The Cardiovascular System and The Lymphoid System
The Cardiovascular System and The Lymphoid System Psy-b 110
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gloria Notetaker on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy-b 110 at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Sandra Hellyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
The Cardiovascular System: Blood C19 Functions of the Blood Blood and lymph=specialized connective tissue Platelets: Has large cells called megakaryocytes(Multinucleated cells). Involved in blood clotting Leukocytes: White blood cells(WBCs). Think of immunity o When looking at a slide of WBCs, most likely looking at neutrophils because those are the most common. Neutrophils are granulocytes and stain a light lavender color(in histology) o Lymphocytes: Agranulocytes. Nucleus is big and spherical, stains blue. B cells and T cells o Monocytes: Agranulocytes. Big cells, contain macrophages. How to remember they are big: Mono is like mongo(big). The cell looks likely mickey mouse ears o Eosinophils: Granulocyte. Granules stain bright red/orange. These cells are involved with parasites(tapeworm, malaria, etc) o Basophils: Granulocyte. Least common WBC. Stains dark purple. Contains histamine(involved in allergic reactions) For lab and lecture, need to know the colors of the stains!!! Also need to know that cytoplasmic granules are stained light lavender! Erythrocytes: Red blood cells (RBCs). Urine=Byproduct of blood All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not vice versa. Don’t get these words confused! Composition of Blood RBCs use diffusion to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Approx. 5 liters of blood in an adult o Some say 4-5L in women and 5-6L in men, but he wont ask it like that on test because there are big women and small men, so just remember 5L average Hypovolemic is low blood volume. Hypovolemic Shock makes you pale and shaky. Will die if don’t get blood Hypervolemic is too much blood and causes high blood pressure There is a homeostatic range is blood volume and blood concentration that body will work to stay at Blood is alkaline pH(7.35-7.45) When blood is at 7.1=adicotic. Plasma consists of mostly water, and it also has plasma proteins(alumbins, globulins, fibrinogens, and regulatory proteins), and other solutes(electrolytes, organic nutrients, organic wastes) o Fibrinogens(a plasma protein) can sometimes be taken out of part of the plasma(because fibrinogen is used in clotting so it will be taken out to clot). If that happens, the plasma turns into serum, and the fibrinogen turns into fibrin. o The organic wastes in plasma is mostly filtered in the kidney o Major electrolytes in plasma include Na+, K+, Ca2+,Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, HPO4- Amount of oxygen and CO2 in plasma is higher Formed Elements Know the order of density of leukocytes. Highest density to lowest: Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils. Never Let Monsters Eat Babies RBCs live for about 4 months Hemoglobin makes up most of the erythrocytes and its proteins o Allows RBCs to do its key purpose, which is to transport O2and CO2 Mature RBCs= no nuclei. Immature does contain nuclei Our RBCs move carbon monoxide better than carbon dioxide o Carbon Monoxide is odorless and colorless, so not really detectable, but it is deadly because it gets into your blood, and then it causes nausea, so that’s usually the only way to tell o If theres a spill and you get poisoned when youre asleep, youre dead Granular leukocytes= neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils Agranular leukocytes= lymphocytes, monocytes. Not very darkly stained, hard to see Chemotaxis: When target chemicals send other chemicals back to something and cause an attraction between the two. Diapedesis: Ability to move through vessel walls NEED TO KNOW CHEMOTAXIS AND DIAPEDESIS Platelets live less than 2 weeks before being removed by phagocytes Hemopoiesis Hemopoiesis is the formation of blood cells Erythropoiesis= formation of rbcs Leukopoiesis=formation of wbcs Red bone marrow yellows as age Bone marrow in adults is critical form blood cell formation The Heart Ch 21 Overview of Cardiovascular System We can live when heart stops beating for a little bit, especially in extreme cold or hot temps. Normal heart=fist size. Heart can get as big as soft ball or even soccer ball, this is cardiomyopathy(can kill you if you don’t get treated) Left side of heart myocardium is bigger than right, works harder because sending blood into system or the whole body. Right side myocardium is thinner because deoxygenated and just sending to lungs Sympathetic Activation: fires up heart. Parasympathetic activation: Slows down heart The Pericardium Too much pericardial fluid=cardiac tamponade: blood filling pericardial cavity Visceral pericardium= epicardium Parietal pericardium= more outward than visceral, lining inner surface of pericardial sac Structures of the Heart Wall Epicardium= Outside of heart Myocardium= middle layer. Cardiac muscle Endocardium= lines inside of heart Orientation and Superficial Anatomy of the Heart Heart lies slightly left of midline. Apex of heart is whats sticking out to the left, bottom part of heart Base of heart=superior flat portion of heart. Coronary sinus is the only intrinsic muscle of heart. TEST QUESTION** Internal Anatomy and Organization of Heart Pulmonary Circuit=Right atrium and ventricle, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk. Basically everything on Right side of heart involved in going to the lungs Systemic Circuit= left atrium and ventricle, mitral/bicuspid valve, aortic valve and aortia. Basically everything on the left side involved in going into the rest of the system. When looking at heart in lab, look for the myocardium to distinguish left and right. Remember, myocardium is thicker on left Chordae tendoneae=heart strings. Attachment between valves and papillary muscle Great Veins: Superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary vein Great Arteries: Pulmonary artery, aorta Arteries carry blood away from heart. Usually oxygenated except pulmonary because it is carried deoxygenated blood away from heart to the lungs to get oxygen Veins carry blood to heart. Usually deoxygenated but pulmonary vein because it carries blood to heart from lungs where it just got oxygen Right side of heart= deoxygenated blood. Left side=oxygenated. The Cardiac Cycle Occurs in less than 1 second Atrials(the atriums) contract simultaneously, ventricles contract simultaneously o In other words, there is blood flowing on both sides of the heart at the same time Wont be test Q’s about the cycle, just know that it exists The Electrocardiogram (ECG) Recording of the electrical events in the heart No Q’s about an ECG Vessels and Circulation Ch 22 Introduction Atherosclerosis: Hardening of arteries. If you sit on a bag of chips, they will get all smashed. Same concept with hard arteries, so its very dangerous We first see atherosclerosis in boys as young as 5 years old. And women not until around 45-50, around menopause. Menopause makes risk of heart diseases higher Pulmonary circuit supplies the lungs. Deoxygenated or blue. Systemic circuit supplies whole body. Oxygenated or red Histological Organization of blood vessels Tunica Intima: Endothelium and connective tissue Tunica media: Smooth muscle Adventitia/tunica externa: Connective tissue. Thicker in veins Veins=more squished, arteries=more round Aorta has more elastic tissues Capillaries are transition from arteries to veins. Usually oxygenated(red) to deoxygenated(blue), but not always, like not in lungs Arteriole: before capillary. Wrappings of smooth muscle Capillaries have variable blood flow. When running, they expand to allow faster blood flow Arteries and veins usually make anastomotic connections that reduce the impact of blockage of a single vessel Blood Vessel Distribution Two arteries going into the liver: (1)Adominal aorta into hepatic artery. And (2) hepatic portal For veins, just know superior and inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus for lecture test o Superior and inferior vena cava go into Right atrium from body o Coronary sinus enters into right atrium from coronal veins. Runs transversely in atrioventricular groove Aging and Cardiovascular System Older you get=Vessels get torn easier Blood vessels lose elasticity The Lymphoid System Introduction Lymphoid system=think of immunity Color of lymphatic vessels in diagrams in green, but in body its golden yellow. Inflamed ones=bright red Vessels are very thin walled and contain valves Spleen is on left side of body. Filters blood, but can live without Overview of the Lymphoid System Lymph has a lot of connective tissue Lymphocytes include T cells and B cells Lymph=bi product of blood Lymph is also an alternative blood flow route. Helps maintain homeostatic levels for blood volume Lymph cleans body, and then will end up in venous system and go into right atrium Painless, solid, large lymph nodes could be a sign of cancer Lymphocytes T cells: thymus dependent B cells derive in bone marrow When bacteria enters body, it activates macrophages, and the antigen(in the bacteria) presents itself and then: o Cytotoxic T cells will be activated and kill it, or: o Helper T cells will be activated and then will activate B cells, then antibodies will be produced by plasmocytes, and then after that the bacteria will be killed by cell lysis
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