Intro to Sociology, Study Guide for Test 4
Intro to Sociology, Study Guide for Test 4 SO 1003
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Smith on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SO 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Robert Montgomery in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Intro to Sociology Study Guide for Test 4 (Vocab terms are in bold) Chapter 8 Sex, Sexuality, and Gender Sex o Natural or biological make-up that label male and females Sexuality o Refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior Gender o Social construction of roles of masculinity and femininity, set of social arrangement that are built around sex Gender Gender roles are sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as a male or female Evidence shows that gender roles have more to do with social status than biology Other terms from this chapter Feminism o a consciousness-raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect Essentialism o a line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones Biological determinism o a line of thought that explains social behavior in terms of who you are in the natural world Hegemonic masculinity o the condition in which men are dominant and privileged, and this dominance and privilege is invisible Patriarchy o a nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity Structural functionalism o theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures (the family, the division of labor, or gender) that exist to fulfill some set of necessary functions (reproduction of the species, production of goods, etc.) Sex role theory o Talcott Parsons's theory that men and women perform their sex roles as breadwinners and wives/mothers, respectively, because the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies, fulfilling the function of reproducing workers Homosexual o the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sex Sexism o occurs when a person's sex or gender is the basis for judgment, discrimination, and hatred against him or her Sexual harassment o an illegal form of discrimination, involving everything from inappropriate jokes on the job to outright sexual assault to sexual "barter"—all intended to make women feel uncomfortable and unwelcome, particularly on the job Glass ceiling o an invisible limit on women's climb up the occupational ladder Glass escalator o the accelerated promotion of men to the top of a work organization, especially in feminized jobs Chapter 9 The Myth of Race Race is defined as groups of people that share physical characteristics and are said to share a common bloodline Racism is the belief that members of separate races that have different and unequal human traits Race is a social construct that changes over time and across different contexts The Concept of Race Many historical efforts to explain race were biased due to ethnocentrism (the judgement of other groups by one’s own standards and values) Social Darwinism, another 19 century theory, was the notion that some groups or races evolved more than others and were better fit to survive and even rule other races Backers of eugenics (the science of genetic lines and the inheritable traits they pass on from generation to generation) claimed that traits could be traced through bloodline and bred into populations (for positive traits) or out of them (for negative traits) Eugenics was the idea that they could manipulate race through genetics Miscegenation is the technical term for a multiracial marriage The one-drop rule, which evolved from U.S. laws forbidding miscegenation, was the belief that “one drop” of black blood makes a person black. Application of this rule kept the white population “pure” and lumped anyone with black blood into one category Racial Realities Racialization is the formation of a new racial identity in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people Race versus Ethnicity Race is imposed (usually based on physical characteristics), hierarchical, exclusive, and unequal. Ethnicity is voluntary, self-defined, nonhierarchical, fluid, cultural, and not so closely linked with power differences An ethnic identity becomes racialized when it is subsumed under a forced label, racial marker, or “otherness” Symbolic ethnicity is ethnicity that is individualistic in nature and without real social cost for the individual Minority-Majority Group Relations Pluralism, in the context of race and ethnicity, refers to the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society, with no one group being in the majority Segregation is the legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity o Segregation was official policy in the United States, particularly in the South, until the 1960s o Despite being illegal for over 40 years, there is still ample evidence of segregation in American Society today, particularly in schools, housing, and prisons Other terms from this chapter Scientific racism o nineteenth-century theories of race that characterize a period of feverish investigation into the origins, explanations, and classifications of race Ontological equality o the philosophical and religious notion that all people are created equal Nativism o the movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the allegedly dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants Straight-line assimilation o Robert Park's 1920s universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate: they first arrive, then settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogenous country Primordialism o Clifford Geertz's term to explain the strength of ethnic ties because they are fixed in deeply felt or primordial ties to one's homeland culture Genocide o the mass killing of a group of people based on racial, ethnic, or religious traits Subaltern o a subordinate, oppressed group of people Collective resistance o an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a less-powerful group in a society Prejudice o thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group Discrimination o harmful or negative acts (not mere thoughts) against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category, without regard to their individual merit Institutional racism o institutions and social dynamics that may seem race-neutral but actually disadvantage minority groups
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