don’t appear in isolation- can impact other  

subsystems and system

o System levels

 First order- basic processes

 Second order- very complex processes that occur  within a system and can affect first order

∙ Comparator

∙ Propositions that tell us about families

o The adaptability of the family system is…

 Positively related to resources of the system

 Negatively related to conflict and tension in the  


o Second-order goals define the priorities among first-order  goals, BUT they are less likely to be revised and abandoned  Second order process(being a good parent), first  order process (specific parenting behavior)

∙ Applying family systems example 1

o Everybody loves Raymond

o Mom and dad are mad at each other. Mom and Dad are  both mad at grandpa

o Naming specific subsystem exchanges in the whole family  system

o Input and output effects

 Output- Michael’s story

 Input- shocked/embarrassed reaction of  


∙ Applying family systems example 2

o Debra explains subsystem dynamics between family  members

 Very negative

o Degree of Permeability- nuclear family and grandparents is  very open

o Homeostasis- interactions (venting)

o Comparator- mismatch between first and second level  processes

FAD2230 2/3/16 Ch. 7- Building Relationships

∙ Purpose of friendship?

o Give support

o Outlet

o Teach us about ourselves and others

o Live longer

o Better health (physical and mental)

o Enhance self-esteem

∙ Friendships (Same sex)

o Do friendships operate he same way for men and women?  Jonson 2004- females do not have a greater number  of friends

o Different types of connection

 Men- focus on activity

 Women- verbal and self-disclosing

∙ Cross sex friendships

o Does friendship lead to romantic feeling of dating? OR can  men and women be “just friends”?

 Women view cross sex relationships differently (can  be friends)

 If not attracted to the other person friendship can  


 You’re able to see what the other person is like in a  relationship and you can see how they act

∙ Just friends? (Harvey 2003)

o 65% received/sent mixed messages about attraction  o 47% were initially attracted (friend was not); struggled to  remain friends  

o 32% reported friend was attracted to them

o 30% don’t discuss romantic feelings because it has caused  discomfort in the past

o 26% included some romantic/sexual behavior (“extension  of friendship”)

o 9% had been romantically involved, and now struggling to  be friends

∙ Why date?

o Desire for marriage/family/mate selection

o Desire for intimacy is a common thread

o Fun

o Social status

o Expectations of others?

∙ How do you define…

o Dating?

o Getting to know each other?

o Hooking up?

o Hanging out?

o Just talking?

o Shared meaning is needed!!

o How we define our dating patterns differs every generation ∙ Where do you start?

o Pool of eligible

 The group of individual who, by virtue of background  or birth, are considered most likely to make  

compatible marriage partners

 Homogamy- we tend to form relationships with those  that are very similar to ourselves

 Propinquity (geographic closeness)


Read chapters 1, 2, and 7 for exam

∙ Marriage squeeze  

o China and India face crisis for ratio of men versus women  There are more men than women

o US- African American males are being incarcerated and  women are left with pool of eligible

 Incarceration, unemployment, lower wages,  

morbidity/illnesses  African American men are not  

able to provide adequate pool of eligible for AA  


∙ Factors that shape dating

o Macro level factors

 Cultural norms surrounding mate selection (do  

you/parents choose?)

 Technology

 Urbanization

 Social and political movements

 Dating scripts based on sex (guy pays/asks girl  


 Racial/ethic cultural differences

 Economic considerations

o Micro level factors

 Personal whims

 Friends, connection, and ways to meet new people

 Propinquity

 Size of pool of eligible people

o How do these factors impact dating?

 Technology widens pool

 Less frequent to date outside religion

 Having a job shows responsibility

o What do you consider when deciding on a date? What is  important to you?

 Dating may be focused more on looks, advantages to being with that person, adventures

 Marriage focuses on a person with a drive

∙ Assortative mating

o Ex: consider for dating- attraction, values, personality o Consider for marriage- conflict, freedom

o People are willing to date a wider variety of people than  they would consider marrying

o Same sex have a much smaller pool to choose from  ∙ How has dating changed?

o Colonial times

 Courtship= family centered process

o Industrialization

 Emergence of dating and adolescence

∙ Mandatory education, new labor laws

o Today

 Dating “rules” aren’t as strict

 Less limitations (mixed race couples, same sex)

 Technology helps

 Many relationships are for fun and not such an  

emphasis on a checklist for marriage

 Hooking up- an event in which two people are  

physically intimate outside a committed relationship  without the expectation of future encounters

∙ Hooking up

o No differences in rate of hooking up for

 Guys or girls

 Different religious groups

 Family environment

o More likely to

 Be white/Caucasian

 Report higher parental income

 Use more alcohol

 Have more favorable attitudes towards hooking up  o Women more likely to have a negative reaction to hooking  up

∙ Post sexual revolution: cohabitation

o Cohabitation

 What does it mean to cohabit?

∙ Attitude vs. action

 Why do people cohabit?

∙ Used as a test/substitute for marriage

 Who?

∙ Many different ages

o Couples will be happier in marriage if they live together  first

o It’s a good idea for couples to live together before getting  married as a way to “try out” the relationship

o Is cohabitation a good “test” for marriage?

 Cohabiting relationships do not last very long

 People who cohabit are MORE likely to have an  

unhappy marriage and subsequent divorce

∙ Selection effort- certain characteristics

∙ Causal link

o How do you define single?

 Voluntary temporary singles

 Voluntary stable singles

 Involuntary temporary singles

 Involuntary stable singles

Exam 1

∙ 50 multiple choice

o half content(ch. 1-2)

o half theory


FAD2230 2/10/16 Ch. 8- Love and Loving  Relationships

∙ Love languages (Gary Chapman)

o Words of affirmation

o Acts of service

o Receiving gifts

o Quality time

o Physical touch

o Do partners always speak the same love language?  No but that doesn’t mean they don’t love each other ∙ Love is….(definition)

o Strong affection for one another arising out of kinship or  personal ties

o Attraction based on sexual desire

o Affection based on admiration, benevolence, or common  interests

∙ Love is… (Components)

o An enduring bond between two or more people (longevity) o Based on affection and emotion (feelings)

o Includes a feeling of obligation toward another (element of  responsibility)

∙ Does relational conflict impact the…

o Sustainability of relationships?

o Quality of relationships?

o Commitment to relationships?

∙ Learn about love early in life may be the first thing we learn ∙ Attachment Theory

o John Bowlby

o Mary Ainsworth

o How does childhood attachment style develop into a  working model of adult romantic relationships?

 Working models can be thought of as “cognitive  

maps that permit successful navigation of an  

organisms environment; unlike maps, however,  

working models are not static representation but can  grow and change. Working models guide an  

individuals behavior…”

o Secure attachment—70% securely attached

o Insecure attachment

 Anxious ambivalent—15%

 Avoidant—15%

 Disorganized/fearful—form in abusive relationships ∙ Attachment in romantic relationships

o Secure attachment

 “I find it easy to get close to others”

 Generally don’t worry about being abandoned

o Anxious attachment

 Other people don’t seem to want to get as close as I  do

o Avoidant attachment

 I’m not comfortable being close to others

o Disorganized/fearful

 I sometimes worry I will be hurt if I allow myself to  

become too close to others



∙ Sociobiological—instinct to pass on genes

Biochemical perspective

∙ Humans are attracted to certain people

∙ Then, the brain releases natural chemicals

∙ Gives a rush as we experience attraction

Dopamine: Naturally produced in our brains; acts upon the pleasure  center

∙ When people are newly in love, they tend to have higher brain  levels of dopamine

Oxytocin: the “love” or the “cuddle” hormone

∙ Related to feelings of deep friendship, trust, sexuality, love,  bonding, and commitment

∙ Facilitates nurturing behaviors

3 Micro-level Approaches

Triangular Theory of Love (Sternberg)

Passion + Intimacy + Commitment

∙ Passion—Physical attraction, romance, sexual arousal o Quickest to develop and quickest to fade

∙ Intimacy—Closeness and bonding (self-disclosure, respect, trust,  warmth)

o Develops more slowly

∙ Commitment—Determination to develop the relationship  (expecting the “good” and the “bad”)

o Develops gradually

Styles of Love (Lee)

∙ Eros—passionate, strong physical attraction

∙ Storge—companionate, mutual love, respect and trust ∙ Pragma—practical, sensible

∙ Ludus—playful carefree, casual

∙ Agape—altruistic, kind, patient—theoretical style made by Lee— not seen often because it is completely selfless love

∙ Mania—obsessive, possessive, intense

Wheel Theory of Love Development (Reiss)

∙ Rapport—sharing interests and activities

∙ Self-revelation—sharing intimate information

∙ Mutual dependency—depend on partner

∙ Personality need fulfillment—lives intertwined

Macro-Level Approaches

Do Americans generally marry their cousins? NO—not culturally  acceptable

Does your family prepare (or receive) a dowry for (or from) your future  in-laws? —No not common in our culture or time period

Love: Men vs. Women

∙ Who is more likely to  

o Be looking for a relationship?

o Report falling in love sooner?


∙ Love: Men vs. Women

o Men are most likely to be looking to relationship/fall in love  sooner

o Feminization of love- thinking that its all women

 Women are always trying to find love

∙ Do men and women care differently?

o Not really, but..

o When we consider Lee’s Styles of love we see that..  Men tend to be more ludus(carefree)

 Women lean toward storge and pragma(more  

practical) (Henrick and Hendrick 2009)

o Both men and women value psychic and sexual intimacy ∙ Do men and women have different attitudes about sex? o The gender similarities hypothesis

 Only differ in motor skills and elements of  

sexuality(attitudes- like casual sex and masturbation)

o Views on sex

 Women are looked down on for having more sexual  partners and men are encouraged

 Sex may carry a lot more meaning for women

 Women are hyper sexualized with very little clothing  (bikini, lingerie) and men are sexualized with more  

clothing (suits)

 Lingerie football league vs NFL (double standard  gender issue)

 Dress code is not enforced equally (girls must follow  dress code in order to not distract guys)

o Sexual script- the norms or rules regarding sexual behavior that govern who, what, where, when, how, and why we  have sex

∙ Lets apply our research plan

o Research question theory hypothesis research  methodology

o RQ- Are there differences in sexual attitudes between  undergraduate men and women?

o Theory- Symbolic interactionism

 Feedback loop

 Roles- women believe they have to be a mother,  make their husband happy through sex, looking sexy o Hypothesis- There will be differences between the two o Research Methodology- quantitative/qualitative

 Quantitative approach

∙ Do you and your grandparents have different attitudes about  sex?

∙ Data analysis and interpretation assignment!

FAD2230 2/22/16 Ch.10- communication, conflict and power

∙ What do we mean by communication?

o What is communication?

 An interactive process that uses symbols like words  and gestures to both send and receive messages

o Concepts of communication (West and Turner 2006)  Communication is a transaction

 Communication is a process

 Communication includes co-construction of meanings  Communication uses symbols

∙ What theory does this sound like—symbolic interactionism ∙ Communication and meaning

o Symbolic interactionism

 Communication is symbolic- words, gestures, and  

actions have meaningi

o Assumptions of symbolic interactionism

 Human behavior must be understood by the meaning of the actor

 Actors define the meaning of context and situation

 Individuals have minds that perceive, reason, sense,  and imagine

 Society precedes the individual

∙ Types of communication

o Listening

 Active listening

extremely attentive

listening, there the listener has

good eye contact and body

language and encourages

the other person to

continue talking

∙ Modern day has many


o Verbal communication

 Spoken exchanges of thoughts, feelings, etc.

 Different languages can cause obstacles

o Nonverbal communication

 Communication without words

 Gestures, expressions and body language  

o Written electronic communication

NO CLASS 2/24/16


∙ Do men and women communicate differently?

o Type of speech

 Women may verbalize more

 Women may be more likely to make accurate  

assumptions on nonverbal communication

 Self disclosure- sharing private info about yourself  that the other person would not know

o Quantity

 Who talks more?  

∙ Society assumes women. Research says…

o Sample of 396 college students aged 17-

29 recorded over a few days. The ave.  

number of words a day for

 Men was 15,669

 Women was 16,215  

o Connection vs. Content

 Women- much more personal/private convos

 Men- more about the content of conversation

∙ What shapes our communication?

o Race and ethnicity

 Ebonics (African American English) vs. Standard  

American English

o Social class  

 Politician speeches based on the crowd

 The way you speak to your mother is different than  how you speak to your professor

o Cultural differences

∙ Barriers of communication

o Bypassing- Something said can have multiple meanings  Hooking up, love you

o Biased language- bias against another group

 “That’s so gay”

o Lack of precision- mistake a word for another

 “I literally died”

o Overgeneralization- sweeping generalizations without  enough evidence to back up

 May emphasize never/always

o Polarization- specific extremes, no gray area

 “This is all your fault”

o Static evaluation- judge on a single event that may not be  relevant anymore

 “I’m never going to get married” ten years later get  married and somebody brings up the old statement

 Huge Gator fan and talked trash about FSU didn’t  get into UF huge FSU fan

o Do’s and Don’ts

 Do describe your feelings. Don’t evaluate behavior of others.

 Do solve problems. Don’t try to control others.

 Do be genuine. Don’t be manipulative.

 Do empathize. Don’t remain detached.

 Do be flexible. Don’t be rigid.

 Do present self as an equal. Don’t present self as  superior.

∙ What makes communication in romantic relationships different? o Self disclosure- sharing private info about yourself that the  other person would not know

o Wheel Theory

o Conflict

 Disagree over—

∙ Decision making, problem solving, or achieving


 Unavoidable

 Not inherently negative

 Types of conflict

∙ (easiest to manage) Pseudo conflictcontent  

conflictvalue conflictego conflict (most  

difficult to manage)


∙ How do we communicate and deal with conflict?

o Regulating couples- use intimacy, closeness, and  constructive statements

o Nonregulated couples- far more negative interactions  Four horsemen of the apocalypse

∙ Criticism

o Making disapproving judgments or  

evaluations of ones partner

o How is it demonstrated?

 Pointing out flaws and  


o The antidote- focus on what’s working,  

what’s right work on “I” statements and

away from “You/we”

∙ Defensiveness

o Defending ones self against a presumed  


o How is it demonstrated?

 Point fingers, blame, counter attack

o The antidote- accepting or entertaining  the perspective of ones partner without  

counter attacking

∙ Contempt

o An attitude of superiority

o How is it demonstrated?

 Talking down to the partner

 Rolling ones eyes

o The antidote- create culture of  

appreciation in the relationship

∙ Stonewalling

o Resistance or refusing to listen to ones  partner, especially their complaints

o How is it demonstrated?

 Flat affect, non-use of non-verbal  

cues of listening

o The antidote- engaging in the  


 Fifth horsemen?

∙ Belligerence

o A provocative behavior that challenges  the spouses power and authority

o How is it demonstrated?

 “What are you going to do about  


 “So what, what if I do huh? What  

can you do?”

o The antidote- try to make a repair  

attempt, make it known that the  

relationship is getting off track

FAD2230 2/29/16 Ch. 11- Marriage

∙ Marriage: All over the world

o Find marriage in every human society

o In the US we marry for

 Benefits

 Love/soul mate (88% of reason for marrying  


 Financial reasons

o Other countries marry for

 Extended family

 Creating and raising children

 Continuing family lineage

∙ Restricting love

o Child marriage- betrothed to marry (or married) prior to  puberty

o Kinship rules- defining who can be married (caste system  in India)

o Segregation- diminishing cross-sex interaction

o Close supervision- supervising/monitoring children

o Relative freedom- managing the social environment 3/2/16

∙ What is happening in marriage today?

o Two perspectives

 Marital decline

∙ Marriage is being threatened by hedonistic  

pursuit of personal happiness

∙ “Evidence”- collapse of values in marriage,  

which has lead to societal problems  

 Marital resilience  

∙ Marriages are no weaker than in the past

∙ People are more cautious about entering  


∙ Problems with family instability are driven by  

other social problems (lack of resources, etc.)

∙ Marriage is changing in the US

o Decline in marriage rates

 Decline in marriage rates particularly among blacks— high unemployment, skewed sex rate, higher dropout

rate, assumption in black community is that marriage

is not important to life, this causes a much smaller  

pool of eligible

o Delaying marriage

 If you delay marriage there is more opportunity for

∙ Singlehood

∙ Cohabitation

∙ Nonmarital sex

∙ Nonmarital childbearing

o Homogenous vs. heterogamous marriages

 Homogenous- share certain social characteristics  with spouse (race, age, ethnicity, education, and  


 Heterogamous- don’t share those social  


∙ Interracial marriage

o Anti-miscegenation Laws- forbid  

interracial marriages

∙ Marriage across social classes

∙ Interfaith marriages- on average those with  

similar belief systems last longer and are  

typically happier

o Same sex marriages

 May shift marriage rates up

o Changing attitudes about marriage

 Nonmarital sex

 Cohabitation

 Nonmarital childbearing

 Shared bread winning

 Division of household labor

 Even though we see these shifts people still HIGHLY  value marriage, want to marry, and view a “good  

marriage” as important

∙ Most people believe nonmarital sex and  

childbearing as well as cohabitation is more  

widely accepted


∙ What is a genogram?--> Genogram Project

o Graphical representation of a family tree that displays  detail data on relationships between individuals

o Commonly includes

 Basic family data- name, sex, dates of birth, dates of  death

 Relationship data- marriages, divorces, separations,  emotional connections


∙ Does marriage benefit everyone equally?

∙ Marriage premium

o Married people are happier, healthier, financially better off  than those who are not married

o Selection effect hypothesis- people who marry are different from those who do not marry

 Married couples look out for one another

∙ How would you define marital satisfaction and success? o Communication, trust, financial stability, commitment,  strong relationship with their children, intimacy,  

acceptance of differences, compromise, proper  


o Over arching concepts- stability and quality


∙ Types of long term marriages

o Conflict- habituated

 Verbal conflict, high levels of tension, partners don’t  necessarily think there’s anything wrong

o Devitalized

 No passion, empty love, commitment only, engage in marriage out of sense of obligation

o Passive-congenial

 Don’t expect much intimacy in relationship, very little conflict, very little excitement, did not expect to go  into marriage

o Vital

 High level physical/emotional intimacy,  

communication, compromise

o Total

 Very much like “Vital” but very few independent  interests, always together and completely dependent on each other

∙ How do you measure marital satisfaction?

o Survey questions

o Look into specific traits

o Case study

o Daily diary method

o 75% of people say they are happy with marriage at least ¾ of the time

o About 60% of people say they are “very happy” in their  marriage

∙ Marital satisfaction- other factors

o Relationship with parents

o Quality and stability of parents’ marriage

 If parents are divorced, it is more likely you will get  divorced

o Shared values, goals, and characteristics

o Religious faith and practice

o Frequency and satisfaction of sex

o Satisfaction with gender roles and shared tasks

FAD2230 3/16/16 Ch. 12- Thinking about  Parenthood

∙ Three emerging options/trends

o Remaining child free

 Communication, biological reasons, costly

o Postponing/Delaying parenthood

 Age of first child birth is high due to higher education o Having fewer children

 Grandparents have many siblings but rate declining ∙ Delaying parenthood

o In 1970 first birth was typically at 21 for women

 Today- 25.4

o Delayed marriage does not mean delayed parenthood o Primarily social reasons- medical changes allow for later  births

∙ Society’s influence

o Pronatalist bias- values, laws, employment policies and  culture that promote and encourage childbearing

 Having kids= Good! You’re “normal”

 Not having kids= BAD! You’re “selfish”

o Structural antinatalism- values, laws, employment policies,  and culture that are detrimental to children and committed parents

 Having kids= BAD. Not enough resources

 Not having kids- Good! Helping society

∙ Population trends

o Fertility rates

 Total fertility rate- average number of children born  to a woman during her lifetime

∙ Approx.. 2.1= replacement level

o 2.1 because not every child born will  

make it to adulthood and reproduce

o USA is below replacement level

 General fertility rate- number of children born per  

1000 women ages 15-44

 Crude fertility rate- the number of children born per  1000 population

o Mortality rates


∙ Deciding to have children

o Emotional investment

 Parents experience more stress, greater declines in  intimacy with partner

o Energy investment

o Time investment

o Financial investment

∙ Financial investment- How much does it cost!?

o Direct financial costs

 Pre-natal care: ultra sounds

 Birth and hospital stay costs

 Formula, diapers

 Clothes

 Child born in 2013 to raise until 18 costs $245,340 ∙ Housing 31%

∙ Food 16%

∙ Transportation 13% (big change)

∙ Clothing 6% (big change)

∙ Health care 8%

∙ Child care and education 17% (big change)

∙ Misc. 8%

o Opportunity costs- the economic opportunities for wage  earnings and investments that parents forgo when rearing  children

∙ How to have children..

o The good old fashioned way

 Many people cant have children this way- infertility  affects about 12% of adults- equal for both men and  women

o Assisted Reproductive Technology (fertility treatments)  In-vitro fertilization: successful 1/3-1/4 of the time o Surrogate mothering

 Artificial insemination

o Adoption

 Process: public vs. private

∙ Public- through agencies

∙ Private- scheduled with a specific family

o Biological mother is able to change her  

mind, adoptive parents will usually make  

arrangements to pay medical bills

∙ Type- Closed, open, semi-open

∙ Transition to parenthood

o 40%-70% of couples experience stress, conflict, and a  decline in marital satisfaction

o Several factor affect the transition

 Baby’s temperament, baby’s sex

 Parents expectations about their baby

 The support from kin

 Marital adjustment, communication skills  Fathers parenting involvement  Whether or not the baby was planned

FAD2230 3/23/16 Ch. 13- Raising Children

∙ What do they need?  

o It depends on  

 Developmental age

 Ability

 Feeling valued

 Developing autonomy (ability to explore but feel  


 Developing skills valued by society

 Ability to accept love/give love

∙ Parenting style (Macoby/Martin)

o Authoritative- democratic, choice within limits, warm  intentional or planned parenting,

mutual respect/compassion

 Best social skills, best

academics, low depression

o Authoritarian- firm, rigid, directive,

punitive unquestioning

authority(legitimate), hierarchy of


 Most rebellious, fearful

o Permissive- encouraging, friend

like relationship, few rules,

monitoring limits

 More rebellious

o Neglectful- little involvement, few limits, avoids parenting  High levels of depression, least social skills, worst  

academic performance

∙ Warmth- nurturing, care, accepting

∙ Discipline

o Root word- disciplina= instruction

o Instruction, training; NOT punishment

o Happens every moment of every parent-child interaction o Whats the purpose?

 Increase appropriate behavior

 Teach how to control impulsiveness

∙ Parenting across cultures

o Parents primary job- SOCIALIZATION

 Lifelong process by which we acquire cultural values  and skills needed to function as human beings


∙ Parents influence children… and children influence their parents o Bidirectional nature of parenting!

o Systems theory

o Some ways children impact their parents?

 Temperament of child

 Sex differences

 Medical conditions and disabilities

∙ Trends in parenting

o In most societies around the world, a higher value is placed on boys than on girls

o Those outside of “the family” are becoming increasingly  involved in childrearing

o Parents are becoming increasingly permissive; place less  emphasis on obedience, control, and parental authority ∙ Parental identity

o Mother and father

o Represent both an identity and specific set of tasks o Expectations- socially constructed

∙ Mothering

o Is it a more powerful identity than marital status or career? o Mothers report greater meaning in their life and greater  distress

o America- more intense and anxiety provoking (perhaps  because it is mostly done in isolation)

 Many tasks go unseen/unnoticed

o Employed mothers

 Amount of time spent mothering

∙ Stay at home- 32 hours

∙ Employed- 27 hours

 Feel guilt

 Meet critical judgment from others

∙ Fathering

o “Dad life”

o Industrial revolution transformed fathers role

 “Good provider”

 Model continued until 1970s-80s

o Last 20 years

 Men are wrestling with their roles as fathers

 Expected to be a breadwinner and be there for their  children

∙ Parent involvement

o What does it mean to be involved?

 Going to their children’s events

 Knowing children’s friends

o Three pronged approach to parental involvement  Accessibility

 Engagement

 Responsibility

o How does this relate to parental identity?

 More you identify with a parental role the more likely  you will be involved


∙ Single parents

o Many types of single parent homes and many PATHS to  single parenthood

 Single parent homes have increased

 More likely to be black children (40%)

 More likely to be impoverished and on food stamps  Less likely to own a home

 Lower levels of education

∙ What else influences child outcomes?

o Same sex parents= very similar to heterosexual parents o Little or no difference among children

 Psychological well-being

 Performance in school

 Substance abuse

 Delinquency

 Early sexual experiences

∙ Grandparents as parents

o Strengths- minimize trauma by providing continuity and  family support

 May be a result of incarceration, abuse, etc.

o Challenges

 Physical exhaustion

 Physical/mental health problems

 Financial challenges

 “No choice”

Fad2230 3/28/16 Ch 14- Families and the Work They  do

∙ Work and family

o Cultural shift in the 1980s

o Married couple families by number and relationship  Husband and wife- 57%

 Husbands only- 19%

 Wife only- 5%

 Other earners- 5%

 No earners- 14%

∙ Two career marriages

o Careers differ from jobs in that they hold the promise of  advancement and demand a high degree of commitment o Two career families often outsource domestic work and are  likely to employ an in-home caregiver

 Another expense

 Parents will have less time for child

∙ Fathers are more likely to feel that they don’t  

spend enough time with children

o Mothers are more negatively affected  

when they perceive that they send too  

little time with their children

∙ Mothers curtail employment when they  

experience high work-family overload

o Moms tend to focus on what they believe

they are doing wrong

∙ Child care

o Mothering approach- the couple preferred the wife care for  children

o Parenting approach- family care was shared by parents,  who structured their work to this end

o Market approach- career oriented couples hired others to  care for children

∙ Is childcare harmful?

o Children who spent more time in childcare had

 More aggressive behavior

∙ Still within normal range

∙ Differences disappear by 3rd grade

 Poorer work habits and social skills

∙ Differences were minimal and within normal  


 Higher language and other academic skills

o Childcare centers are safer then family daycare

 Violence, sexual assault, shakings, etc.

 Centers are typically more structured and licensed o Quality of childcare  most important factor!

 Low quality childcare produces poorer results in  children

 High quality is pretty expensive!!

∙ Most states- kids in professional childcare cost  

more for a year than a year at a university

∙ Juggling work and family

o Work-family conflict- a form of tension under which people  feel that the pressures from paid work and family roles are  incompatible in some way

FAD2230 3/30/16 Ch. 15- Family stress and  crisis

∙ The nature of stress and crisis

o Crisis- critical change/event that disrupts the functioning of one or more family members

 Can be negative or positive

 Can be abrupt or slowly evolving

∙ Unintentional injury/death for 1-4 yrs: 1216

∙ Stressors can be..

o Individual, family or community

o Situational, transitional or cultural

o Isolated or cumulative

o Acute or chronic(persists over time)

o Volitional or nonvolitional

 Actively seeking out or not

o Normative or non-normative

∙ Common family stressors

o What are the 10 most common family stressors?

 Finances and budgeting

 Children’s behavior

 Insufficient time as a “couple”

 Lack of shared responsibility on family

 Communication with children

 Insufficient time for “me”

 Guilt for not accomplishing more

 Relationship with spouse

 Insufficient family “play time”

 Over scheduled family calendar

∙ Responses to stressors

o Bodies have a

typical and

predictable coping


o Three phases

 Alarm


 Resistance

 Exhaustion

∙ Patterns of family crisis

o Predictable pattern of

family crisis

 Phase 1- the


 Phase 2-


 Phase 3-


∙ Coping or not: the ABC-X


∙ The double ABC-X Model of

family stress

∙ Steps in domestic violence

o Idolize the victim

o Isolate the victim

o Threaten violence

o Violence  

o Death/stalking/threats even after victim moves on ∙ Intimate partner violence (IPV)

o IPV- violence between those who are physically and  sexually intimate


 Physical, economical, sexual or psychological abuse o 2 million injuries and 1,500 deaths annually  70% are victims before age 25

o Types of IPV

 Relationship violence takes on many forms  Your book- 4 types(Johnson and Ferraro, 2000) no  Three types(Johnson, 2008)

∙ Situational couple violence

∙ Intimate terrorism

∙ Violence resistance- self defense (mostly used  

by women)

 Stalking/cyber stalking

∙ Cyber stalking is becoming more prevalent but  

the most prevalent is unwanted phone calls  

and messages

∙ Highest percentage is intimate/former partners

 Sexual assault and rape

∙ Mostly perpetrated by current/former partners  

and acquaintance

∙ 1 in 4 women/1 in 9 men have been sexually  


o 80% before age 25

o Consequences

 Psychological and physical effects

∙ Depression, anxiety, poor sleep, low-self  

esteem, poor physical health

 Victims of IPV are more likely to participate in risky  behaviors

∙ Unprotected sex, drugs, alcohol use

∙ May be because victims don’t value  

themselves as much

o Coping with violence

 Women stay in abusive relationships because of  learned helplessness

∙ A psychological condition of having low-self  

esteem, feeling helpless, and having no control

∙ Caused by repeated abuse

 Studies indicate that women do eventually leave ∙ It’s a process

o Resources

 FSU Victim Advocate Program

∙ 644-7161

∙ After hours- 644-1234

 National domestic violence hotline

∙ 1-800-799-7233

∙ Child abuse and neglect

o Child abuse- an attack on a child that results in injury and  violates social norms

 Most prevalent- neglect 71%

o Types of child abuse

 Neglect (80% caused by mom and dad)

∙ Failure to provide basic needs

∙ Includes psychological/emotional needs

 Physical abuse

 Sexual abuse

∙ Inappropriate sexual behavior with a child for  

sexual gratification

 Psychological or emotional maltreatment

∙ Verbal, mental, or psychological abuse that  

destroys a child’s self-esteem

o Consequences of child abuse

 Psychological

∙ Impacts attachment

∙ Mental and emotional health

∙ Social difficulties (communication/social skills)

 Behavioral

∙ Delinquency and criminality

∙ Alcohol/drug abuse higher in victims

 Physical health

∙ Impaired brain development (failure to thrive)

∙ Poor physical health

 Suicide ideation

∙ Second leading cause of death in adolescents

∙ Explanations for violence among intimates

o Micro-level explanations

 The intergenerational transmission of violence

∙ Those who witness/undergo violence in the  

home are more likely to become abusers

 Stress explanation

o Macro-level explanations

 Patriarchy

∙ Some cultures encourage superiority of men

 Cultural norms supporting violence

 Norms of family privacy

∙ Idea of isolation within a family

FAD2230 4/6/16 Ch. 16-The process of Divorce

∙ Is divorce a “new” thing?


o Early America—fault based

 Connecticut had the most liberal divorce law

o Women’s suffrage

 Not just the right to vote also the right to divorce

o California Family Law Act of 1969

 No-fault divorce

∙ Calculating divorce rates

o Number of divorces per year 813,862

o Crude divorce rate

 Divorces per 1000 population 3.2

o Refined divorce rate

 Number of divorces per 1000 married women over 15 yrs of age16.9 or 1.69% per year

∙ Why do couples divorce?

o Communication

o Extramarital sex/affair

o Incompatibility

o Role conflicts

o Lack of family investment

o Growing apart

o Alcohol/drug use

o Finances

o Stress/crisis

o Abuse

o Health

o Attributions for the cause of divorce

 SDS 1974-75

∙ Communication 31.8%

∙ Alcohol/Drugs 21.5%

∙ Jealousy/Untrustworthy 21.5%

∙ Extramarital sex 20.6%

∙ Incompatibility 16.8%

∙ Role conflicts 16.8%

∙ Lack of family investment 15%

∙ Financial/Work issues 15%

 SCAD 2015-16

∙ Communication 28.5%

∙ Alcohol/drugs 16.2%

∙ Jealousy/Untrustworthy 23.5%

∙ Extramarital sex 53.6%

∙ Incompatibility 20.7%

∙ Role conflicts 10.6%

∙ Lack of family investment 13.4%

∙ Financial/Work issues 24.6%


∙ Deciding to divorce—divorce is a process

o Sometimes marriages just flat out aren’t working o Is divorce the key to happiness?

 One year after separation people were found to be  less happy, but in one year after the divorce, people  were happier than they had been while married  

(Gardner and Oswald 2006)

 A couple could report the lowest marital satisfaction,  yet, if they do not divorce, 5 years later 2/3 of those  unhappily married couples describes themselves as  “very happy”. Those that divorce do not report  

themselves as very happy later (Waite 2001)

o Experiencing divorce

 Pre-separation: is this relationship working? What are my alternatives?

∙ Comparison level+

 Early separation: beginning to engage in things that  will lead to separation (who will move out, dividing  


 Mid-separation: challenges of the separation  


 Late Separation: reorganization of single adult life,  deciding to divorce or not, embracing the situation

∙ Stations of divorce (Bohannon, 1971)

o Emotional- loss of emotional connections, often replaced  with negative feelings

o Legal- paperwork, lawyer, finances, etc.

o Economic- economic consequences, splitting of income,  more/higher expenses per person, typically affects women  more due to the high number of stay at home mothers, can affect men because of alimony and child support paid to  ex-wife

 Fathers transition to single while mothers transition  to single-parents

o Community- loss of certain relationships/friendships o Psychic- establish self as a single adult

o Co-parental divorce- life after divorce when children are  involved

 “Although divorce terminates the legal bonds of  

matrimony, it does not terminate the parent-child  


 Custody

∙ Physical (child’s residence); legal (parent has  

the ability to make major decisions about child)

∙ Shared/joint(most likely); sole(less likely to be  


∙ Best interest of the child

 Types of co-parenting relationships

∙ Perfect pals- engage in a lot of the same  

activities although not in romantic ways  

(smallest group- 12%)

∙ Cooperative colleagues- calmly tries to work  

out things, cooperative with one another  

(largest group- 38%)

∙ Angry associates- business-like relationship but

emphasizes resentment 25%

∙ Fiery foes- mostly do not like interaction,  

interactions lead to hostile arguments 25%

∙ Dissolved duos- no interaction at all  

(theoretical when kids are involved- 0%)

o The process doesn’t stop just because the marriage is over  The divorce process

 The post divorce process

∙ Good divorce- 8% (smallest)

∙ Good enough divorce- 23%

∙ Bad divorce- 53% (largest)

∙ Bad to better-16% (denotes change)

o Binuclear family


∙ Divorce discussion

∙ Is there such a thing as a “good divorce”?

o Cooperative colleagues(38%) vs. bad divorce(53% o It takes time for patterns to stabilize

 Does not mean every divorce will become a “good  divorce”

o Formation of a binuclear family

 Step- families as a product of divorce

 Two households represent one family

∙ Divorce and children

o Half of divorces involve children

o What “causes” the child to have problems after divorce?

 Life stress- moving, money

 Parental loss- 15%-30% haven’t seen bio dads for a  year after divorce

 Parental adjustment- child will typically gravitate  towards the parent doing better

 Economic hardship

 Interparental conflict

 Family instability

∙ Long term effects of divorce

o Which is worse for children: Divorce or marital conflict? ∙ Who is divorcing?

o Parental divorce

 Intergenerational transmission of divorce

∙ Pattern of divorce

∙ Modeling of relationship behavior

∙ Intergenerational transmission of  


o Attitudes

o Age at marriage

 Marrying younger  higher risk

 Especially true among teenagers

o Parental status

 Childfree more likely to divorce

 Children add stability but not necessarily quality

o Premarital child-bearing

 Less relationship stability

o Sex of the child

 Sons less likely to divorce

 Father engagement with son

o Heterogeny

 Fewer similarities more likely

o Income

 Stress leads to marital problems

o Education  

o Race/ethnicity

 Black couples more likely

 Hispanic/Asian less likely

o Macro level factors

 Level of socioeconomic development

 Religion

 **Divorce laws(biggest)**

 Women’s status and employment

 Attitudes towards divorce


∙ Should divorces be harder to get?

o FAD2230 Divorce restoration act

 Restoration of fault for all divorces

 A waiting period of as long as five years

 A more extensive process for divorces involving  

children to prioritize the needs of children

o Majority vote against this new act

o Here are some facts

 Majority of those who divorce will remarry eventually  (approx.. 75%)

 Approximately 50% of all marriages are remarriages ∙ Increase possibility of divorce

 Children in stepfamilies have more negative  

outcomes than those in in-tact families

FAD2230 4/13/16 Ch. 17- Family life, partnering, and remarriage after divorce

∙ Consequences for the kids

o Compared to children in in-tact two parent families,  children that grow up in stepfamilies..

 Have lower academic achievement

 Have lower self esteem

 Have higher depression and anxiety

 Have higher rates of drug and alcohol abuse

 Are more likely to get in trouble at school, get  

arrested, and experience a teen pregnancy

o Why is this?

 Stress, transitions, and instability

 Social capital depravation- social networks after a  divorce often shrink for children  

 Parenting quality

∙ Defining stepfamilies.. Or wait do we mean blended families? o First off, what’s the difference between

 Blended families

 Reconstituted families

 Stepfamilies

o Honestly many people who are in “stepfamilies” do not  identify as being a stepfamily

 Often a disagreement between members of the  


 The greater the complexity the greater the chance  for disagreement (brown and Manning 2007)

o Not all stepfamilies look the same

 Possible members

∙ Siblings- share both bio parents

∙ Half- siblings- share one bio parent

∙ Step siblings- not bio related, parents are  

married to each other

o Residential v. non-residential- whether or  

not siblings live in the same house

∙ Mutual children- born to the remarried couples

 They look very different than in the past

 There are many paths to stepfamily life and many do  not involve a “remarriage”

∙ Remarriage

o After divorce

o After death of spouse

∙ Partnering

o After nonmarital birth

∙ Stepfamily subsystems

o Remarried couple


o Former spouse subsystem

o Sibling subsystem

∙ Parental status evolves  

o Supportive stepparent

begins as permissive and

gradually shifts to

authoritative over a long

period of time

∙ Stages of stepfamily integration

o Fantasy- parents typically think the new partnership will  solve all issues; child still believe parents will get back  together

o Immersion- face new reality of family dynamics; hard  stage for new stepparent; often see stepparents blame  themselves for any issues that emerge

o Awareness- see normal family interactions; get to know  others as family members

o Mobilization- stepfamily members hold their ground;  higher comfort level; stepparent can begin moving past  permissive

o Action- boundary formation; establish what is appropriate o Contact- marital relationship will be a big source of  support for children

o Resolution- acceptance of stepfamily dynamics and roles 4/15/16

∙ Stepfamilies face unique issues

o Come about from loss

o Establishing roles

o Navigating “undeveloped institution”

 Legal rights

o Dealing with ex-partner(s)

o Developing stepparent-child relationships (4-12 years)  Child hostility

 Loyalty conflicts

o Financial obligations

∙ What matters more for healthy child development? o Family structure

 Living with a stepparent

 Visiting biological parent

o Family environment

 Quality of family communication

 Quality of family relationships

 Extent to which children are monitored

HINTS FOR CHAPTER 18 QUESTIONS ON EXAM ∙ Sexuality on older adults

∙ Grandparent relationships with grandkids/nature/activities ∙ Relationships with adult children

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